Turmeric Health Benefits and Culinary Uses
14.5.9 Curcuma longa Curcuma longa is a perennial rhizomatous plant growing all over India. Curcumin or C. longa extract shows strong antioxidant activity. -amyloid-induced oxida-tive stress appears to be an important pathway of neuronal cell death in AD. The methanolic extract of turmeric led to the isolation of Calebin-A and the curcum-ins, which effectively protects neuronal cells against -amyloid deposition. In another study, curcumin, on oral administration to alcohol-fed rats, caused a significant
Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) Kuttan et al. 74 showed the antimutagenicity of herbal detoxification formula smoke shield against environmental mutagens. Smoke shield contains a dual extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) obtained by supercritical CO2 gas extraction and post supercritical hydroethanolic extraction together with extracts of green tea and other spices. The presence of these synergistically increases the activity of turmeric smoke shield and it was found to produce significant inhibition of mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium induced by sodium azide and NOP at a concentration of 2 mg per plate, while inhibition of mutagenicity induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was less significant. It also inhibited the mutagenicity induced by tobacco extract to TA102. Similarly Kim 75 demonstrated the antigen-otoxic effects of water extract of Korean fermented soybean paste (doen-jang).
As well as milk-thistle, several hundred other plants are reported to have hepa-toprotective properties 18 , and a number of studies have been conducted taking into consideration valid scientific, clinical, and research parameters. These plants include Cochlospurmum planchonii 17 , Zingiber officinale 19 , Nardostachys jata-mansi (jatamansi) 20 , Swertia chirata (chirayata) 21, 22 , Cichorium intybus. (chicory) 23 , Hyprophilia auriculata (talamakhana 24 , Apiumgraveolens (celery), Teph-rosia purpurea (sharpunkha) 25 , Plumbazo zeylanica (chitrak) 25 , Solanum nigrum (makove) 26 , Tinospora cardifolia (guduchi) 27 Terminalia belerica (bibhi-take) 28 , Boerhavia diffusa (punarnava) 29 , Eclipta alba (bhringraj) 30 , Androgra-phis peninculata (kalmegh) 31 , Allium sativa (garlic) 32 , Glycyrrhiza uralensis (liquorice) 33 , Camellia sinensis (green tea) 34 , Curcuma longa (turmeric) 35 , Picrorhiza kurroa (katuki) 36 , Oldenlandia corymbasa, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia occidentalis,...
Based on these observations, specific food products have been investigated in an attempt to identify novel compounds that might reduce cancer risk and could be taken routinely in purified form as a prophylactic measure. This has given rise to the area of chemoprevention, which is rapidly growing in importance. The compounds in fruits and vegetables that can act as chemopreventive agents are known as phytochemicals (i.e., natural plant chemicals), and many thousands of compounds of this type may exist in nature, although very few have so far been isolated and subjected to proper scientific scrutiny. The most studied food items in the chemo-preventive area include cruciferous vegetables, dietary fiber, garlic, ginger, grapes and red wine, green tea, honeybee propolis, hot peppers, olives and olive oil, soy food, tomatoes, and turmeric. Some drug substances are also thought to reduce cancer risk and are being studied. For example, it has been proposed that aspirin may reduce the risk of...
The major curcuminoids present in turmeric are demethoxycurcumin (curcumin II), bisdemethoxycurcumin (curcumin III), and the recently identified cyclocurcumin 5 . Commercial curcumin contains curcumin I ( 77 ), curcumin II ( 17 ), and curcumin III ( 3 ) as its major components. Spectrophotometrically, curcumin has a maximum absorption (Xmax) in methanol at 430 nm, with a Beer's law range from 0.5 to 5 g mL 6 . It absorbs maximally at 415 to 420 nm in acetone, and a 1 solution of curcumin has 1650 absorbance units. Curcumin has a brilliant yellow hue at pH 2.5 to 7 and takes on a red hue at pH 7. The spectral and photochemical properties of curcumin have been studied in different solvents by Chignell and coworkers 7 . In toluene, the absorption spectrum of curcumin contains some structure, which disappears in more polar solvents such as ethanol and acetonitrile. Curcumin is also reported to be able to photogenerate superoxide in toluene and ethanol 7 .
Curcumin, an active constituent of the rhizome Curcuma longa, was demonstrated to have antioxidant potential in many in vitro and in vivo studies. Curcumin has a neuroprotective effect in tMCAo 183 and bilateral common carotid artery occlusion 184 that is mediated through its antioxidant activity.
Curcumin (turmeric yellow) is the bright yellow ingredient in turmeric, a spice used in curry dishes (Structure 9.20). It has been known since the early 1990s that curcumin can slow the growth of tumors and arrest angiogenesis. In 2003, researchers discovered that curcumin can irreversibly inhibit aminopeptidase N (APN), an enzyme that promotes tumor invasiveness and angiogenesis. APN is a membrane-bound, zinc-dependent metalloproteinase that breaks down proteins at the cell surface, thus helping tumor cells invade the space of neighboring cells. This discovery was made when researchers at Sejong University (Seoul, Korea) were screening libraries to find inhibitors of APN as potential anti-angiogenic agents. After screening
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