Traditional Chinese Medicine

Pure Natural Healing

Pure Natural Healing is a meridian Self-therapy that combines the use of natural food and knowing the right places to massage whenever the users are troubled by any pain. Its natural methods have been known to be a relief for pain, give health to their health, and would give the users optimal blood pressure without drugs or surgery. The plan was not created to be a quick fix. In fact, like every program, it is hard; yet the easiest that can be. The system requires the users' full attention, being constant, and discipline. For the period of its usage, the users will have the opportunity to eat their favourite food without much fear. The only difference this time is that the users will be eating it strategically. The exercises meant to be used have been explained in the book formats for the users to understand and choose the ones the users are capable of doing before the users even proceed to follow the ones in the videos. In other words, the program comes in the format of a manual and videos that will help the users achieve their goal. The video exercises are not merely to relieve the users of pain but they are focused on giving the users optimal health. Read more here...

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Artemisinin A Versatile Weapon from Traditional Chinese Medicine

Joachim Stadler

Abstract Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commands a unique position among all traditional medicines because of its 5000 years of tradition. Our own interest in natural products from TCM was triggered in the 1990s by sesquiterpene lactones of the artemisinin type from Artemisia annua L. The first description of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. (qinghao, Sweet wormwood) dates back to 168 B.C.E. Artemisinin (qinghaosu) was identified in 1972 as the active antimalarial constituent of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin and its derivatives are used for the treatment of malaria. As shown in recent years, this class of compounds also shows activity against cancer cells, schistosomiasis, and certain viruses, i.e., human cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B anc C virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. Interestingly, the bioactivity of artemisinin seems to be even broader and also includes the inhibition of other protozaons such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as some...

Traditional Chinese Medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been in practice for more than 200 years and includes acupuncture, massage (tuina), breathing exercise (qi gong) and dietary therapy. TCM has been an integral part of China's healthcare system along with conventional Western medicine. TCM products were safe and effective for the treatment of many human diseases before Western medicine was introduced in China. Famous texts in TCM include the Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic (Hung Di Nei Jing 200 BCE to 100 CE), Divine Husband-man's Classic of Materia Medica (Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing 25-220 AD) and cold-induced disorders (Shang han Lun 220 AD). The most complete reference to Chinese herbal prescriptions is Chinese Materia Medica, published in 1977. It lists nearly 6000 drugs, of which 480 are of plant origin. This ancient system of medicine, believed to be more than 5000 years old, is based on two separate theories about the natural laws that govern good health and longevity, namely 'Yin and Yang',...

Herbal Therapy And Nutritional Supplements

Botanical medicine or herbal therapy is a type of complementary alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders. Individuals worldwide use both herbal therapy and nutritional supplements extensively. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80 of the world's population relies on herbs for a substantial part of their health care. Herbs have been used by virtually every culture in the world throughout history, from the beginning of time until now. For example, Hippocrates prescribed St. Johns Wort, currently a popular herbal remedy for depression. Native Americans used plants such as coneflower, ginseng, and ginger for therapeutic purposes. Herbal therapy is part of a group of nontraditional therapies commonly known as complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, CAM therapies are not widely taught in medical schools. A 1998 survey revealed that 75 of 117 US medical schools offered elective courses in CAM or included CAM topics in required...

Preface To The Series

The medicinal traditions of ancient civilisations such as those of China and India have a large armamentaria of plants in their pharmacopoeias which are used throughout South East Asia. A similar situation exists in Africa and South America. Thus, a very high percentage of the World's population relies on medicinal and aromatic plants for their medicine. Western medicine is also responding. Already in Germany all medical practitioners have to pass an examination in phytotherapy before being allowed to practise. It is noticeable that throughout Europe and the USA, medical, pharmacy and health related schools are increasingly offering training in phytotherapy.

Chloranthus eliator R Br ex Link

Uses In Malaysia, the dried roots are applied externally or used internally to treat fever. In Indonesia, a paste made from the powdered leaves is applied externally to soothe contusion and bone fracture, and a decoction of the leaves is drunk to stop vomiting. Another species, Chloranthus spicatus (Thunb.) Nak. (Chloranthus inconspicuus SW.), is a Chinese remedy used to treat malaria, relieve coughs, heal boils and carbuncles, treat fever and to invigorate health. It will be interesting to know whether further study on this plant will disclose any molecules with anti-inflammatory and or antibacterial properties.

General Information

The herb Qinghaosu (Artemisia annua) has been known to Chinese medicine for centuries and was used in the treatment of fevers, in particular malaria fever it is not clear why it did not become more widely used elsewhere. The plant can be grown in locations other than China, and field studies in propagating and growing the plant are being carried out in many parts of the world. In 1979 the Qinghaosu Antimalarial Coordinating Research Group reported their experience with four formulations of qinghaosu in both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria (SEDA-13, 818) (SEDA-17, 326) (1).

Pregnancy Category None

A tropical aphrodisiac compounded from the dried venom of toads has been found to contain bufotenine. A traditional Chinese medicine called Chan Su is rubbed on a spot of the body to numb the area and is also used for heart ailments and to fight nosebleeds Chan Su is prepared from toads and contains bufotenine. Other toad venom preparations have been used to relieve toothache, to help bleeding gums, to promote urination, and to help people cough up phlegm.

