World War Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. More here...

Alive after the Fall Review Summary

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Author: Alexander Cain
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My Alive after the Fall Review Review

Highly Recommended

It is pricier than all the other books out there, but it is produced by a true expert and includes a bundle of useful tools.

All the modules inside this ebook are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

History of Drug Use in Sport 18761976

The Second World War provided the impetus for both increased use of drugs and the emergence of an anti-doping response. By the end of the 1950s a new framework of ethics was being imposed on the drugs question that constructed doping in highly emotive terms as an 'evil'. Alongside this emerged the science and procedural bureaucracy of testing. The years up to 1976 laid the foundations for four decades of anti-doping. This book offers a detailed and critical understanding of who was involved, what they were trying to achieve, why they set about this task and the context in which they worked. By doing so, it reconsiders the classic dichotomy of 'good anti-doping' up against 'evil doping'.

Its enough to make you

The Department of Education has done a horrible job in fostering sound science education in the US. I apologize to the students who have not been inspired through solid science education because of their incompetence. I am actually apologizing for your parents. They voted in a bunch of idiots who have not done their part to ensure that the public school system is serving you best. I had two teachers when I was growing up, Barry Stow and Keith Lauber, who made all the difference in the world. Neither of them were science teachers, but these two men dedicated their careers to making education fun and sparking students to think critically based on facts, so they might as well have been. We could use a lot more of that. Tom Brokaw describes your grandparents, who fought through World War II and the Great Depression as the 'Greatest Generation.' Let me assure you that your baby boomer parents, who fought through white wine spritzers in the 1980s and the HOV lane in their SUVs will go down...

Research With Psychedelic Drugs In Western Psychotherapy

When the fantastically potent mind-altering qualitites of LSD were first discovered at the height of World War II in a Swiss pharmaceutical lab, they were characterized as psychotomimetic and psycholytic. The prospect of unhinging the mind from its normal parameters for a few hours to simulate madness interested a small number of daring psychiatric researchers as a possible training experience. Predictably, this possiblity also intrigued the military and espionage agencies of both superpowers, especially the Americans. Considerable research effort and expense was devoted for about ten years to determining the most effective surreptitious delivery systems to unsuspecting enemy soldiers, agents, or leaders for maximum confusion, disoriention, or embarrassment (Lee and Shlain 1985). Ironically, and fortunately, it was the capacity of LSD to tap into the hidden mystical potentials of the human mind that ruined its applicability as a weapon of war. Rather than making subjects predictably...

Military Medical Use And Eventual Abuse Of Meth

METH is a derivative of amphetamine (AMPH) and both have many similarities in their effects on brain chemistry and behavior. They also share a common use history. AMPH was originally synthesized by Lazar Edeleanu in 1887 and again independently synthesized in 1927 by Gordon Alles.4 It was eventually introduced commercially for the treatment of a myriad of ailments ranging from schizophrenia to hiccups.5 AMPH has been used by the military to enhance concentration and vigilance ever since the Spanish Civil War. In World War II, American, German, British, and Japanese fighter pilots were administered the drug to stave off fatigue on long missions, a common use even today.6 First synthesized by the Japanese pharmacologist Nagayoshi Nagai in the late 1800s, METH was also used during World War II to reduce soldier fatigue during military action and by civilians working in factories supporting the war effort. Similar to AMPH, METH was eventually sold over the counter in Japan beginning in...

Drug Enforcement Administration

Ratification of the Hague Convention occurred during the meetings of 1913 and 1914. Although further regulatory activity was suspended during the course of World War I, ratification of the Versailles peace treaties of 1919-20 also constituted a ratification of the Hague Convention of 1912. The League of Nations was then given responsibility to supervise agreements with regard to the traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs. A further important development in drug control was the convention of 1925, which placed further restrictions on the production and manufacture of narcotics. Six more international conventions and agreements were concluded between 1912 and 1936. Under a Protocol on Narcotic Drugs of December 1946 the functions of the League of Nations and of the Office International d'Hygi ne Publique were transferred to the United Nations and to the World Health Organization. In 1948 a protocol extended the control system to synthetic and natural drugs...

General Information

Halofantrine is a phenanthrene-methanol derivative of an aminoalcohol, active against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Halofantrine was known during World War II but was little used at that time. It is slowly and incompletely absorbed with peak concentrations 3.5-6 hours after dosing. Its absorption in its original formulation was unpredictable (SEDA-13, 820).

Pregnancy Category None

MDMA was discovered and patented in Europe as World War I began, intended to make soldiers feel less hungry. In civilian usage the drug was supposed to help people lose weight, but other effects portended the product's commercial failure, and it never went on the market. Those other effects attracted attention in the 1960s and 1970s among therapists and recreational drug users alike.

B is for Bioweapon C is for Chemical attack

The general public has been bombarded with misinformation about potential radiological attacks in the form of a so-called 'dirty bomb.' Most scenarios played out by the press and politicians erroneously state that people would die of radiation sickness. Not true. Uranium and plutonium do not put out a lot of radiation when they are just sitting around. The confusion comes from people not understanding that you need to have nuclear fission to cause the type of damage we associate with these heavy metals. Also, the government has done a horrible job of telling people that they can survive a nuclear attack. The most important thing to know is that if you see a mushroom cloud you can survive, because you were not likely hurt in the initial explosion. The danger at that point is the radioactive material in the cloud. Next, you watch to see which direction the plume is moving if it is coming towards you, walk perpendicular to it. If you do this, you can easily walk out of the area that is...

Pregnancy Category C

Just before World War I an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association declared, If the entire materia medica at our disposal were limited to the choice and use of only one drug, I am sure that a great many, if not the majority, of us would choose opium and I am convinced that if we were to select, say half a dozen of the most important drugs in the Pharmacopeia, we should all place opium in the first rank.1 Although many useful drugs have been discovered since then, opium is still the basis for many standard medications. Because opium is a natural product, its morphine content can vary greatly from batch to batch. Opium commercially processed for medical use is adjusted so that 10 of any given amount of medical opium is composed of morphine.

