Propantheline: Propanetheline, N-methyl-N-(1-methylethyl)-N-[2-[(9H-xanthen-9-ylcarbonyl) oxy]ethyl]-2-propanaminium bromide (14.1.11), is synthesized by reacting xan-then-9-carboxylic acid chloride with 2-di-i.ro-propylaminoethanol, giving the ester (14.1.10), which upon reaction with methylbromide turns into the quaternary salt, propantheline (14.1.11) [12,13].

CO-O— CH2-CH2-N — CH3 Br" 14.1.11 CH(CH3)2

The pharmacological action of propantheline is qualitatively similar to atropine. It has a weaker effect on the CNS than atropine. Unlike atropine, it exhibits greater ganglioblock-ing action than antimuscarinic action. Moreover, upon overdose it causes neuromuscular curare-like blockage. It is used for treating stomach ulcers. Synonyms of this drug are norpant, propanthel, and robantalin.

Mepenzolate: Mepenzolate, 3-[(hydroxydiphenylacetyl)oxy]-1,1-dimethyl piperidinium bromide (14.1.13), is synthesized by esterification of benzilic acid with 1-methyl-3-chloropiperidine and subsequent reaction of the resulting ester (14.1.12) with methyl bromide [14,15].

Mepenzolate inhibits muscarinic action of acetylcholine on postganglionic parasym-pathetic effector regions. It is used in place of other drugs for treating stomach ulcers and inflammation of the intestine. Synonyms of this drug are cantil and eftoron.

Clidinium: Clidinium, 3-benzyloyloxy-1-methylcynuclidinium bromide (14.1.19), is synthesized by reacting 3-hydroxycynuclidine (14.1.17) with the of benzilic acid chloride producing the ester (14.1.18), which if further alkylated at the nitrogen atom by methylbromide, giving clidinium (14.1.19) [16].

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