Buspirone is an extremely specific drug that could possibly represent a new chemical class of anxiolytics—azaspirones. As an anxiolytic, its activity is equal to that of benzodi-azepines; however, it is devoid of anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties, which are characteristic of benzodiazepines. It does not cause dependence or addiction. The mechanism of its action is not conclusively known. It does not act on the GABA receptors, which occurs in benzodiazepine use; however, it has a high affinity for seratonin (5-HT) receptors and a moderate affinity for dopamine (D2) receptors. Buspirone is effective as an anx-iolytic. A few side effects of buspirone include dizziness, drowsiness, headaches, nervousness, fatigue, and weakness. This drug is intended for treatment of conditions of anxiety in which stress, muscle pain, rapid heart rate, dizziness, fear, etc. are observed; in other words, conditions of anxiety not associated with somewhat common, usual, and everyday stress. Synonyms for buspirone are anizal, axoren, buspar, buspimen, buspinol, narol, travin, and others.
Hydroxyzine: Hydroxyzine, 2-[2-[4-(p-chloro-a-phenylbenzyl)-1-piperazinyl]-ethoxy] ethanol (5.2.6), is synthesized by the alkylation of 1-(4-chlorobenzohydril)piperazine with 2-(2-hydroxyotoxy)ethylchloride [56-61].
Hydroxyzine is intended for the symptomatic treatment of anxiety and stress associated with neurosis as well as with conditions of organic illness. This drug has muscle relaxant, antihistimine, analgesic, local anesthetic, and antiemetic action as well as a wide therapeutic effect. It is mainly used in premedication and following general anesthesia, during which it potentiates the action of meperidine and barbiturates. It is frequently used in pediatrics as a mild sedative drug. Synonyms for hydroxyzine are atarax, agirax, durrax, vis-taril, and others.
Chlormezanone: Chlormezanone, 2-(p-chlorophenyl)-tetrahydro-3-methyl-4H-1,3-tiazin-4-on-1,1-dioxide (5.2.8), is synthesized by joint condensation of mercaptopropionic acid, methylamine, and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, evidently through the intermediate stage of formation of 4-chlorobenzylidenemethylamine, giving the aminothioacetal 2-(p-chlorophenyl)-tetrahydro-3-methyl-4H-1,3-tiazin-4-one (5.2.7). Oxidation of the sulfur atom using potassium permanganate gives chlormezanone (5.2.8) [62,63].
Chlormezanone improves the emotional state of the patient, relieving moderate anxiety and stress. However, it has a number of side effects, and because it does not have any advantage over other anxiolytics, it is rarely used in practice. Synonyms of this drug are trancopal, alinam, flexipirin, and others.
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