Cruel And Unusual Punishment

O ur own use of prisoners, the institutionalized retarded, and the mentally ill to test malaria treatments during World War II was generally hailed as positive, making the war 'everyone's war.' Likewise, in the late 1940's and early 1950's, the testing of new polio vaccines on institutionalized mentally retarded children was considered appropriate. Utilitarianism was the ethic of the day.134

Problem drinking See Drinking problem Problem drugrelated See Drugrelated problem

The drive for national prohibition emerged out of a renewed attack on the sale of liquor in many states after 1906. The underlying forces at work to support national prohibition included antipathy to the growth of cities (the presumed scene of most drinking), evangelical Protestant middle-class anti-alien and antiRoman Catholic sentiment, and rural domination of the state legislatures, without which ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment would have been impossible. Other forces included the corruption existing in the saloons and the industrial employers' increased concern for preventing accidents and increasing the efficiency of workers. The Anti-Saloon League, founded in 1893, led the state prohibition drives of 1906-13. During World War I a temporary Wartime Prohibition Act was passed to save grain for use as food. By January 1920 prohibition was already in effect in 33 states covering 63 percent of the total population. In 1917 the resolution for submission of the Prohibition...

Methamphetamine And Adolf Hitler

Methamphetamine was widely used by soldiers in World War II because its potent stimulant effects kept them awake and alert for longer periods of time and increased their physical endurance. One infamous user of methamphetamine during wartime was one of the most evil men of the twentieth century Adolf Hitler. Hitler started receiving daily injections of methamphetamine from his personal physician Dr. T. Morrell in 1942, and it was reported he could not function without his daily doses. Hitler also took many other drugs (perhaps over two dozen), including Cola-Dalmann tablets that contained caffeine. Hitler also dispensed methamphetamine to his troops so they could fight for days on end without sleep or food and outlast the endurance of enemy troops. Hitler's tremendous paranoia, lack of compassion and judgment, and violent and aggressive tendencies are often attributed to his repeated use of methamphetamine. These personality changes may have ultimately helped change the course of...

Metamfetamine sulfate C10H15N2

Synthetic substance, under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I. Molecular weight 309.2. Percentage of anhydrous base 100. A synthetic opiate drug used in maintenance therapy for those dependent on opioids. It can be given orally once daily with supervision. Methadone is the most effective form of treatment for addiction to heroin and other narcotics. Methadone first became available at the end of World War II. Similar to morphine in its analgesic effect, it was originally used in medicine to alleviate severe pain. Methadone is used in the form of its hydrochloride salt, which is a white, crystalline powder with a bitter taste. It is soluble in water, in alcohol, and in chloroform.

Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 8007930 Formal Names Atropa belladonna

Dosage with the natural product belladonna is so risky that persons are routinely advised to use it only under guidance of a trained expert. For example, depending on circumstances a fatal dose can vary by a factor of 10, meaning that a given ingestion might be survivable, but on another occasion one tenth that amount could just as easily be fatal. Three berries have been enough to kill youngsters. People have been poisoned by meat from animals that ate belladonna. Just handling the plant can pass its drugs into cuts and scrapes and even through unbroken skin. During World War II troops stationed in East Africa suffered wholesale poisoning from belladonna, presumably due to recreational usage. Yet despite powerful effects on humans, some nonhuman species (including birds, rabbits, pigs, and sheep) can consume the plant without injury an example of why caution is needed in reaching conclusions from drug experiments on animals.

Rise of the Golden Triangle

Along with these two pillars of the post-World War II heroin market, the CIA helped establish a third in the Golden Triangle, the mountainous border region of Laos, Burma, Thailand and China's Yunnan Province where opium poppies grow in astonishing abundance. During World War II, in China as in Sicily, the OSS and Navy worked closely with gangster elements who controlled vast supplies of opium, morphine and heroin. The boss of this trade, a longstanding ally of Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek, directed his enormous army of followers to cooperate closely with American intelligence though his patriotism did not stop him from trading with the Japanese.162

Clormetaminodiazepoxid Chlordiazepoxide

Co-dydramol Dihydrocodeine. Co-elorine Amobarbital. Co-elorine 100 Amobarbital. Co-entero Phenobarbital. Co-pilot Colloquial term for amfetamine. Co-pilots 1. Colloquial term for amfeta-mines. The term was coined during the second world war when amfetamines was given to pilots. The post-World War II years saw diversification in the packaging of Coca-Cola and also in Under the 1920s and 1930s cocaine once again became fashionable. Cocaine from the military forces on the first world war came out on the and cocaine became the drug of fashion in Paris, Berlin and Vienna. After the second world war cocaine use decreased. Both the militaries and the illegal drug market where more interested in the new synthetical stimulants amfetamines.

Amfetamines Introduction One of a

AMFETAMINES - History Amfetamine was synthesized in 1887 but its central stimulating effects were not discovered until 1927. It was patented 1932. The interest was first focused on its respiratory stimulating effect but soon even its CNS stimulating andrenaline-like effects was noted. Amfetamine became very soon the drug of fashion in the 1930s and 1940s with striking similarities to the enthusiasm when cocaine was introduced in the 1880s. It was promoted as being an effective cure for a wide range of ills but its addictive effects was ignored. In the beginning it was prescribed as a medicine against common colds and nose problems because of its vessel constricting effects and also to counteract sedative poisoning. The pharmaceutical industry then enthusiastically promoted it as a cure for a wide spectra of symptoms e g hangovers, depressions, nausea, vomiting in pregnancy, weight reduction. Derivates of amfetamine such as metamfeta-mine was developed in both oral and intravenous...

