Common everyday illnesses, and disorders ranging from head colds and influenza to toothache and headache. Their greatest use is by consumers who obtain them directly at the pharmacy, and in many countries outside pharmacies as well. Perhaps this wide availability and advertising via mass media lead to a lack of appreciation by the lay public that these are medicines with associated adverse effects. Both have at any rate been subject to misuse and excessive use, leading to such problems as chronic salicylate intoxication with aspirin, and severe hepatic damage after overdose with paracetamol. Both aspirin and paracetamol have featured in accidental over-dosage (particularly in children) as well as intentional overdosage.
Uses In China and Japan, the bark is used to cool, to expel intestinal worms, to counteract putrefaction and to check menorrhagia. A decoction of the stem and roots is used to wash the eyes. In Vietnam, a decoction of the plant is used to wash the eyes and to treat dental caries.
Uses In Indonesia a decoction of Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. is drunk to stop dysentery and diarrhea. In Malaysia, the plant is used to heal wounds and applied to painful areas. A decoction of 30 g of the whole plant is drunk by Malays to stop dysentery, relieve the bowels of costiveness, treat jaundice, fever, urinary tract infection, tuberculosis and peptic ulcer, resolve sore throat and intestinal inflammation, and to mitigate toothache. In Taiwan, Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. is used to treat kidney diseases and haemoptysis, and to fight depression.
A tropical aphrodisiac compounded from the dried venom of toads has been found to contain bufotenine. A traditional Chinese medicine called Chan Su is rubbed on a spot of the body to numb the area and is also used for heart ailments and to fight nosebleeds Chan Su is prepared from toads and contains bufotenine. Other toad venom preparations have been used to relieve toothache, to help bleeding gums, to promote urination, and to help people cough up phlegm.
Acute pain is a set of unpleasant and emotional experiences often culminating in behavioral responses. Acute pain is, invariably, produced by disease, injury, noxious chemicals, or some physical stimulation (e.g., heat). Much of our knowledge about acute pain has been acquired from studies of experimentally induced pain in laboratory animals or even human volunteers. Clinical situations such as acute dental pain, the pain of parturition, and many postsurgical situations have also been an impetus to research.
The drug was first isolated from coca plants in the mid-1800s. Cocaine apparently functions as an insecticide in the plants, but the substance has had no commercial agricultural use for that purpose. Early medical applications included administration to treat addiction to alcohol and opiates, but persons addicted to those drugs did not better on cocaine. Like many stimulants, cocaine has anorectic (weight-reducing) properties that decline as usage stretches over time but the drug's main medical use has been as a local anesthetic, particularly in ear, nose, and mouth surgery. Experimental use as an antide-pressant has been unsuccessful. Cocaine has been used to treat tonsillitis, earache, toothache, burns, skin rash, hay fever, asthma, hemorrhoids, nerve pain, nausea, and vomiting. It makes the body's immune system more active. For medical purposes cocaine has been largely superseded by drugs having less potential for abuse, but it is still called an excellent anesthetic for nose...
With a toothache to the ringing of a telephone). In patients for whom the LSD experience was modified by administration of another drug, the increased sensory input produced by LSD may have been just enough to function as an annoyance, while not enough to compete successfully with the painful input.
Uses In Cambodia, the bark is used to promote menses and to treat chronic paludism with the enlargement of the spleen and liver discomfort. In Indonesia, the plant is used to stop diarrhea, treat diabetes and heal hemorrhoids. An infusion of the young leaves is drunk to treat beriberi. The leaf tips roasted with coconut are used to treat stomatitis. In Malaysia, the plant is used to treat malaria. The latex is used to assuage toothache. A decoction of the bark is drunk to combat fever, invigorate the body, stimulate appetite, and treat yaws. In Burma, the latex is used to heal ulcers. In India, the bark is used to promote milk secretion and to treat cancer. In the Philippines, the plant is used internally to combat fever, stop dysentry, heal wounds, and treat epilepsy. In Vietnam, the bark is used to treat chronic malaria with enlarged spleen, while the leaves are used to promote milk secretion. The bark of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. has been used in Western medicine (British...