Family Caryophyllaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Pink Family

A decoction of the dried root of Saponaria officinalis L. (1 in 29 dose 15 mL-30 mL) has been used in Western medicine to promote expectoration and urination. Quillaja saponaria Molina. is occasionally used to make shampoo and is known to inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Most medicinal Caryophyllaceae owe their properties to triterpenoid saponins, which are surface-acting agents and quite often irritating for mucosa. More interesting

Order Primulales Lindley 1833

The order Primulales consists of 3 families and about 1900 species of shrubs and herbs close to Ericalesand Ebenales, with which it shares the ability to use benzoquinones, triterpenoid saponins and flavonoids as chemical repellents (Appendix I). The largest family of this order is the Myrsinaceae with a thousand species. Besides the Myrsinaceae is the family Primulaceae, the family of Primula veris (cowslip, primrose), the flowers and the roots of which have been used to treat insomnia, stress, cough, and skin diseases in Western medicine. The therapeutic potential of Primulales is yet to be fully investigated.

Family Crassulaceae A P de Candolle in Lamarck de Candolle 1805 nom conserv the Stonecrop Family

Pharmaceutical interest Cotyledon umbilicus (Umbilicus pendulinus de Cand.), Sempervivum arboreum L. (Sempervivum africanum Mill.) and Sem-pervivum tectorium L. have been used as counter-irritants in Western medicine since a very remote period in time. The counter-irritancy of Crassulaceae is attributed to crystals of oxalic acid which irritate the skin and mucosa. It will be interesting to learn whether a more intensive study on Crassulaceae will disclose any neuroactive piperidine alkaloids of therapeutic interest. In the Asia-Pacific, about 10 species of plants classified within the family Crassulaceae are of medicinal value and often used as counter-irritant remedies.

Pharmaceutical interest

Strychnine The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L. are toxic due to the presence of strychnine, an indole alkaloid first characterized in 1817 by Pelletier and Caventou. Strychnine was formerly used to stimulate blood circulation in surgical shock, but its use is now more restricted to promoting breathing in poisoning cases, as in small doses, it enhances the motor response of the spinal reflex. Nux Vomica (British Pharmacopoeia, 1963) consists of the dried ripe seeds containing not less than 1.2 of strychnine. It was used in Western medicine as a bitter tonic and as an ingredient in purgative pills and tablets. The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L. are used

Alstonia scholars L R Br

Uses In Cambodia, the bark is used to promote menses and to treat chronic paludism with the enlargement of the spleen and liver discomfort. In Indonesia, the plant is used to stop diarrhea, treat diabetes and heal hemorrhoids. An infusion of the young leaves is drunk to treat beriberi. The leaf tips roasted with coconut are used to treat stomatitis. In Malaysia, the plant is used to treat malaria. The latex is used to assuage toothache. A decoction of the bark is drunk to combat fever, invigorate the body, stimulate appetite, and treat yaws. In Burma, the latex is used to heal ulcers. In India, the bark is used to promote milk secretion and to treat cancer. In the Philippines, the plant is used internally to combat fever, stop dysentry, heal wounds, and treat epilepsy. In Vietnam, the bark is used to treat chronic malaria with enlarged spleen, while the leaves are used to promote milk secretion. The bark of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. has been used in Western medicine (British...

Family Asclepiadaceae R Brown 1810 nom conserv the Milkweed Family

Pharmaceutical interest Examples of medicinal Asclepiadaceae are Calotropis gigantea (Willd.) Dry. ex WT. Ait. (yercum or madar fiber), and Mars-denia tenacissima W. and A. (bahjmahalhemp).The dried roots of Hemidesmus indicus (Hemidesmus, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) have been used to treat syphilis, rheumatism, psoriasis and eczema in Western medicine.

Family Boraginaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Borage Family

Such as Caccinia glauca (gaozaban), Cordia latifolia (bara-lasora), Heliotopium indicum L., Cynoglossum officinale (hound's tongue), Pulmonaria officinale, Symphytum officinale L. (common comfrey) and Borago officinalis L. (borage). The dried roots of Cynoglossum officinale (Cynoglossum Root, Spanish Pharmacopoeia, 1954) have been used in Western medicine to soothe inflammation, to treat cough and to curb diarrhea. The dried roots and rhizomes of Symphitum officinale (Comfrey, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934), which contain allantoin, have been used to heal wounds and ulcer. Allantoin promotes the proliferation of cells and is used to manufacture cosmetics.

Family Caprifoliaceae L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Honeysuckle Family

Pharmaceutical interest Classical examples of Caprifoliaceae are ornamental plants such as Sambucus nigra L. (common elder), Sambucus canadensis L. (American elder), and Symphoricarpos rivularis Suksd. (snow-berry) and Lonicera periclimenum L. (honey-suckle). The dried root-bark of Viburnum prunifolium (Viburnum, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1949) has been used in Western medicine to treat dysmenorrhea and its supposedly sedative effect on uterus in the form of a liquid extract (1 in 1 dose of 4mL-8mL). The dried bark of Viburnum opulus (Viburnum Opulus, Polish Pharmacopoeia, 1954) has been used in the treatment of functional uterine disorders. The dried corollas and stamens of Sambucus nigra L. (Sambucus, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1949) have been used as a vehicle for eye and skin lotions, while the fruits are to promote urination. Approximately 15 species of plants in the Caprifoliaceae are used for medicinal purposes in the Asia-Pacific. Note that these plants are often used...