Chenjen morphine sulfate Morphine sulfate

Smoking partly it was a matter of convenience for pioneering Americans on the move, since chewing was easier than lighting up a cumbersome pipe. The symbol of the change was the spittoon or cuspidor, which became a necessity of 19th-century America. Manufacturing statistics are revealing of 348 tobacco factories listed by the 1860 census for Virginia and North Carolina, 335 concentrated wholly on chewing tobacco, and only 6 others even bothered with smoking tobacco as a sideline, using scraps from plug production. The rising popularity of manufactured cigarettes by the beginning of the 20th century spelled the decline of chewing tobacco. After World War I, plug-taking fell off abruptly. Chhatim Bengali name for Alstonia scholaris. Chicle Colloquial term for heroin. Chicory 1. Chicoryum intybus perennial blue-flowered plant, from Africa now common in Europe and North America, eaten as a vegetable or salad. The root can be used to make coffee and was used extensively during the second...

Steroids in sport 19451960

A number of writers have argued that steroids were manufactured and refined for physical performance purposes by the Nazi party during the Second World War. Houlihan offers the claim that steroids 'were used in the 1940s for the non-medical purpose of increasing the aggressiveness and strength of German soldiers' (1999 45). Unfortunately, he fails to cite any supporting evidence. John Hoberman discusses in some detail the myth of Nazi steroid science (1992) but it remains impossible to judge with any real certainty whether this myth has any By this stage, the politics of the Cold War had taken a radical turn, and sport was increasingly being dragged in to the propaganda and vitriol. The Soviet Union did not initially enter the Olympic Movement after the Second World War partly because of a certain disaffection between the IOC and the Soviet government. The former had been irritated by Russia's role in helping organise Worker Games in 1932 and 1936 parallel to the Olympic Games. As a...

Wood alcohol Methanol

Since the beginning of this century, there has been a continuous effort to standardize and harmonize Customs formalities with the aim of simplifying and facilitating international trade. As early as 1923, the League of Nations signed, in Geneva, the International Convention Relating to the Simplification of Customs Formalities. Certain Customs questions were also included in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) of 1947. However, there was no specialized body responsible for examining Customs procedures or making proposals to simplify and harmonize those procedures. In a joint declaration made in Paris on 12 September 1947, in a Europe which had been completely ravaged by the Second World War, 13 European countries agreed to give consideration to the possibility of establishing an office in Brussels. A study Group for the European Customs Union was created to prepare the way for this project. The following year the Study Group set up an Economic Committee and a Customs...

Belonephobia A morbid fear of sharp

Benityl Drug containing more than one active substance whereof one under international control Phenobarbital sodium. Benj Persian name for cannabis. Benn, Gottfried (1886-1956), German physician, poet and author, leading expressionist in the 1910s. His life was characterized of aristocratic nihilism with a cynical tone - later even a deep cultural pessimism and a belief that only the artist can save the man from chaos. The son of a Lutheran clergyman, Benn studied theology at the University of Marburg, then transferred to the academy there for military-medical instruction and became a specialist in venereal and skin diseases. He took medical jobs on cruise ships, got to know the Mediterranean (a frequent setting in his poems), and as a German officer in World War I was made medical supervisor of jail inmates and prostitutes in occupied Brussels. Degeneracy and medical aspects of decay are important allusions in his early poems, which also were shadowed by the death of his first wife...

Hypolipidemic Hypocholesterolemic Drugs

The fact that even young men can develop atherosclerosis was reported following autopsies of German soldiers during World War I. However, it was a U.S. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology report toward the end of the Korean War (Enos et al., 1953) showing that young men (average age 22) had evidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) that made the medical profession take note of the epidemic that was CHD. The problem is still extensive in spite of considerable, but slow, progress since the 1950s. By the early 1980s there were 5.4 million Americans with symptomatic diagnosed CHD. The number of undiagnosed cases is, of course, unknown. In any case, the results were 1.5 million heart attacks and over 550,000 deaths. A review of the medical literature since the late 1950s shows the name cholesterol, and particularly hypercholesterolemia (HPC), to be associated with CHD with increasing frequency. By the early 1970s HPC was implicated as the primary CHD risk factor. Hypertension and smoking...

Enhancing performance the American way

The first signs of this new body of science in North America can be seen in the years immediately preceding the First World War. Several textbooks appeared that aimed at providing physiological knowledge based on research and sound scientific principles. Of the four main contenders for 'first' physiology text, three were published in New York and the other in London (McArdle et al. 2000 18). The American Journal of Physiology was established in 1898. In 1904 the Nutrition Laboratory at the Carnegie Institute in Washington DC was set up to study nutrition and energy metabolism. As discussed in the previous chapter, a number of European scientists had pushed forward knowledge on the effects of certain substances on fatigue and performance before the First World War. The experiments of French physiologist Tissie do not appear to have led to a sustained network of exercise- or sport-related science in that country. There were small collections of researchers in Denmark and Sweden....

Stimulants Relaxants Weight Control and Pain

Nervous Synapse

Amphetamine is the stimulant most abused by athletes and is also widely used by the general population. Amphetamine is the general term for a large group of stimulant drugs (Table 5.1). Amphetamine is a relatively simple molecule other stimulants are variations of amphetamine's basic form. Though amphetamine was first used in the 1930s to treat a variety of medical conditions, including narcolepsy, obesity, and depression, amphetamine-containing drugs (also referred to as amphetamines) were first used for their ergogenic (energy increasing and fatigue reducing) effects during World War II, when they were given to soldiers to keep them alert and aggressive.