The amphetamine-like effects of MDMA causes users to clench their jaws and grind their teeth for hours, resulting in serious dental problems. In a 1999 study conducted at a British facility specializing in drug-related medical problems, 60 percent of the Ecstasy users had worn their teeth through the enamel and into the underlying dentine. On average, the users reported taking Ecstasy about four times a month. (The dose was unknown.) Incorporating anecdotal evidence from users, the researchers hypothesize that the friction from clenching the teeth, along with an abrasive dry mouth (from the dehydrating effects of the drug), resulted in this extreme tooth wear. To preserve Ecstasy users' teeth, some dentists have prescribed orthodontic retainers for their patients. Many Ecstasy users suck on pacifiers to alleviate the sore jaws and teeth grinding that accompany its use. However, dentists caution that these pacifiers may add to an Ecstasy user's dental woes by exacerbating potential...
No social or cultural group is homogeneous. Within every group, some people know more about or are more interested in health issues than are other people. Often these people are recognized within their society as health professionals (e.g., shamans, acupuncturists, chiropractors, homeopathic practitioners, midwives, dentists, surgeons) with an elaborate medical knowledge and recognized set of beliefs and practices. Generally, people are pragmatic about treatment, seeking and using anything that provides relief, and people will change behavior around illness far more readily than they will change their underlying beliefs about the cause of the disorder. The more similar a patient and healer, in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, religion, education, occupational status, geographic location (e.g., rural versus urban setting), and socioeconomic class, the more likely they are to hold the same health beliefs and engage in mutually comprehensible behaviors (Galanti, 1991).
Datura also played an important role in native medicine. As among the Zuni and Aztecs, the plant was employed by Cahuilla shamans in the form of a paste or ointment as a highly effective pain killer in setting broken or dislocated bones, alleviating localized pain, and even relieving toothache. Depending on the effect desired, the Indians commonly used the root in a drink, generally smoked the leaves, and crushed both roots and leaves with other parts of the plant and mixed them into a medicinal paste.
This synthetic drug is related to testosterone. Stanozolol is used to combat hereditary angioedema, a disease causing body tissues to swell. The substance is also used to reduce weight loss from cancer or AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and has been used experimentally to improve physical activity of elderly persons and to enhance nutrition of surgery patients (a case report warns, however, that the substance may cause iron deficiency). Raynaud's disease, in which persons experience painful spasms of fingers and toes, has been combated with stanozolol, and the drug can improve a skin affliction called pityriasis rubra pilaris. Other skin conditions responsive to stanozolol treatment include hives and cryofibrinogenemia (a blood vessel blockage disorder that can also involve the heart and lungs). Using the drug to treat a very serious blood disease called aplastic anemia has yielded uncertain results. Itching from liver cirrhosis has been relieved with stanozolol....
While researching this book over the last 24 years, we talked with and questioned senators, legislators, judges, police, DAs, scientists, historians, Nobel Prize winners, dentists, and MDs. All knew little bits and pieces of the history and uses of cannabis, but virtually no one knew any depth about marijuana in its 360-degree entirety except long-term medical researchers, such as Ungerlieder, Mikuriya, et al and writers like Ed Rosenthal, Dean
Touting it as a nerve tonic, doctors began to prescribe tincture of marijuana for a variety of conditions. However, pharmacies posted a warning that large doses of this medicinal remedy were dangerous and considered narcotic (addictive). In addition, physicians found that cannabis stimulated the appetite. By 1887, dentists found hemp to be an excellent topical anesthetic for performing dental procedures on their patients. Cannabis was also found to be a powerful disinfectant.
Uses In China, the fruits of Xanthium strumarium L. are used to invigorate health, soothe inflammation, promote urination, combat fever, stop spasms, treat sinusitis, headache and to counteract putrefaction. In Korea, the fruits are used to treat rheumatism and to soothe inflamed parts. In Malaysia, Xanthium strumarium L. is used to counteract postnatal infection. In Vietnam, a decoction of 6 g-12 g of fruits of Xanthium strumarium L. is used to treat furonculosis, impetigo, rhinitis, urticaria, goiter, rheumatism, mycosis, heal ulcers, assuage cramp, toothache and headache, soothe sore throat, and to treat dysentery. In India, the entire herb is used to cool, to calm, to sweat, and to promote urination and the secretion of saliva. The leaves are used to treat malaria and the fruits are used to treat smallpox. The roots are used to treat cancer.
