Was Yuriy Sedykh A Drugs Cheat

1 The word athlete will be used as a generic term for a competitor in any sports event, not just for track and field. This is preferred to the gender-specific 'sportsman' or the convoluted 'sportsman or -woman' or the plain ugly 'sportsperson'. 4 Amphetamines and post-war sport, 1945-1976 1 Further research is required on Eastern European countries in this respect. 5 The steroids epidemic, 1945-1976 1 Such progress tapered off, possibly as the limits were being reached even with steroids, so...

Part II

The post-war period up to 1976 was dominated by two main processes the rise in drug usage, and the rise in anti-doping. The chapters in this part of the book take these in turn. Amphetamines in sport developed out of the war and widespread public usage. Available evidence points towards two main places for this American sport from high school up to professional European sport, especially cycling. However, this usage was characterised by a profound sense of ambiguity as to whether or not it was...

A critique of antidoping

Previous literature has criticised the failings of anti-doping testing and policy in light of evidence of on-going drug use. This is especially pertinent for the period of 1960-1976 when, in spite of strong rhetoric, very little real action was taken. However, this section presents three alternative forms of critique. First, that antidoping was really about the exercise of power. Second, that it was an overreaction and a 'moral panic' whose underlying 'problem' was less convincing. Third, that...

The International Olympic Committee

While the sad events of summer 1967 in France proved something of a watershed in cycling, the IOC was making moves that would change the face of the global fight against doping. The Medical Commission was established under the chairmanship of Prince Alexandre de Merode. The definition of doping was accepted as 'the use of substances or techniques in any form or quantity alien or unnatural to the body with the exclusive aim of obtaining an artificial or unfair increase in performance in...

From high school to pro sports in America

For post-war athletes and coaches, the potential for wealth, status and national prestige was such that health issues (for some, at least) were secondary concerns to be managed appropriately but not to disrupt the route to personal glory. As Max Novich told the joint meeting of the IOC and the International Congress of Sports Science in 1964 Following the return of the veteran to college, the use of amphetamine 'pep pills' became quite common among professional and intercollegiate athletes....

The growing phenomenon 19681976

Given the impact the drugs were obviously having, it is no surprise that steroid use increased rapidly in the late 1960s. The British international shot-putter, Jeff Teale, used them between 1967 and 1972 during which time he won a silver medal at the Commonwealth Games and the Amateur Athletics Association championship twice (Woodland 1980 56-7). The 1968 Olympics were affected by steroids. Professor Arnold Beckett said 'Let's face it - these will be used in Mexico' (The Times, 10 September...

References

Abrahams, A. (1958) 'The Use and Abuse of Drugs by Athletes', British Journal of Addiction, 55 (1) 23-7. Alles, G. A. and Feigen, G. A. (1942) 'The Influence of Benzedrine on Work Decrement and Patellar Reflex', American Journal of Physiology, 136 392. Allison, L. (2001) Amateurism in Sport An Analysis and a Defence, London, Frank Cass. Andrews, G. and Solomon, D. (1975) 'Coca and Cocaine Uses and Abuses' in Andrews, G. and Solomon, D. (eds) The Coca Leaf and Cocaine Papers, New York and...

Pep pills and monkey glands doping in interwar Britain

The American and German situations showed how science informed doping, that exercise physiology offered empirical and clinical knowledge about the types of drugs used by athletes. The sub-discipline was less developed in Britain during the interwar period, and we can only speculate whether studies in other countries had any impact. If any culture retained that idealisation of the golden era of amateur-gentlemen functioning entirely on natural talent, it would be found in the British middle and...

The beginnings of antidoping policy and science

The rising profile of doping as a health issue can be found even before Abrahams and the AMA's public discussions. Five years earlier, in February 1952 delegates at a major international conference in Oslo on the subject of health and sports heard health policy experts address the question. The audience included IOC members and representatives from 14 countries (all European with the addition of Japan). Dr Karl Evang, director-general of public health in Norway said, 'The use of dope, meaning...

Doping in European sport

European athletes seemed to be increasingly turning to artificial aids despite the fantasies of Olympic virtue being preached in IOC publications, and promoted by both anti-doping scientists and national media. In 1950 it was alleged that the Danish rowing team had been given drugs to help them win the European Championships and this had led to some of them collapsing at the end of the race. Their team doctor, Dr Axel Mathiesens, had provided them with a substance called Androstin over a 12-day...

The science of performance effects and health

By the late 1960s and into the 1970s a few scientists were taking an interest in steroids. One of the key questions was whether or not they were effective and how safe they were to use. An editorial in the British Medical Journal stated that 'Anabolic steroid combined with high protein diet might have an anticatabolic effect under conditions of severe muscular exercise and hence produce an increase in physical performance' (1967 310). Such public pronouncements could only lead to increased...

Enhancing performance the American way

The first signs of this new body of science in North America can be seen in the years immediately preceding the First World War. Several textbooks appeared that aimed at providing physiological knowledge based on research and sound scientific principles. Of the four main contenders for 'first' physiology text, three were published in New York and the other in London (McArdle et al. 2000 18). The American Journal of Physiology was established in 1898. In 1904 the Nutrition Laboratory at the...

Steroids in sport 19451960

A number of writers have argued that steroids were manufactured and refined for physical performance purposes by the Nazi party during the Second World War. Houlihan offers the claim that steroids 'were used in the 1940s for the non-medical purpose of increasing the aggressiveness and strength of German soldiers' (1999 45). Unfortunately, he fails to cite any supporting evidence. John Hoberman discusses in some detail the myth of Nazi steroid science (1992) but it remains impossible to judge...

Spread of steroids 19601968

The spread of steroids into other sports seems to have happened in the first years of the 1960s by which time there were types on the market. Users could turn to various testosterone derivates including Halotestin (fluoxymesterone), Adroyd (oxymetholone), Durabolin (nandrolone phenpropionate) and stanozolol (Winstrol) (Fruehan and Frawley, 1963 Lenehan 2003 65). Bob Hoffman knew by then what the drugs could do, having experimented with them himself for six weeks in the aftermath of the 1960...