The Lure Of The Mandrake

International Women Day

Once the preliminaries are over and the kissing and hugging starts, the trip drugs really start doing their job. Many individuals born after World War II consider the most moving moments of their lives to be the ecstatic highs of making love on good LSD. People have described (he physical and mental intensity of the experience as terms of lovers melting into each other, glowing with radiant auras, coming in colors (a la Roiling Stones), fucking for centuries and complete ego transcendence. In testimony to acid as a love drug, Baba Ram Dass (Richard Alpert) said in Playboy in 1970 Before taking LSD, I never stayed in a state of sexual ecstasy for hours on end, but I have done this under LSD. It heightens all of your senses and it means that you're living the sexual experience totally. Each caress or kiss is timeless.

Forensic Drug Analysis

The definition of drug abuse changes over time and differs among societies. Cocaine was once an ingredient in Coca-Cola, LSD was used in psychotherapy and by the CIA, and methamphetamine was issued to American soldiers during World War II. All three drugs are regarded as dangerous today, and they are no longer used in these ways. Meanwhile, the active ingredient in marijuana has been found to be useful in treating glaucoma, anorexia, and the nausea associated with chemotherapy. A drug, Marinol (dronabinol), now exists that contains the active ingredients of marijuana. The list of illegal or controlled drugs is therefore flexible and evolves. What tends to remain the same is the methods used to group and classify drugs.

Cempoalxochitl Tagetes

Centedrin Methylphenidate hydrochloride. Centek Polish colloquial term for LSD. Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies US Center which mission is to promote the identification, prevention and effective treatment of alcohol and other drug use problems in our society through research, publications, education and training. Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research A consortium between the US University of Pittsburgh and St. Francis Medical Center. CEDAR serves to elucidate the factors contributing to the variation in the liability to drug abuse and determine the developmental pathways culminating in drug abuse outcome, normal outcome, and psychiatric behavioral disorder outcome. Center for Substance Abuse Research CESAR, The US Center for Substance Abuse Research located at the University of Maryland and provides a weekly fax service on drug abuse related topics also. Center-ef-barb Phenobarbital. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, agency of the United States Public...

Therapeutic Use Of The Abreactive Effect Of

From the historical and theoretical point of view, this mechanism can be traced back to the early concepts of Freud and Breuer. (29) According to thein, insufficient emotional and motor reaction by a patient to an original traumatic event results in jamming of the effect the strangulated emotions (abgeklemmter Affekt) later provide energy for neurotic symptoms. Treatment then consists in reliving the traumatizing memory under circumstances that make possible a belated redirection of this emotional energy to the periphery and its discharge through perceptual, emotional, and motor channels. From the practical point of view, the abreactive method was found especially valuable in the treatment of traumatic emotional neuroses and became popular during the Second World War as a quick and effective remedy for hysterical conversions occurring in various battle situations.

Long Term Effects Drug abuse

The most important problem encountered with amphetamines is abuse and the development of dependence. The most rapid amfetamine epidemic occurred in Japan after World War II, where there had been little or no previous abuse (69). Although a high proportion of amfetamine users probably already have emotional and social difficulties, sustained abuse can result in serious psychiatric complications, ranging from severe personality disorders to chronic psychoses (70,71). Whereas signs of intense physical dependence are not thought to occur (SED-9, 9), withdrawal may be associated with intense depression (SED-9, 9) (72), and relapses in psychiatric disorders have often been noted. Some countries in which the problem became widespread banned amphetamines, and Australia restricted their use to narcolepsy and behavioral disorders in children. Amfetamine dependence developed into a serious problem in the USA (and to a lesser extent in the UK), where it followed the typical pattern of drug...

The Animistic Revival And The Transformation Of Society

The history of the reemergence of hallucinogens and psychoactive plants in the West proceeded in several stages. There are some remarkable synchronicities (C. G. Jung's term for meaningful coincidences) in this history, of which the discovery of LSD is the most dramatic. In 1942, at the height of World War II, the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi, working at the University of Chicago, succeeded in triggering the first nuclear chain reaction, thereby setting the stage for the construction of the first atomic bombs. The power of these bombs exceeded existing explosives by a factor of one thousand. In 1943, the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann, working with ergot derivatives at Sandoz laboratories in Basel to find treatments for migraine, first accidentally absorbed a tiny amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). He then tested the drug and found it to be the most potent hallucinogen ever known, exceeding mescaline, the best-known psychoactive at that time, by a factor of one thousand in...

Kerouac Jean Louis Jack 19221969

The book has become classic in the drug literature genre. He was discharged from the Navy during World War II as a schizoid personality, he served as a merchant seaman. Thereafter he roamed the United States and Mexico, working at a variety of jobs that included railroad man and forest ranger, before he published his first novel, The Town and the City (1950). Dissatisfied with fictional conventions, however, Kerouac developed a new, spontaneous, nonstop, unedited method of writing that shocked more polished writers. On the Road, written in three weeks, was the first product of the new style. A formless book, it deals with a number of frenetic trips back and forth across the country by a number of penniless young people who are in love with life, beauty, jazz, sex, drugs, speed, and mysticism but have absolute contempt for alarm clocks, timetables, road maps, mortgages, pensions, and all traditional American rewards for industry. The book drew the attention of the public to a...

Pep pills and monkey glands doping in interwar Britain

So by the end of the 1930s we can see a stark contrast between cultural situations. Also, there was something quite incoherent and fragmented about the science and sport relationship. The next major steps towards doping knowledge and application would happen during the years of the Second World War.

From high school to pro sports in America

Amphetamine or the 'pep pill' was commonly used by the forces during World War II. Several hundred million tablets were supplied to troops on both sides. At the end of the war many soldiers returning home spread the news about this invigorating drug. In the 1950s college students, athletes, truck drivers and housewives, in addition to soldiers, were using amphetamine for non-medical purposes use of the drug expanded in various countries during this decade, as production of amphetamine increased significantly. It was being marketed to treat obesity, narcolepsy, hyperkinesis, and depression, but people were taking it primarily to increase energy, decrease the need for sleep, and elevate mood.