Pharmaceutical interest Mulberry (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934), consists of the ripe fruits of Morus alba L. which have been used to relieve the bowels of costiveness, to promote expectoration and as adjuvant in the form of syrup (Mulberry syrup, dose 2 mL-4 mL) prepared by dissolving sucrose in the expressed juice. The latex of Ficus species is often used to heal wounds, remove warts, assuage toothache, and to treat skin infection. This could be due to the fact that the latex often contains mixtures of papain-like proteases (ficin), which could be used therapeutically to expel worms or to resolve inflammation, and in the food industry to tenderize meat. The therapeutic potential of this large family is not fully known til to date. Prenylflavones and lectins of Moraceae represent an interesting reserve field of chemotherapeutic investigation and should be worth being assessed further for their cytotoxic and or antiviral properties. About 50 species of plants classified within...
Don is a counter irritant remedy. In Indonesia, the leaves and tubers are used to assuage pain on the joints and to heal wounds. In Malaysia and Papua New Guinea, the juice expressed from the plant is used to heal stings. In the Philippines, the dried petioles are heated and used to assuage toothache. In Taiwan, the tubers are pounded and used to soothe swollen parts. In Vietnam and Cambodia, the tubers are used to promote urination, to soothe inflamed parts, heal boils and to treat rheumatism, diseased palms and apoplexy.
Pharmaceutical interest To the family Rutaceae belong several fruit trees and countless medicinal plants. Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (lemon), Citrus auran-tium L. (sour orange), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (sweet orange), and Citrus aurantifolia (Chaistm.) Swingle (lime), the oil of which is aromatic and of pharmaceutical value as a flavoring agent. The oil obtained by mechanical means from the fresh peel of the fresh orange Citrus sinensis (Orange oil, Oleum Aurantii, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963) has been used as a flavoring agent and in perfumery. Bergamot oil (Oleum Bergamottae, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1949), obtained by expression from the fresh peel of the fruit of Citrus bergamia, has been used in perfumery in preparations for the hair (Cologne Spirit or Spiritus Coloniensis). Lemon oil (Oleum Limonis, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963), obtained by expression of fresh lemon peel (Citrus limon, Citrus limonia, Citrus medica), is carminative and used as a flavoring...
Uses Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz is used for its astringent property. In Burma, the flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz are used to stop dysentery and colic. In Indonesia, Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz is used to stop dysentery, heal wounds, promote urination, treat sprue, and to remove blood from urine. In Malaysia, the flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz are used to promote fertility and treat smallpox. In India, the plant is used to calm uterus contractions, expel intestinal worms, to quench thirst, assuage toothache, stop dysentery, heal hemorrhoids and counteract snake poisoning.
Uses In Indonesia, the roots of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) Burk. are used to counteract poison, treat lumbago, gravel, stop diarrhea and assuage abdominal discomfort. The latex is used to make arrow-poison. In Malaysia, an infusion of leaves is bechic.The pounded roots are used to treat eye diseases. When mixed with other ingredients, they are snuffed to heal syphilitic ulceration of the nose. In Vietnam, a decoction of the roots is used to combat fever. In India, the roots are used to treat biliousness and diseases of the blood. The plant is also used to promote menses, increase venereal desire, invigorate the body, relieve the bowels of costiveness, assuage pain as well as toothache.
Mild gastrointestinal disturbances are common. A common and nearly unique feature of all tetracyclines is the formation of drug-melanin complexes, resulting in pigment deposition at various sites. Except for enamel defects and presumable disturbances of osteogenesis these deposits do not give rise to abnormalities of organ function. In view of tooth discoloration and enamel hypo-plasia, with a tendency to caries formation, tetracyclines should be avoided in children under 8 years of age and in women after the third month of pregnancy. The risk of photosensitivity reactions largely depends on the dose of the drug and the degree of exposure to sunlight. It may be increased in long-term treatment. Skin, nail, and other organ pigmentation often occur, even with low-dose long-term treatment. The syndrome of fatty liver degeneration is rarely encountered today, because risk factors such as pregnancy are respected, and formulations with lower doses are available. Adverse effects can occur...
Infections of the oral cavity are often caused by overactivity of endogenous flora (e.g. dental caries) and also by primary pathogens (e.g. candidiasis). Typical disorders include viral infections such as Herpes simplex (cold sores) fungal infections such as oral thrush caused by the Candida albicans and other Candida species bacterial-induced infection such as gingivitis leading to periodontitis in some cases.
Uses In Indonesia, the sap of Homonoia riparia Lour. is used to strengthen loose teeth. In Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia, the leaves are used to assuage itchiness and to expel impurities. In Malaysia, the leaves and fruits of Homonoia riparia Lour. are used to treat skin diseases. In the Philippines, the leaves are applied externally to heal wounds inflicted by poisonous fish and the plant is also used to assuage toothache. In Thailand, the leaves are used to treat skin disease.The pharmacological potential of Homonoia riparia Lour. remains unexplored.
