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Cytarabine: Cytarabine, 4-amino-1-/-arabinofuranosyl-2(1#)pyrimidone (30.1.3.8), is made from 1-/i-D-arabinofuranosyluracil by preliminary acylation of the hydroxyl group, forming a triacetyl derivative (30.1.3.6), and subsequent replacement of the carbonyl group at position 4 of the pyrimidine ring with a thiocarbonyl group using phosphorous pentachloride, and finally replacing the mercapto group of 30.1.3.7 with an amino group using ammonia and simultaneous hydrolysis of the acetyl-substituted groups, giving cytarabine (30.1.3.8) [34-38].

Cytarabine, like the drugs described above, also acts by inhibiting synthesis of pyrimidines and thus DNA in cells.

Cytarabine is an effective antimetabolite in treating leukemia. Like other pyrimidine antimetabolites, cytarabine must be "activated" by initially transforming into the corresponding nucleotide. The active form of the drug is cytarabine triphosphate. Cytarabine is used for all types of leukemia. Synonyms of this drug are cytosine, arabinoside, and ara-C.

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