Sulfanilamide and the history of adverse drug reactions

After World War II, the pharmaceuticals market changed radically, as many companies started industrial production of drugs that had previously been manufactured in pharmacies. Announcements of new industrially produced drugs were hailed as part of technological advancement, as significant a sign of progress as the launching of satellites and putting a man on the moon. However, public safeguards against the risks

History And Legal Status

During World War II, methamphetamine was given frequently to soldiers to help fight fatigue and hunger, and to increase physical endurance. However, by the time the war ended, many soldiers were addicted to the drug and wanted to continue using it. Methamphetamine addiction became especially prevalent in Japan, where after the war Japanese soldiers were given access to military supplies of the drug to feed the addiction they developed during the war.

College On Problems Of Drug Dependence Cpdd

The contemporary CPDD originated in 1913, as the Committee on Drug Addiction of the Bureau of Social Hygiene in New York City. In 1928, the Bureau of Social Hygiene provided funds to the Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council (NRC), of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), for the support of a chemical, pharmacological, and clinical investigation of narcotic drugs by the Committee on Drug Addiction, NRC, NAS. This research continued until World War II. From 1939 to 1947, the Committee on Drug Addiction served as an advisory group to the U.S. Public Health Service (Eddy, 1973).

Amphetamines and Related Drugs

For many years after their invention, amphetamines were tolerated and their use was even encouraged by authorities. Soldiers in World War II received rations of amphetamines to make them march longer and fight better. The governments of several countries, among them the Soviet Union, experimented with giving amphetamines to factory workers, hoping to make them more productive (which, in the long run, they failed to do). Doctors in this country have prescribed them in great quantity for even more questionable reasons.

Poison And Modern

In cases of homicide, the poisons of old were still at large. Arsenic remained a favorite, and was especially so in the early part of the century. Cyanide was also too popular around the middle of the century. The poison found a niche during the second world war, and was used in liquid form as a suicidal tool for agents of the Resistance. Cyanide enjoyed a resurgence of popularity in the latter half of the century, with most of the poison secreted in food, drink and pharmaceutical products. Although many of these classic poisons were in style, including strychnine, chloroform and abrin, a new trend was beginning to emerge. Murderers were using previously undiscovered or scarcely used poisons. The ways in which poisons were administered was also changing. Toxicology became ever more important as the effects of the newer poisons were not well documented, and symptoms were often mistaken for mysterious viral or endogenous illnesses. In many cases, 20th century poisoners felt that they...

The Original Captain Trips

The stout crew-cut figure riding in the Rolls-Royce was a mystery to those who knew him. A spy by profession, he lived a life of intrigue and adventure befitting his chosen career. Born dirt poor in Kentucky, he served with the OSS during the Second World War and went on to make a fortune as a uranium entrepreneur. His prestigious government and business connections read like a Who's Who of the power elite in North America. His name was Captain Alfred M. Hubbard. His friends called him Cappy, and he was known as the Johnny Appleseed of LSD.

Use Of Mescaline In Government Experiments

It has long been suspected, with some supporting evidence, that the governments of some countries of the world have experimented with hallucinogenic drugs on people. While many of these experiments involved LSD, there are some reports that mescaline was also used. In their book Acid Dreams, Martin Lee and Bruce Shalin recount some of the instances of human experimentation using mescaline and LSD. During World War II, for example, many prisoners of war were given hallucinogens in attempt by their Nazi captors to gain mind control and extract information. The Nazi military had spent many years searching for truth serum drugs that would make prisoners reveal secret information about military plans, whereabouts of troops and their leaders, and so on. In the 1940s, Nazi doctors at the concentration camp in Dachau, Ger The U.S. government was also engaged in a search for their own truth serum during World War II. Following the war, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), formerly known as...

Arlzona Pets

Medical and recreational consumption of cannabis has a nasty evil stigma still attached to it by past and even current governments reefer madness propaganda. So much so even the non THC producing natural hemp plant is suppressed to a degree today. Hemp related products such as food, ethanol fuel, clothing, paper and a huge host of other products can be easily made with hemp. Our ancestors used hemp for food, clothing, shelter and so on. Hemp is still used in these ways to a large degree in other parts of the world today. The U.S. Department of Agriculture made a film titled Hemp For Victory to encourage famers of the day to grow hemp after the government made hemp legal in 1942 to provide much needed support in World War 2. Interestingly enough after the world war was over hemp was made illegal again and copies of The U.S. Department of Agriculture Hemp For Victory film were ordered destroyed. Copies did survive though and are still available.

Radioactivity

Malignancies have also been linked to exposure to a or p particles (and y- or X-rays see Section 1.6.2.5 ), which are known to damage DNA by fragmentation through the formation of free radicals. A link between nuclear fallout and cancer was firmly established after atomic bombs were dropped on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 at the end of World War II. It has also been postulated that children living close to nuclear power stations are at increased risk for developing certain forms of leukemia as well as brain tumors, although statistical analyses of these data remain controversial. However, the risk of escape of radioactive materials from nuclear reactors was highlighted by the Chernobyl incident in the Ukrainian republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1986. The accident caused widespread contamination of the food chain and led to a variety of different cancers in populations exposed to the radiation. It is also known that a buildup of radon gas...

Textiles Fabrics

After the 1937 Marijuana Tax law,new DuPont plastic fibers, under license since 1936 from the German company I.G. Farben (patent surrenders were part of Germany's World War I reparation payments to America), replaced natural hempen fibers. (Some 30 of I.G. Farben, under Hitler, was owned and financed by America's DuPont.) DuPont also introduced Nylon (invented in 1935) to the market after they'd patented it in 1938.