Human Studies of Cannabinoids and Medicinal Cannabis

Abstract Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures. It reached a position of prominence within Western medicine in the nineteenth century but became mired in disrepute and legal controls early in the twentieth century. Despite unremitting world-wide suppression, recreational cannabis exploded into popular culture in the 1960s and has remained easily obtainable on the black market in most countries ever since. This ready availability has allowed many thousands of patients to rediscover the apparent power of the drug to alleviate symptoms of some of the most cruel and refractory diseases known to

Family Acanthaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Acanthus Family

Imbricate Corolla

Pharmaceutical interest A number of plants classified within the genera Acanthus, Alephandra, Barleria, Cossandra, Eranthemum, Fittonia, Justicia, Strobilanthes and Thunbergia are ornamental. Examples of medicinal Acan-thaceae are Adhatoda vasica (arusha, vasaka) and Andrographis panicu-lata Nees (Kalmegh), which are listed in the Indian Pharmacopoeia, 1955. Adhatoda vasica is used to promote expectoration. Andrographis paniculata Nees has been incorporated in several health products but one must ascertain its side effects. Asteracantha (Indian Pharmaceutical Codex, 1967) consists of Hygrophila spinosa (Asteracantha longifolia), a decoction of which (1 in 10, dose 15mL-60mL) has been used to promote urination in Western medicine. About 50 species of plants classified within the family Acanthaceae are used in the Asia-Pacific for medicinal purposes. Note that these plants are often used to soothe inflammation, to combat fever, to promote urination, to heal boils and wounds occasioned...

Family Rubiaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Madder Family

Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids Cephaelis, Nauclea, Cinchona, Mitragyna, Corynanthe, Pausinystalia, Uncaria, Pogonopus and Remijia species are interesting because they produce monoterpenoid indole and quinoline alkaloids, some of which are being used in therapeutic medicine. Examples of such alkaloids are quinine, emetine and mitragynine. The dried bark of cultivated trees of Cinchona calisaya (yellow cinchona bark), Cinchona ledgeri-ana (ledger bark), Cinchona officinalis (pale cinchona bark, crown or Loxa bark) and Cinchona succirubra (red cinchona bark), containing not less than 6 of total alkaloids, quinine (Cinchona, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963) has been used in Western medicine as bitter stomachic. Quinine is a monoterpenoid quinoline alkaloids of indolic origin which suppresses the asexual cycle of the development of malaria parasites in the erythrocytes, and has been used as sulphate, bisulphate, hydrochloride or dihydrochloride to prevent and control overt attacks of...

Family Menispermaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Moonseed Family

Contain a toxic substance known as picrotoxin or cocculin. Picrotoxin is a mixture of picrotoxinin and picrotin. Picrotoxinin is a sesquiterpene specific GABAa receptor blocking agents which impede the GABAergic presynaptic inhibition of excitatory transmission of primary afferent neurones of the spinal cord (Fig. 38). Picrotoxin is toxic and as little as 20 mg induces epileptiform convulsions, myosis, and dyspnea with more or less prolonged apnea. Picrotoxin (British Pharmacopoeia, 1963), has been used in the treatment of barbiturate poisoning (3mg-6mg, intravenously) in Western medicine.

Letter from President Washington

Relics discovered in ancient pyramids indicate that Egyptian physicians prescribed medical marijuana for childbirth. The first recorded evidence of medical marijuana use appeared over 4,700 years ago in the pharmacopoeia of Shen Nung, one of the fathers of Chinese medicine. In Persia 2,700 years ago, the prophet Zoroaster wrote a sacred text listing 10,000 medicinal plants, with medical marijuana at the top

Rauvolfia serpentina Benth

Uses The roots of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. have been used in Ayurvedic medicine since ancient times to expel intestinal worms, heal ulcers and to counteract snake-poisoning. A decoction of the roots is used to increase uterine contraction in childbirth. In Konkan, the roots mixed with Aristolochia indica L. are chewed to treat cholera. The roots mixed with 2 parts of root bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb.) Wall. and 3 parts of Jatropha curcas and milk is drunk to treat colic. A mixture consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees, ginger and black salt is used to combat fever. In Bombay, most of the laborers from the southern Konkan keep a small amount of roots of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. to assuage painful discomfort of the bowels, such as colic, biliousness, cholera, dysentery and intestinal worms. The plant has been used in Western medicine to combat fever, calm the mind and to aid abortion. Rauwolfia (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963) consists of the dried roots of...

Family Rutaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Rue Family

Pharmaceutical interest To the family Rutaceae belong several fruit trees and countless medicinal plants. Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (lemon), Citrus auran-tium L. (sour orange), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (sweet orange), and Citrus aurantifolia (Chaistm.) Swingle (lime), the oil of which is aromatic and of pharmaceutical value as a flavoring agent. The oil obtained by mechanical means from the fresh peel of the fresh orange Citrus sinensis (Orange oil, Oleum Aurantii, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963) has been used as a flavoring agent and in perfumery. Bergamot oil (Oleum Bergamottae, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1949), obtained by expression from the fresh peel of the fruit of Citrus bergamia, has been used in perfumery in preparations for the hair (Cologne Spirit or Spiritus Coloniensis). Lemon oil (Oleum Limonis, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963), obtained by expression of fresh lemon peel (Citrus limon, Citrus limonia, Citrus medica), is carminative and used as a flavoring...

Cnidium officinale Ligusticum chuanxiong

The rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. has also been used in TCM for the same applications as C. officnale. L. chuanxiong inhibited platelet activation in bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCAo) in rabbits and corrected the TXA2-PGI2 imbalance in plasma after cerebral ischemia 85 . L. chuanxiong reduced cell damage-formation of peroxidation products after bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries in rats 86 . Tetramethylpyrazine, a drug originally isolated from the rhizome of L. chuanxiong, has been used routinely in China for the treatment of stroke and angina pectoris. Tetramethylpyrazine has therapeutic potential for the treatment of dementia caused by cholinergic dysfunction and or decrease of cerebral blood flow. Tetramethylpyrazine pretreatment showed a neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia in gerbils 87 .