A very common and visible sign of long-term meth use is extreme tooth decay, also known as meth mouth. Users with meth mouth have blackened, stained, or rotting teeth, which often can't be saved. False teeth, dentures, and other dental products are normally reserved for older people who have lost their teeth. Many short-term meth users, including teens, are receiving this type of dental work to replace lost teeth. Some dentists have seen as significant a tooth loss in four-month meth users as those who have used meth for four years.
Calamagrostis (reed grass) Calamovilfa (sand reed) Calammophila (calammophila) Catabrosa (whorl grass) Cathestecum (false grama) Cenchrus (sandbur) Chasmanthium (wood oats) Chloris (windmill grass) Chrysopogon (false beard grass) Chusquea (chusquea bamboo) Cinna (wood reed) Cladoraphis (bristly love grass) Coelorachis (joint tail grass) Coix (Job's tears) Coleanthus (moss grass) Cortaderia (pampas grass) Corynephorus (club awn grass) Cottea (cotta grass) Crypsis (prickle grass) Ctenium (toothache grass)
Gold (Au) is a precious metal, meaning that even in ancient times people recognized that it has special properties and is extremely rare. The symbol Au comes from the Latin word aurum. Aside from its beautiful appearance, gold does not tarnish. Chemically this means that gold does not react with oxygen (O2) in the air, so it retains its lustrous appearance over time. Gold also does not react with water or many acids or bases, so it is extremely durable. For this reason gold is frequently used as a catalyst or for wiring in specialized instruments and devices in addition to its use in jewelry and currency. It is not known when people began to use gold as a sign of wealth, but it was mentioned in ancient Egyptian texts dating back nearly 3,000 years. Gold is soft and extremely malleable, which means that it can be hammered into very thin sheets. For making jewelry or coins, especially using ancient tools and techniques, this is an important property. Dentists also utilize gold for...
Uses In Indonesia, the wood of Schefflera elliptica (Bl.) Harms is used to assuage toothache. The pharmacological potential of Schefflera elliptica (Bl.) Harms remains unexplored. Note that the analgesic property of this plant is very probably due to the presence of saponins.
Pharmaceutical interest Many species of Aizoaceae are decorative and are cultivated as such. Some, notably from the genus Mesembryanthemum, have become naturalized in many parts of Europe. Examples of medicinal Aizoaceae are Galenia africana and Sceletium tortuosum, which are used in African indigenous medicine as a counter-irritant in the treatment of toothache. The counter-irritant property is due to crystals of oxalic acid which penetrate mucosa and skin. Oxalic acid is toxic. In the body, it combines with calcium ions to form calcium oxalate which precipitates in the kidneys. Mesembryanthemum crystalinum (ice plant) was considered a sure treatment for venereal diseases by the early cowboys of western North America. Kanna or Sceletium expansum and Sceletium tortuosum, have been used by South African shamans from prehistoric times to enhance animal spirits, sparkle the eyes, and to stimulate gaiety . The active constituent of kanna is a serotonine-like alkaloid called mesembrine...
Uses In Burma, the latex of Euphorbia antiquorum L. is used to remove warts and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In China, the plant is used to resolve inflammation and treat cholera. In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the latex is used to induce vomiting, promote urination and relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Indonesia, the latex is used relieve the bowels of costiveness, remove warts, resolve inflamed skin and assuage toothache.The pharmacological properties of Euphorbia antiquorum L. are known. One might set the hypothesis that the acridity of the latex is attributed to the complex phorbol diterpenoid esters.
Uses The resin of Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. is used externally to heal wounds and to counteract putrefaction in several Southeast Asian countries. In Cambodia, the bark is used to invigorate health, expel impurities, and to treat rheumatism and liver complaints, while the resin is used to heal ulcerated wounds. In India, the resin is used to treat gonorrhea. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, the resin is used to heal ulcerous sores and to treat blenorrhagia. In Thailand, the bark is used to invigorate health and to mitigate toothache, while the resin is used to heal the wounds of cattle. The resin is used for varnishing. To date, the pharmacological potential of Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. is unexplored.
Uses In Java, the stems and leaves are applied externally to counteract snake-poison. In Malaysia, the pounded leaves are applied to the gums or laid onto the hollow of teeth to assuage toothache. The roots are mixed with the kernel of Myristica fragrans Houtt. to make a protective postpartum medicine.