Cocaine Class

As decades change, so do attitudes toward cocaine. In the latter 1800s it was widely used by ordinary middle-class Americans and had a reputation no worse than alcohol or tobacco. In the years before World War I, news media stories tied the drug to African Americans and crime, and public opinion transformed the substance from a commonplace item into a substance used mainly by social deviants. Cocaine received little attention from the 1960s illicit drug culture, which seemingly considered cocaine an archaic item no longer of interest. In the 1970s cocaine was portrayed as a drug used by wealthy beautiful people, and in the 1980s it was portrayed as a poor ghetto dweller's drug. In the 1800s cocaine was considered highly addictive, but from the 1950s into the 1980s it was described as nonaddictive. By the 1990s cocaine was called the most addictive drug known, and demand for the product resulted in accessibility likened to fast-food hamburgers. Although tolerance develops with abuse of...

Biomass Energy

One product of pyrolysis, methanol, is used today by most race cars and was used by American farmers and auto drivers routinely with petroleum methanol options starting in the 1920s, through the 1930s, and even into the mid-1940s to run tens of thousands of auto, farm and military vehicles until the end of World War II.

Heroes and villains

The heroes and villains are harder to separate in the history of doping science. Amphetamines were used as much by Allied forces in the Second World War as by their Axis enemies. Steroids were being experimented with in the USA by the 1930s and 1940s. Usage of steroids was not seen as problematic by Dr John Zeigler, the American weightlifting coach who helped develop the steroid Dianabol with the pharmaceutical company CIBA in the mid 1950s. Around the same time, the legendary 'hero' Roger Bannister who would help lead anti-doping in Britain in the 1970s experimented with extra oxygen inhalation for his mile runs. And throughout the post-war period those professional cyclists who used amphetamines and other drugs for their arduous races remained favourites with the fans who empathised with their need for artificial enhancements.

Laziness

There are a myriad of new job opportunities, each one better than the jobs we had to do a hundred years ago or so. Opportunities abound to learn new things, to develop your mind, to improve. There is no way that this would have been possible for everyone even as recently ago as the second world war.

Crosslinking Agents

The discovery that a DNA cross-linking agent may be used to treat cancer was made serendipitously during World War II, when on December 3, 1943, Allied military personnel were accidentally exposed to sulfur mustard gas S(CH2CH2Cl)2 , a chemical weapon used in World War I. A U.S. warship, the USS Liberty, carrying a secret stockpile of 100 tons of this material (to be used in retaliation if chemical agents were used by the Axis forces), was subjected to an air attack in the harbor of Bari in Italy. Several hundred people were injured and many killed by exposure to the gas. Autopsy observations of individuals exposed to the gas revealed that profound lymphoid and myeloid suppression had occurred. Two pharmacists, Louis

From 1500 to 1800

World War I prompted many countries to enact national austerity programs curbing the alteration of foodstuffs into alcoholic beverages. Absinthe was thought to be so harmful to one's health that it was prohibited in several European countries. Sweden experimented with rationing alcohol, and Iceland banned beer, but not wine or liquor. Furthermore, the Russian czar again attempted to impose prohibition. Due to excessive rates of heavy alcohol consumption and the resulting societal ills, such as violence, Scandinavian countries implemented a variety of regulations, including state monopolies, increased taxation, and restrictions on the location and times of sale. After employing various regulations and statues, these countries turned to large-scale social research in order to understand and influence excessive alcohol consumption. The worldwide economic depression of the 1930s slowed the growth of alcohol consumption however, the economic boom that followed World War...

Memory

Sometimes the memories are not even personal ones. We are passed down memories from our parents and our teachers about entire nations For example, some jewish people still hate the german people for what was done to their ancestors during the second world war, even if they weren't even born then We have to pay the utmost attention to what our memory is doing, to how it is moving, and why if we are to be truly free of the prison of the past.

Duration 2D30 Hours

Tabun is a clear colorless and tasteless liquid with a slightly fruity odor. Tabun is a G-Class (German) nerve agent and was the first nerve agent to be discovered. In 1936 German scientist Dr. Gerhard Schrader first developed Tabun as an insecticide, where he first noticed the effects of nerve agents on humans when he and his lab assistant began to experience shortness of breath and contraction of the pupils while working with the substance. A factory for Tabun production was built and a total of 11,800 tons of Tabun were produced from 1942 to 1945. At the end of the World War II the Allies seized large quantities of Tabun and other nerve agents for study and disposal. The word Tabun has no particular meaning and is rumored to have been made up to hide the discovery.

Nationalism

In the second world war, the germans had the same nationalistic feelings about their country, as the allies did about theirs. It is a feeling so strong, that if anyone mentions anything bad about your country you're willing to fight them, in war time, or peace. You see, stirring up nationalism is good for governments when they need to do something, and they want to enlist your support to help them do it. After all, the second world war would have been no more than a bar room brawl if it was just hitler and his cabinet vs. churchill and his cabinet. Imagine that, they would have sorted out their differences, or even killed one another, and then everybody could have got back to business as usual. Instead, they stirred up the nation, turned individuals into a mob and motivated everyone to go to war.

Diethylene glycol

After the World War II, the pharmaceuticals market changed radically, as many companies started industrial production of drugs that had previously been manufactured in pharmacies. Announcements of new industrially produced drugs were hailed as part of technological advancement, as significant a sign of progress as the launching of satellites and putting a man on the moon. However, public safeguards against the risks of drugs remained unchanged in most countries. Thus, control of the effects of drugs largely lay in the hands of the manufacturers, even though the responsibility for taking precautions rested with pharmacists and doctors.