Alexander Hamilton October 14 1791

By the turn of the century, England was on the cutting edge of Western medicine. Sir William Osier, then the world's most renowned doctor, hailed medical marijuana as the best remedy for migraines. Sir Russell Reynolds gave medical marijuana to Queen Victoria for PMS and other ailments. Writing about medical marijuana in the first edition of the British medical journal The Lancet, Reynolds said it's one of the most valuable medicines we possess. Ironically, Queen Elizabeth would get locked away in the Tower of London today for seeking relief with medical marijuana.

Medical And Psychological Applications Of Ayahuasca

But even from the point of view of Western medicine and psychotherapy it is clear from the literature and from the stories recounted in this volume, that remarkable physical healings and resolutions of psychological difficulties can occur with this medicine. Early in the twentieth century an extract of the vine was used successfully in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, a possible application that has not to date been followed up. There have been ancedotal accounts of the complete remission of some cancers after one or two sessions with ayahuasca. Since these occurred with ayahuasca in the context of traditional healing ceremonies, it is impossible to separate out the pharmacological effect from the psychosocial and shamanic elements. Further study of such cases and cures is surely warranted.

Farsi una pera Italian colloquial term for a

Feng-Feng Siler divaricatum, medical plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. In higher doses it gives hallucinations. The active substances are not fully known. Fenilcal Phenobarbital calcium. Fenilcaletas Phenobarbital calcium. Fenildimazona Normethadone. Fenilidate Methylphenidate. Fenilidato Methylphenidate. Fenilisohidantoina Pemoline. Fenilona Pemoline or Pemoline magnesium. Fenilpiperona Dipipanone. Fenilpseudohidantoina Pemoline. Fenisec Fenproporex hydrochloride. Fenkamfamin Fencamfamin. Fenmetrac Phenmetrazine. Fenmetracina Phenmetrazine. Fenmetralin Phenmetrazine. Fenmetrazin Phenmetrazine. Fenobarbital Phenobarbital. Fenobarbital, -e Phenobarbital. Fenobarbitaletas Phenobarbital. Fenobarbiton Phenobarbital. Fenobarbitoon Phenobarbital. Fenobel Phenobarbital. Fenobelladine Drug containing more than

Special hazards of smoked cannabis

Traditionally the use of cannabis both in Oriental and Western medicine involved taking the drug by mouth, but most current use in the West involves the inhalation of cannabis smoke. Unfortunately, although smoking is a remarkably efficient means of delivering an accurately gauged dose of THC it also carries special hazards. Although THC itself appears to be relatively safe, the same cannot be said of marijuana smoke.

Ancient Systems of Medicine 231 Traditional Indian Medicine

Ayurveda, perhaps the most ancient of all medicine traditions, is probably older than traditional Chinese medicine. The origin of Ayurveda is lost in prehistoric antiquity, but its characteristic concepts appear to have matured between 2500 and 500 BCE in ancient India. The earliest references to drugs and diseases can be found in the Rigveda and Atharvaveda, dating back to 2000 BCE. Atharvaveda, comprised of 6599 hymns and 700 prose lines, is considered as the forerunner of Ayurveda.

Bacopa monniera Wettst

An ancient Ayurvedic remedy, Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae), also known by the synonym Hydrocotyle asiatica L., is reputed to restore youth, memory and longevity 148 . In Sanskrit, and commonly as an herbal product, it is known as 'gotu kola'. An Ayurvedic formulation composed of four herbs including C. asiatica, is used to retard age and prevent dementia, and the herb combined with milk is given to improve memory 149 . In TCM C. asiatica has been used for various disorders, such as traumatic diseases, and for combating physical and mental exhaustion 150, 151 . The essential oil from C. asiatica leaf contains monoterpenoids, including bornyl acetate, a-pinene, (P-pinene and y-terpinene 150, 152 , all of which are reported to inhibit AChE 153-155 . However, monoterpenoid AChE inhibitors are weak compared to the anti-ChE alkaloid, physostigmine 154 . In view of the relatively weak anti-ChE activity of monoterpenoids reported to date, it is unlikely that they would be...

Enuresil Amfetamine sulfate Enuretine Phenobarbital Environmental Tobacco Smoke

When administered orally, and its effects persist for several hours, in contrast to the shorter-acting norepinephrine. Since the 1920s synthetic ephedrine has been used in Western medicine as a bronchodilator and nasal decon-gestant and in controlling urinary incontinence. When its longer duration of action is desirable, ephedrine replaces epinephrine in non-emergency treatment of allergic reactions. Its slow action renders it useless in arresting acute allergic attacks. Because of its stimulant effects, ephedrine must sometimes be used in combination with sedatives. Ephedrine is a common ingredient in look-alike amfetamines. Ephedro-noctal Phenobarbital and Se-cobarbital.

Family Brassicaceae G T Burnett 1835 nom conserv the Mustard family

Pharmaceutical interest Belonging to the Brassicaceae family are a very large number of vegetables, such as Brassica oleracea L. (cabbage), Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. (mustard) and Sinapis alba L. (radish). Cheiranthus cheiri L. (wallflower) and Lunaria rediviva L. (honesty) are ornamental plants. Isothio-cyanates irritate the skin and the mucosa and impart to Brassicaceae counter-irritant properties, hence the empirical use of mustard plasters in Western medicine. More recently, isothiocyanates have attracted a great deal of interest on account of their ability to boost the enzymatic activity of detoxification enzymes, including phase II enzyme, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase (QR), hence providing protection against cancer. One such isothiocyanate is 4-methylsulphinyl butyl isothiocyanate from broccoli which promotes the anticarcinogen marker enzyme quinone reductase in murine hepatoma Hepacells. Armoracia rusticana (horseradish) and Raphanus raphanistrum (wild...