Chemotherapeutic properties One such compound is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate abrogates the survival of xenograft tumors (Sintippour MR et a ., 2001). Catechins of tea are bactericidal towards Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus which are responsible for dental caries (Hamilton-Miller JMT et a ., 2001).
Uses In China, Eriocaulon australe R. Br. is used to treat eye inflammation, sore throat, toothache, to clam, to combat fever and to promote urination. The pharmacological potential of Eriocaulon australe R. Br. and of the large genus Eriocaulon remains unexplored. Note that flavonoids, known to occur in the genus, might be involved in the anti-inflammatory property of the plant.
Uses In Indonesia, Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Bl.) Reichb. f. & Zoll. is used to alleviate itchiness, treat cough and assuage toothache. In the Philippines, the leaves are used to treat headache and promote sweating. The pharmacological potentials of Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Bl.) Reichb. f. & Zoll. are yet to be revealed.
The amnestic effects of benzodiazepines are pervasive and appear to derive from disruption of the consolidation of short-term into long-term memory (79). Amnesia appears to underlie the tendency of regular hypnotic users to overestimate their time asleep, because they simply forget the wakeful intervals (80) in contrast, the same patients underestimate their time spent asleep when drug-free. This amnestic property (SEDA-17, 42) (SEDA-19, 33) has been used to advantage in minor surgery, particularly with midazolam and other short-acting compounds (although male doctors and dentists are advised to have a chaperone present when performing benzodiazepine-assisted procedures with female patients). However, unwanted amnesia can occur, particularly with triazolam, when used as a hypnotic or as an aid for travelers (81,82). The combination of a short halflife and high potency, especially when it was used in the higher doses that were recommended when the drug was initially launched, makes...
Effects Licorice has been used to treat depression, as well as digestive, respiratory, kidney, and bladder ailments. In Japan, it has been used to treat chronic hepatitis B and C. It can also inhibit tooth decay, inhibit the growth of cancer in vitro and in mice, is helpful in the treatment of sore throats and coughs, and may aid in the treatment of Addison's disease. An extract, glycyrrhizin, has been used to treat such viruses as herpes zoster (shingles), herpes simplex 1, polio type 1, and vaccinia in vitro, and to inhibit HIV. Derivatives have also led to such drugs as Carbenoxolone, used in the treatment of various types of ulcers. Used by herbalists to treat allergies, asthma, chronic fatigue, emphysema, fever, hypoglycemia, and inflammation of the bowels.
Effects Magnesium provides energy aids in the metabolism of calcium and vitamin C enhances the immune system plays a key role in the chemical reactions of some 325 essential enzymes plays a role in the manufacture of DNA and RNA coding in cells and contributes to the formation and growth of cell membranes, nerves, muscles, and the heart. It protects against anxiety, calcium buildup in neurons (a common condition found in those with Alzheimer's), depression, diabetes, fatigue, insomnia (when combined with calcium), kidney stones and gallstones, poor memory, migraines, osteoporosis, heart disease, high blood pressure, tooth decay, the toxic effects of the heart drug digitalis, and in women the tension of PMS and postmenopausal bone loss. Most people may not get enough, and athletes should be especially aware of their intake, as exercise depletes the body of this nutrient. In combination with vitamins C and E and choline, it may prevent some of the side effects of vitamin A and D...
Well, particularly when installed, removed, or with gum chewing, yet the incidence of toxicity associated with dental amalgams is rare. Dentists and dental workers are at higher risk of exposure while working with the amalgams hygiene guidelines have been proposed to minimize this occupational exposure. Although mercury exposure in vaccine preparations has been proposed as a contributing factor in the increase of the incidence of autism, this hypothesis has not been substantiated (48-50).
Whether a fluoride supplement during pregnancy of about 1 mg day in tablet form (equivalent to about 2mg sodium fluoride), or ingested via fluoridated drinking water (about 1 mg l), actually reduces the incidence of caries in the baby is somewhat controversial. However, such fluoride prophylaxis does not appear to harm the fetus. Earlier suspicions regarding the possible toxic effect of regular fluoride on reproduction - for example, an increased rate of Down syndrome -is biologically implausible. Even high fluoride doses as a result of environmentally contaminated drinking water (above 10mg l) do not apparently cause any increase in birth defects. Prenatally induced fluorosis of the teeth and bones in the second half of pregnancy is theoretically possible, and has been described in individual cases after extreme continuous exposure, but would nol be expected after (as has occasionally happened) accidental intake of an osteoporosis preparation containing about 25 mg of fluoride.