How low can you go

Two years later, the German government passed the 'Blood Protection Law,' which forbade marriage or even sexual relations between Jews and non-Jewish Germans. The Second World War provided the cover that Hitler desired to cleanse Germany of all undesirables. Germany began 'euthanizing' all children born with birth defects in special children's wards at hospitals and clinics. The program was stepped up, authorizing the death of anyone with an incurable disease, starting with the mentally disabled. From 1939-1945 approximately 200,000 Germans were 'euthanized' under state-sponsored programs. With growing public discomfort, the programs became more and more secretive. We are all too familiar with the mass execution of Jews and other ethnic minorities that took place in German occupied Europe through the end of the war.

Synthetic drugs

Army used amphetamines to keep soldiers alert and reduce fatigue. After the war, supplies of metham-phetamine once used for military purposes were made available to the Japanese. The result was an epidemic of intravenous metham-phetamine abuse. At the same time, tablets of legally manufactured amphetamine and methamphetamine became readily available in the

Vicks Vatronol

(Vick's Vatro-Nol is made by the Vick Chemical Company. The Vick concern was absorbed by Drug, Inc., just at the time the Rockefeller drug trust was forming their giant combine to help Germany win the chemical side of World War II. Drug, Inc., was part of the Standard Oil-IG Farben cover-up group.)

Choices choices

But insects can be used as an effective disease vector and have been used to deliberately spread plague in the past. There are two types of plague - bubonic and pneumonic -both of which are caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Bubonic plague is spread by fleas who bite infected animals and then humans, and pneumonic plague is spread by breathing in aerosolized bacteria. Both are easily cured by antibiotics, but pneumonic plague is the big fear because it is quite contagious. The fear of infected biting insects like fleas and mosquitoes being used as bioterror vectors comes from the fact that the Japanese actually used plague as a bioweapon in their invasion of China prior to the start of the Second World War by spreading infected rice for rats to feed on and releasing infected fleas. The tactic worked, and many Chinese soldiers and civilians died of plague, but the unpredictability of using an insect vector makes it impractical, as the Japanese found. Many of their own troops...

Progress

According to scientists, planet earth was created about four billion years ago, but it is only since the second world war that things have really started speeding up. Now nearly everybody in the developed world has a car, can buy their food at supermarkets, has satellite tv, central heating, hot water, education, healthcare, takeaway restaurants, public transportation, and mobile telecommunications. We have everything we could possibly want to make our lives easier, so in 2100 where could progress take us to next Could it be that we don't have to go out to work anymore, and all the jobs are done by robots, so we can enjoy maximum leisure time Maybe we will no longer need to use our limbs because everything is automated or maybe we will not need to grow food anymore because chemists will have been able to make it artificially. Who knows where we will progress to technologically.

Safety first

Partner in the 'global war on terror,' it would be a total diplomatic disaster to tell the American people that our ally was shipping bioweapons across the border to a country we are fighting terrorists in. That's just one conspiracy theory scenario, but you get the picture.

Smoking

A moment ago I was wondering how the chief executive sleeps at night, knowing that millions of people suffer as a result of a product he makes, and it came to me. He sleeps the same as the man who is the chief executive of a company that makes nuclear weapons or guns - soundly

Television

You can always say they're educational, but these aren't subjects you are deeply interested in, are they Are you deeply interested in arctic whale watching or deadly snakes, in your spare time Or are you interested in pre-world war air planes, or the history of world war one Maybe, but isn't the main reason you

Polyploidy

This phenomenon would be of little interest here were it not for some experiments conducted by an American scientist named Warmke during World War II. Treating marijuana plants with colchicine, he obtained a number of triploid and tetraploid and tetraploid plants had about the same average activity (though individual plants varied by a factor of eight) which was about twice that of the normal diploid strains. He used 26 different plants of each variety and his data were statistically significant. Unfortunately, he worked with an acetone extract of the plants and his assay animals were small fish, making it doubtful whether his data have any relation to cannabinoid content.

Chemotherapy

Used in World War II had antileukemic properties. Since then, important advances have been made in the development of new anticancer drugs. For example, cisplatin, which was also discovered serendipitously, provided a major advance in the treatment of testicular and ovarian carcinomas, and the more recent discovery of imatinib (Gleevec ) has led to very high response rates in chronic phase Philadelphia-chromosome-positive CML patients.

Nitrogen Mustards

Nitrogenmustard Guanin

Sulfur mustard (mustard gas, yperite) was used in World War I for chemical warfare because it is an extremely irritant vesicant agent. After the war, it was realized that it also caused systemic effects such as leukopenia, aplasia of the bone marrow, dissolution of lymphoid tissue, and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract. This suggested a possible role for this compound in cancer treatment, but

Ansialan Meprobamate

Ansieten Ketazolam. Ansietil Ketazolam. Ansil Meprobamate. Ansilan Medazepam. Ansillo Tagetes. Ansilor Lorazepam. Ansiocor Diazepam. Ansiolax Diazepam. Ansiolin Diazepam. Ansiolisina Diazepam or Oxazepam. Ansioliticos Colloquial term for tranquilizers (such as benzodiazepines). Ansiopan Lorazepam. Ansiopaz Clorazepate dipotassium. Ansiopaz-10 Clorazepate dipotassium. Ansiopaz-5 Clorazepate dipotassium. Ansiotex Lorazepam. Ansiowas Meprobamate. Anslinger, Harry Jacob (1892-1975). US civil servant. In 1926 he was appointed as head of the suppression of illegal alcohol importation to USA. In 1929 he was deputy head of the authority which controlled the prohibition-laws against alcohol sales. After the end of the prohibition years he became head of the national drug enforcement and a leading international policy-maker. He was commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics from 19301962. After the world war he became a leading member of the UN Commission on Narcotic...