Family Polygonaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Buckwheat Family

Pharmaceutical interest Classical examples of Polygonaceae are Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. (buckwheat, bie noir), which is used in Brittany (France) to make delicious flat cakes, and Rheum raponthicum L. (garden rhubarb). A striking feature of Polygonaceae is the presence of both lan-thraquinone glycosides and tannins, the prepon-derancy of which will result in either laxative or and antidiarrheal properties. For instance, the rhizomes of Rheum palmatum L. var. tanquticum Maxim. and Rheum officinale H. Bn. are laxative but in small doses the same rhizomes can stop diarrhea. Polygonum bistorta L., a tanniferous Polygonaceae, is used to stop diarrhea in Western medicine. Anthraquinone glycosides are laxative because they irritate the bowels and inhibit the active transfer of ions through the intestinal membranes. Anthraquinone glycosides decrease the resorption of water, sodium ions and chlorine ions by blockade of the sodium potassium ATPase. Of recent interest is the discovery of...

Family Gentianaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Gentian Family

Pharmaceutical interest Sabatia angularis (American centaury), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. (European centaury), the dried fermented rhizome and root of Gentiana lutea L. (yellow gentian) (Gentian, British Pharmacopoeia, 1963) , Gentiana catesbaei, Gentiana macrophylla, Gentiana punctata, and Gentiana purpurea, have all been used in Western medicine to promote appetite. Their effectiveness is attributed to the presence of iridoid glucosides, which impart an intense bitterness to the drug. A classical iridoid glycoside in the Gentianaceae is gentiopicroside. The dried flowering tops of the common centaury Centaurium minus (Centaurium umbellatum, Erythraea centaurium) and other species of Centaurium (Petite Centauree, French Pharmacopoeia, 1965) have been used as a bitter tonic in the form of liquid extracts (1 in 1 dose2 mLto4mL)and infusions (1 in20 dose30mLto60mL). Centaurium beyrichii (rock centaury) and Centaurium calycosum (Buckley centaury) are poisonous to cattles. An interesting...

Family Solanaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom Conserv the Potato Family

Are used in Western medicine to treat intestinal colic, gastric ulcer, spasmodic asthma, whooping cough, bladder and urethral spasms, on account of hyoscyamine. Hyoscyamine is a parasympatholytic tropane alkaloid, which exerts a selective blocking action on muscarinic receptors, resulting in mydriasis, tachycardia, decreased production of saliva, sweat, gastric juice, constipation and the inability to urinate.

Superstar of the 19th Century

The 1839 report on the uses of cannabis by Dr. W.B. O'Shaugnessy, one of the most respected members of the Royal Academy of Sciences, was just as important to mid-19th Century Western medicine as the discoveries of antibiotics (like penicillin and Terramycin) were to mid-20th Century medicine.

Swertia chirayita Roxb Lyons

Uses In Burma Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Lyons is used to combat fever, invigorate the body and relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Malaysia, Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Lyons is used to combat fever. In India, Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Lyons is used to combat fever, expel intestinal worms, relieve the bowels of costiveness, promote the secretion of milk, resolve inflammation, heal ulcers, treat asthma, invigorate the body and assuage vomiting in pregnancy. A tincture of Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Lyons (Tincture of Chirata, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) prepared by percolating 10 g of the dried and flowering plant with alcohol (60 ) to 100 mL, has been used in Western medicine (dose 2mL-4mL) to promote digestion and appetite.

Family Ericaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Heath Family

Pharmaceutical interest Belonging to the family Ericaceae are numerous outdoor shrubs and rock-garden plants such as Rhododendron and Erica. Other examples of useful Ericaceae are Erica arborea L. (briar root wood) and Ledum groenlandicum Oeder (Labrador tea). A number of Ericaceae, including Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (Bearberry, French Pharmacopeia, 10th Edition), Arbutus unedo L. (arbousier), Chimaphila umbellata Nutt. (herbe a pisser), Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. (Scotch heather) L. and Erica cinerea L. (twisted heath) are used in Western medicine to promote urination and to treat urinary tract infections. This property is attributed to phenol glycosides such as arbutin, the precursor of hydroquinone. Note that hydroquinone inhibits the synthesis of melanin and has been used more or less successfully to bleach the skin. Gaultheria procumbens L. (tea berry) is the source of wintergreen oil which is rich in methyl salicylate. The berries of Vac-cinium myrtillus or...

The Lily botanical family Liliaceae

The genus Colchicum (Colchicum L.) produces colchicine. Stereoidal alkaloids in this family are found in the Hellebore genus (Veratrum Bernch.). Jervine, cyclopamine (Figure 18), cycloposine, protoveratrine A and protover-atrine B yield Veratrum album. O-acetyljervine has been reported in the false hellebore (Veratrum lobelianum Bernch.)136. Four new steroid alkaloids (puqie-nine A, puqienine B, N-demethylpuqietinone, puqietinonoside) have been isolated from Fritillaria species by Jiang et al.171 The bulbs of these plants have been used as an antitussive and expectorant in folk Chinese medicine. All four new alkaloids have been reported to display the antitussive activity on

Medicinal Plants A Renewable Resource for Novel Leads and Drugs

Abstract Present-day drug development is strongly focused on finding active compounds on well-defined targets using high throughput screening approaches. Unfortunately it seems that this approach is becoming less and less successful, as in most cases already good compounds are on the market, and the rapidly rising costs of drug development will make it increasingly difficult to make an economically competitive novel drug for any major disease. In other words, the reductionist approach presently used is becoming less successful. The time has come to rethink drug development. Many Western medicines are based on traditional knowledge from Europe and the Mediteranean region. This is why interest is rapidly increasing in Indian and Chinese medicine, both of which represent a very long tradition of apparently safe use. However, these healthcare systems are different from Western medicine, so novel methods are required to verify the efficacy and safety of the therapies. As it often concerns...