Effects Stimulates, energizes, and in high enough doses, produces a psychedelic effect similar to LSD. It contains the substance asarone, which is similar to mescaline and amphetamines, but may not create the feeling of tension that amphetamines do. It is used by some to treat such ailments as asthma, bronchitis, diarrhea, fever, hangover, headache, and toothache. According to James A. Duke, Ph.D., the root can kill lice when ground into a powder and applied to the infected area.
Though it is an addictive psychoactive which some believe mimics the effects of marijuana, not much is known about its pharmacology and cognitive effects. Caffeine may account for some of its psychoactive properties, but some researchers state that most of its effects are attributable to theobromine, an alkaloid found in chocolate that is similar to caffeine but which does not have as strong an effect on the nervous system. Researcher Daniele Piomelli has found that chocolate contains anandamide, a natural chemical also found in the brain, which reacts the same way marijuana does it also contains two other ingredients that inhibit the natural breakdown of anandamide. Still, researchers agree that the high produced by chocolate is extremely mild in fact, researcher Christian Felder of the National Institute of Mental Health calculates that a 130-pound person would have to eat the equivalent of 25 pounds of chocolate in one sitting to get anything close to a marijuana high. Theobromine...
Professionals, such as anesthesiologists or dentists, carefully mix it with oxygen and use pharmaceutical-grade gas. Others get it how they can whippets, said to be fairly clean, or racing tanks, said to be technical-grade and to contain impurities. If you are fortunate enough to have a pharmaceutical tank, make the extra effort to get a scuba regulator. Whippets usually go into balloons.
In 1799 Sir Humphry Davy, British chemist and inventor, tried inhaling nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and discovered its anesthetic properties, but the implications of his findings for surgery were ignored. By the early 1840s parties had become fashionable in Britain and the United States at which nitrous oxide, contained in bladders, was passed around and inhaled for its soporific effect. It was soon found that ether, which could be carried much more conveniently in small bottles, was equally potent. In the United States several young dentists and doctors experimented independently with the use of nitrous oxide or ether to dull the pain of tooth extractions and other minor operations. In 1845, Horace Wells, an American dentist, attempted to publicly demonstrate the use of nitrous oxide anesthesia for dental extractions. Unfortunately, the demonstration was unsuccessful.
Due to the rampant medical and recreational consumption of cannabis by the 19th century, the Indian government solicited an investigation of the use of the hemp plant. After hearing testimony from numerous witnesses, including medical officers and private native medical practitioners, the resulting report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission of 1893-1894 (Commission, 1969) concluded Cannabis indica must be looked upon as one of the most important drugs of Indian Materia Medica . Although the drug was prescribed for a large number of medical afflictions, the report stated that one of the commonest uses is for the relief of pain including toothache, labor pain, dysmenorrhoea, neuralgia, stomach pain, headache, cramps, and neuralgia.
Uses The oil expressed from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. (Oleum Infernale) was formerly used in Western medicine to relieve the bowels of costiveness, to treat bleeding, and to heal wounds. In Burma, the seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Indonesia, the latex is used to alleviate itchiness, control bleeding, and treat eczema and ringworms. In the Philippines, the oil expressed from the seeds is used to relieve the bowels of costiveness and the latex, to assuage toothache. The plant is also used to treat cough and to stop diarrhea. In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, Jatropha curcas L. is used to facilitate abortion, alleviate itchiness and heal ulcers. In Malaysia, the latex is used to treat bleeding and heal wounds.
People in my profession, young doctors, lawyers, dentists, men in the executive suite. So it's not just kid stuff. Marijuana is today, in many parts of our-society, a respectable drug for recreational use. It's going lo come down to the proposition that an American has a right lo any substance he wishes so long as it doesn't harm others. High Times One of Ihe excuses for keepi ng grass illegal is lhal it causes fatal car accidents.
However, the Incan civilization of Peru, which arose around a.d. 1300, provides the earliest useful information about early coca use. For the Incas, coca was a symbol of royalty. Only male royalty, priests, and shamans were allowed to use the drug. Reports also suggest that coca was used to treat the sick and soothe pain from ailments such as toothache and malaria. Court orators used the drug so they could recount Incan history at a single sitting. It was also used during initiation rites for young men. Thus, coca use in Incan society was typically for medical or ceremonial purposes rather than as an intoxicant.
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