The History Of Mdma

Although MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) has been in the public spotlight only since the mid-1980s, its history extends back to the beginning of the twentieth century. MDMA was synthesized some time before 1912. The German pharmaceutical giant Merck was attempting to create a new medication to stop bleeding when it stumbled across MDMA as an intermediate step in the synthesis. On Christmas Eve in 1912, Merck filed the patent for this styptic medication, called hydrastinin MDMA was included in the patent application as an intermediate chemical only (Beck, 1997). The patent was received in 1914 and has long since expired. For this reason, MDMA no longer can be patented. Contrary to the stories of most reporters and even some scientists, there was no use mentioned for MDMA in Merck's patent application. MDMA was never marketed as an appetite suppressant, nor was it used in any way during World War I. Its chemical cousin, MDA (methylenedioxyamphetamine, an analog and metabolite of...

Marijuana

Marijuana and hemp come from different portions of the same plant, Cannabis sativa. Leaves, flowers, and resin are the illegal drug marijuana the resin is also called hashish. Stalks and seed (if processed so it will not germinate) are the legal commercial product hemp. The terms hemp and marijuana are sometimes used interchangeably, but such use is incorrect. After marijuana was outlawed in the 1930s, hemp raising continued to thrive because law enforcement authorities of the era were familiar with the industry and understood that crops were not entering the illegal drug market even though the plants had leaves and flowers and resin. During World War II the federal government subsidized hemp farming to replace natural fiber supplies cut off by the war. In the 1950s subsidies finally stopped, and the American hemp industry also stopped because it could no longer make money at the unsubsidized world market price.

Methamphetamine

To achieve top performance during World War II, pilots of the German Luftwaffe and the British Royal Air Force used methamphetamine. In 1953 Hermann Buhl was the first person to climb the mountain Nanga Parbat in the Himalayas, and during that feat he used methamphetamine tablets. Some observers wonder if that pharmaceutical aid was crucial. A person who

Anorectic Class

The first diet drug to receive scientific endorsement was thyroid hormone. Its use for this purpose began in the 1890s on the theory that it would boost a person's metabolism and thereby promote faster use of calories. The same theory made dinitrophenol a standard diet drug before World War II. Although it boosted metabolic rate, it also boosted rates of cataracts and of harm to the peripheral nervous system (which involves the functioning of various organs and muscles). For those reasons the drug was abandoned. In the 1930s amphetamines became available and quickly became a popular diet aid despite their potential for abuse.

Neopagan Technology

The actual witch-hunts came in like waves of hysteria just like drug stories in the press do now. You know, every so often along comes a story about witches in their midst so let's burn a few. So it came in waves. Another thing that came in waves is the plague. The black death. I can tell that Fraser wants me to draw the parallel myself. Deep down, this man is a teacher. His theory (which has been espoused elsewhere in pagan literature) is that the sudden rises in black death can always be traced to a surge in witch killing and cat killing. The church would reward people who killed cats because they were associated with witches. The rat population would be free to increase, and more plague would spread. As he puts it, Flysteria caused the plague. Meanwhile, our current and potential plagues - AIDS, pollution, nuclear war - are seen to be caused by similar repression of the pagan spirit, which he seeks to revitalize in the youth culture of England, in any way possible.

Amphetamine Class

World War II brought wide use of amphetamines as military forces on all sides issued pep pills to give personnel an edge in combat. The most prominent combat pills were Benzedrine (amphetamine sulfate), Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine), and Methedrine (methamphetamine). Combining such drugs with hard physical labor can be risky, with a user crumpling from overexerting the heart and overheating the whole body, an additional combat hazard for users. In contrast to some other military forces, the United States did not routinely issue the pills except to bomber crews. Nonetheless, the drug

W Hemp Chronicles

When Pershing returned from Mexico, there was some concern that marijuana had infiltrated the American ranks, although an official inquiry failed to turn up any proof to that effect. However, in 1921, the commandant of Fort Sam Houston expressly forbade marijuana anywhere on the grounds of the military post, ostensibly because American soldiers were smoking the drug while on duty. In World War I and the Federal Presence in New Mexico -The Punitive Expedition and the Education of General John J. Pershing, author David V. Holtby details the situation regarding the discipline and behaviour of U.S.

Chupalla Agave

Improvements in cultivation and processing that lowered the acid content of cigarette tobacco and made it easier to inhale contributed to a major expansion in cigarette smoking during the first half of the 20th century. During World War I the prejudice against smoking by women was broken, and the practice became widespread among women in Europe and the United States in the 1920s. In the 1950s and '60s research produced medical evidence that linked cigarette smoking with health hazards, especially with lung cancer, emphysema, and heart disease. In some nations, notably the United Kingdom and the United States, measures were taken to discourage the use of cigarettes. In the 1980s and '90s, despite growing awareness of the health risks involved, smoking continued to increase, with greater consumption in Third World countries offsetting the effects of antismoking sentiment elsewhere.

Part II

Anti-doping is therefore a construct of a specific time and place, not simply a response to a problem devoid of any historical context except the problem itself. The British scientists were motivated by a sense of duty and benevolence. Interestingly, the problem was usually defined as lying in other countries than Britain itself. At that stage, Britain was a fading power - both in the organisation of world sport, and in the general political economy of imperial power. The generation who promoted anti-doping has grown up in a social class-based world in which the ideals of the gentleman amateur sportsman still had a great deal of influence. It was a world in which British soldiers and scientists helped win a world war. It was also when the British sense of superiority was based on its Empire. And finally, this generation had a strong sense of Christian benevolence. In this context, anti-doping is an expression of a set of values that go far beyond the narrow question of drugs in sport....

The Building Blocks

Phenethylamine Pill

The years after World War II were exciting ones for psychiatry. In addition to LSD, scientists also discovered the antipsychotic properties of chlor-promazine, or Thorazine. Thorazine made it possible for severely mentally 11 patients to improve enough that they could leave asylums in unprecedented numbers. This and other antipsychotic medications finally allowed doctors to make progress in treating some of our most disabling illnesses.

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