Human Hepatitis B Virus HBV

In a recent investigation, a group of natural products from medicinal herbs used in TCM was assayed for their anti-HBV-activity 131 . Among them, artemisinin and, in particular, its semisynthetic derivative artesunate displayed the most interesting properties. Moreover, their interest is enhanced by the existence of synergic effects with lamivudine in the absence of drug-induced toxicity in host cells, which may be an important characteristic due to the frequent problem in clinical practice of infection by lamivudine-resistant HBV strains. After being used in TCM for two millennia, one of the gems of TCM's treasure box has been rediscovered in recent years. Artemisinin is certainly one of the most promising natural products of the past two decades. With respect to malaria, it has great potential to contribute to a change in the desperate situation that the world faces. Fortunately, the value of this molecule is not limited to the treatment of malaria, and a wealth of papers has been...

Styrax benzoin Dryand

Eucalytpus Leaves Watercolour

Uses Benzoin or the resin obtained by bruising then tapping the bark of Styraxbenzoin Dryand. has long been used in Asian medicine. It is used to treat stroke, invigorate health after labor, assuage pain in the heart and abdomen, counteract putrefaction, promote libido and heal hemorrhoids. Benzoin contains a large amount of free benzoic acid and cinnamic acid.

The History Of Cannabis As Medicine

The history of the medical use of cannabis dates back to 2700 B.C. in the pharmacopoeia of Shen Nung, one of the fathers of Chinese medicine. In the west, it has been recognized as a valued, therapeutic herb for centuries. In 1823, Queen Victoria's personal physician. Sir Russell Reynolds, not only prescribed it to her for menstrual cramps but wrote in the first issue of The Lancet, When pure and administered carefully, it is one of the of the most valuable medicines we possess. (Lancet 1 1823).

Pharmaceutical potential

Quassinoids and limonoids A classical example of ornamental Sima-roubaceae is Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (tree of heaven). Quassinoids and limonoids impart to Simaroubaceae an intense bitterness used in Western medicine to promote digestion and appetite. Quassia amara L. (Surinam quassia) has been used as a bitter tonic. The dried stem wood of Picrasma excelsa (Aeschrion Excelsa, Picraena excelsa) was used (infusion 1-20 in cold water) to promote digestion, stimulate appetite, expel intestinal worms, and treat pediculosis (Quassia, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1973). A decoction or infusion (1 in 20) of the dried root bark of Simaruba amara (Simaruba officinalis) has been used to stimulate appetite, and to curb diarrhea (Simaruba, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934).

Strophanthus caudatus Burm f Kurz

The seeds of Strophan-thus kombe contain 7 -10 of a mixture of cardiac glycosides, known as strophantin K (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1954). It has an action on the heart similar to that of digitalis, but it is absorbed more rapidly and is less cumulative. The dried seeds of Strophanthus kombe have been used in Western medicine to make a cardiotonic remedy (Strophanthus extract, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934), to be taken orally at doses ranging from 15mg-60mg. Other examples of Strophanthus species of pharmaceutical value are Strophanthus gratus and Strophanthus sarmentosus, the seeds of the former containing 4 -8 of ouabain.

Conclusions

To overcome environmental, toxic, and contamination problems like pesticides, heavy metals, microbial, toxins, control measures need to be introduced to implement necessary standard operating procedures, as are applied for foods and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as GAPs and GSPs at source. GLPs and GMPs are also needed to produce quality medicinal products. The quality of herbal medicines can also be related to regulatory practises 6 . The WHO guidelines for herbal medicine should be strictly implemented and monitored by the concerned regulatory agency. Most traditional medicinal herbs are used in the form of an aqueous decoction. Therefore scientific data should be generated on the development of analytical and biological procedures for use to give quality assurance and control and clinical assessment of efficacy and safety of these products. There is still a need for more scientific evaluation of Asian herbal medicines including their active constituents, synergistic...

Reishi

Reishi has many uses in traditional Chinese medicine, including ED. In a study in China of 60 men with ED, there was a significant benefit after drinking a decoction made using fruit bodies of a member of the Ganoderma family for 1 month 48 . Only 4 patients reported no improvement 17 patients reported slight improvement 25 men claimed marked improvement in their sexual function, and 14 men reported that they were cured. No other drugs were taken during the period of the study 48 .

Summary

For centuries, East Asian people have used traditional herbs or functional foods as folk medicine to treat or prevent diseases, long before the introduction of Western medicine. Although Western medicine is often effective in curing acute diseases, it is not necessarily applicable to the prevention of diseases.

Sedum bulbiferum

Pharmaceutical potential The pharmacological potential of Sedum bulbiferum Mak. remains unexplored til to date. The plant is however known to contain pelletierine (Henk T et a ., 1996), a piperidine alkaloid also found in Punica granatum L. which has a specific action on tapeworms. Preparations from Punica granatum L. (family Punicaceae, order Myrtales, and subclass Rosidae) were used in Western medicine (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911) in doses of 3 to 5 decigrams to expel worms from the intestines.

Tamarindus indicus L

Uses The pulp is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness, lower body temperature and quench thirst. The bark is astringent. In Vietnam, the heart wood is used to treat liver disorder, stimulate appetite, promote urination and relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Indonesia, an oil prepared from the pods is used to soothe sprue and irritated skin, heal wounds and boils and to cause an abortion. Tamarind jams are used in Western medicine as laxative remedies.

Abrus precatorius L

Uses In Burma, the roots of Abrus precatorius L. are used to relieve cough and to adulterate liquorice. In China, the seeds are used to induce vomiting, relieve the bowels of costiveness, expel intestinal worms, stimulate the secretion of sweat, and promote expectoration. In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves and roots is drunk to relieve cough. In Vietnam, a decoction of about 10 g of the roots, stems and leaves is drunk to treat fever, coryza and jaundice, relieve cough, and counteract poisoning. The seeds are used to treat infected skin, mastitis and galactophoritis, heal boils and soothe inflammation. A number of Asian women living in UK use the seeds to abort a pregnancy, even though these seeds are poisonous. Note that the seeds of Abrus precatorius L. were officially used in Western medicine (Abrus, British Pharmaceutica Codex, 1934).

Ibogaine

This drug comes from roots of an equatorial African rainforest shrub called Tabernanthe iboga. Traditionally the natural product has been used in low doses as a mild stimulant, rather like coca or areca nut, to fight hunger, thirst, and weariness and also to improve confidence. The natural product's active ingredient ibogaine was found in 1901. Its stimulant qualities gave it a potential role in Western medicine as a means of treating nervous exhaustion and generally helping sick persons recover from worn-down states. The drug was also viewed as a treatment for influenza and for illness caused by microscopic animals called Trypanosmatina protozoa. None of those applications received wide use. Ibogaine is, however, used as an aphrodisiac and has also seen illicit duty as a performance-enhancing substance in athletics.

Padma 28 831 Plants

In the European medical tradition, an herbal preparation often consists of one or two herbal drugs or preparations made out of them (i.e. mostly extracts). Nevertheless, fixed combinations are known which can contain preparations of up to five to nine herbal drugs and have shown their clinical efficacy 66, 67 . In other medical traditions like Tibetan Medicine or TCM, combination preparations with up to 15 or 20 herbal drugs are used. Padma 28 (synonym Padmed Circosan) is such a fixed combination of Tibetan origin and contains 20 herbal drugs, a mineral and an essential oil (Table 8.2). On the one hand it would exceed the space limitations of this chapter to give an overview of all the herbal drugs of this preparation. On the other hand the daily dosages of the single herbal drugs combined in Padma 28 are far below the recommended effective daily dosage if each herbal drug would be used alone (Table 8.2). Thus one comes to realize that combination preparations like Padma 28 are...

Ralph Metzner PhD

The introduction of shamanic practices and knowledge associated with a powerful rain forest hallucinogen into Western culture in our time raises profound and challenging questions. I would like to address, if not answer, at least three of them (1) what are the most valuable and useful applications of ayahuasca in the context of Western medicine and psychology (2) what is the worldview or cosmology that is revealed by the shamanic ayahuasca visions, and how does it differ from the modern Western worldview and (3) what is the significance of the resurgence of entheogenic shamanism at this particular time in the history of Western civilization

Embelia ribes Burm f

Images Embelin Seeds

Uses The seeds of Embelia ribes Burm. f. are eaten to expel intestinal worms in several Asian countries. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, the seeds are used to expel intestinal worms. The dried leaves are used to heal pimples and boils. In India, the seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to expel intestinal worms. Embelia (British pharmaceutical Codex, 1934), or the dried fruits which must contain about 2.5 of embelin, was used to expel intestinal worms (dose 4g-16g 60-240 grains) in Western medicine.

Acalypha indica L

Uses Acalypha indica L. is principally used to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to expel intestinal worms. The fresh or dried entire flowering plant (Acalypha, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) was used in Western medicine to promote expectoration and to induce vomiting, in a way similar to ipecacuanha in the form of a liquid extract (1 in 1, dose 0.3 mL to 2 mL) or a tincture (1 in 8, dose 2 mL to 4 mL). In Malaysia, a decoction of the whole plant is drunk to expel intestinal worms. A decoction of the roots is drunk to treat asthma, pneumonia and rheumatism. In the Philippines, the juice expressed from the plant is used to promote expectoration and to induce vomiting. In Vietnam, the leaves are used to expel intestinal worms and the roots to relieve the bowels of costiveness. Note that the young shoots are often used as vegetables.

Ephedrine

Although natural products containing the drug have a long history, ephedrine was not isolated from ma huang until the 1880s. Ephedrine is found in other plants as well. It can be refined from plants or synthesized in a laboratory. Despite ma huang's familiar use as a medicinal herb, Western medicine did not accept ephedrine until the 1920s. Ephedrine has found usage in standard medicine, alternative medicine, and recreation. Responding to a survey, 14 companies reported they sold the equivalent of 425 million individual doses in 1995, 976 million in 1997, and 3 billion in 1999.

The Crackdown

One reason the medical establishment had such a difficult time coping with the psychedelic evidence was that LSD could not be evaluated like most other drugs. LSD was not a medication in the usual sense it wasn't guaranteed to relieve a specific symptom such as a cold or headache. In this respect psychedelics were out of kilter with the basic assumptions of Western medicine. The FDA's relationship with this class of chemicals became even more problematic in light of claims that LSD could help the healthy. Most doctors automatically dismissed the notion that drugs might benefit someone who was not obviously ailing.

Toad venom

The dried venom of the Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargar-izans) is one of the ingredients of the traditional Chinese medicine kyushin. It has been used as an aphrodisiac and contains the bufadienolides bufalin and cinobufaginal, which are structurally related to cardenolides, such as digoxin, and create the false impression of high plasma digoxin concentrations (54). Digoxin Fab fragments have therefore been used to treat toad venom poisoning (55). The Chinese medicine Ch'an su, which is derived from dried toad venom, also contains bufalin and cinobufagi-nal, and has repeatedly been linked with serious, even fatal, cardiotoxicity (59).

Bear bile

Bear bile contains bile acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phos-phatidylinositol). It has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat liver and eye complaints and convulsions, and, in combination with curcuma and capil-laris, gallstones and cholecystitis. More recently it has been touted as a treatment for stroke on the basis of animal experiments. It has few or no adverse effects, but by the same token probably has little or no efficacy, although it does contain ursodeoxycholic acid, which in purified form is effective in managing gallstones.

Plant Extracts

In the late nineteenth century, the main treatment for leprosy was chaulmoogra, extracted from Hydnocarpus seeds. Chaulmoogra was a traditional treatment for skin diseases in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine and, although once used as the treatment for leprosy worldwide, is now nearly forgotten 14 . Gotu kola (Centella asiatica) is an important herb in Ayurvedic medicine, often mentioned in combina In Western medicine during the middle of the twentieth century, gotu kola and its alcoholic extract showed positive results in the treatment of leprosy 15 . The plant and its extract contain asiaticoside - an active principle of C. asiatica, in which a trisaccharide moiety is linked to the aglycone asiatic acid.

Jatropha curcas L

Jatropha Curcas Latex

Uses The oil expressed from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. (Oleum Infernale) was formerly used in Western medicine to relieve the bowels of costiveness, to treat bleeding, and to heal wounds. In Burma, the seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Indonesia, the latex is used to alleviate itchiness, control bleeding, and treat eczema and ringworms. In the Philippines, the oil expressed from the seeds is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness and the latex, to assuage toothache. The plant is also used to treat cough and to stop diarrhea. In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, Jatropha curcas L. is used to facilitate abortion, alleviate itchiness and heal ulcers. In Malaysia, the latex is used to treat bleeding and heal wounds.

Horny Goat Weed

Horny goat weed (Epimedium brevicornum) is also known as Yin Yan Huo and has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat disorders such as dementia, fatigue, ED and arthralgia 31 . It is derived from a leafy plant that is native to Asia and the Mediterranean.

Safety Data

Overdosing of the Chinese remedy Jin Bu Huan containing large amounts of tetrahy-dropalmatine 105 . A 6-month-old infant suffered garlic burns when his father applied crushed garlic cloves to the wrists 106 , while a 6-year-old child developed a necrotic ulcer on her foot after her grandmother applied crushed garlic under a bandage as a remedy for a minor sore 107 . Two cases of serious or fatal toxicity have been described in two infants who had been given 90 to 120 ml of mint tea containing pennyroyal oil for colic and minor ailments 108 . A case of methe-moglobinemia in a 5-week-old infant treated with a gum asafetida preparation has been reported 5 . In a study carried out in two hospitals in South Africa, 20 children were diagnosed with hepatic veno-occlusive diseases, and pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning was suggested as the cause of the problem, confirmed from the presence of these alkaloids in the urine samples of four subjects 109 . The case of a 13-year-old child with...

Mittel

Trying to find a foothold from which to wrest India from the British, Napoleon led his troops and a contingent of scientific observers into Egypt in J 798. There, a whole army of Frenchmen turned on with hashish. French doctors in North Africa learned about the medical value of cannabis, and j.j . Moreau de Tours invented modern psychopharmacolog and psychotomimetic drug treatment with studies on datura aDd hashish (1845). India was the choicest assignment for young British officers, and many, like Robert Clive, first governor of Bengal, became opium addicts. A bright young surgeon, William B. O'Shaughnessy, introduced cannabis to Western medicine (1839) and the telegraph to India. Questions were put in PajJiament about opium and cannabis, culminating in the first massive modern government investigations of drugs (for example, the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report in 1894). Meanwhile, scholars busied themselves studying the Vedas and discovered that their ancestors were linked to...

Ginkgo biloba L

In Europe, leaf preparations of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) were used for the treatment of circulatory disorders in the 1960s, and they are now a popular herbal remedy with a reputation for alleviating memory problems. In Iran, G. biloba has been used traditionally to improve memory associated with blood circulation abnormalities 249 . The use of G. biloba in TCM dates back for centuries, and the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005) includes G. biloba seeds as a remedy for cough and asthma and to reduce leukorrhoea and urination 237 . In TCM a prescription prepared from Huperzia serrata (Thunb.) Trevis. (Lycopo-diaceae) has been a treatment for memory loss 298, 299 . Of the alkaloids isolated from H. serrata, huperzine A (36) has been extensively studied for pharmacological and clinical effects in relation to treatment of cognitive disorders. In TCM, the bark of the root and stem of Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E.H.Wilson (Magnoliaceae) has been used as a...

Chan Su

Traditional Chinese medicines are readily available without prescription in local Chinese herbal stores. One such Chinese medicine is Chan Su, which is prepared from the dried white secretion of the auricular glands and the skin glands of Chinese toads (Bufo melanostictus Schneider or Bufo bufo gargarzinas Gantor). Chan Su is also a major component of traditional Chinese medicines Liu-Shen-Wan and Kyushin (79, 80). These medicines are used for the treatment of such disorders as tonsillitis, sore throat, and palpitation. Traditional use of Chan Su given in small doses also includes stimulation of myocardial contraction, anti-inflammatory effect, and analgesia (81). The cardiotonic effect of Chan Su is due to its major bufadienolides such as bufalin (Fig. 1), cinobufagin, and resibufogenin (82). Bufalin is known to block vasodilatation and increases vasoconstriction, vascular resistance, and blood pressure by inhibiting Na, K-ATPase (83). Fushimi and Amino (84) reported a serum digoxin...

Dysosma pleianthum

Dysosma pleianthum (bajiaolian), a species of May apple, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine rich in podo-phyllotoxin. It has been widely used in China for thousands of years as a general remedy and for the treatment of snake bite, weakness, condyloma accuminata, lymphadenopathy, and tumors.

Chinese Herbs

Chinese Herbs

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