Triazolam is the most frequently prescribed drug for insomnia. However, addiction to tri-azolam can develop very quickly, as can a number of other side effects such as early-morning insomnia, daytime anxiety, and others. Synonyms for this drug are normison, remstan, restoril, and others.
Temazepam: Temazepam, 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-ben-zodiazepin-2-one (4.2.7), is synthesized from the intermediate product of oxazepam synthesis,
7-chloro-5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodia- zepin-2-on-4-oxide (5.1.17), by methylation of the nitrogen of the amide group in the first position of the benzodiazepine ring using dimethylsulfate, which gives 1-methyl-7-chloro-5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-on-4-oxide (4.2.5), which undergoes acetylation by acetic anhydride, to give 1-methyl-3-acetoxy-7-chloro-5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1, 4-benzodiazepin-2-one (4.2.6) during which, a transformation like Polonovski reaction, obviously, takes place.
Alkaline hydrolysis of the resulting compound (4.2.6) removes the acetyl group, leading to the desired temazepam (4.2.7) [21-26].
Temazepam is a moderately effective hypnotic. Insomnia may again reappear upon completion of drug treatment. The most frequently used synonym for this drug is galcion.
Flurazepam: Flurazepam, 7-chloro-1[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one (4.2.14), has been synthesized in a multi-stage synthesis beginning with 2-amino-5-chloro-2'-fluorobenzophenone. Reacting this with bromoacetic acid chloride gives 2-(bromoacetyl)amino-5-chloro-2'-fluorobenzophenone (4.2.8), which on reaction with diethylamine gives 2-(diethylaminoacetyl)amino-5-chloro-2'-fluorobenzophenone (4.2.9). The reduction of both carbonyl groups by lithium-aluminum hydride gives 2-(2'-diethylamino)ethylamino-5-chloro-2'-fluoroben-zhydrol (4.2.10). The amino group of this product is acylated by phthalimidoacetyl chloride, giving a phthalimido derivative (4.2.11). Removal of the protective phthalimide group by hydrazine hydrate gives 2-(2'-diethylamino)ethylaminoacetyl)amino-5-chloro-2'-fluo-robenzhydrol (4.2.12). Treatment of this product with hydrobromic acid leads to intermolecular dehydration with ring closure to give a seven-member benzodiazepine cycle 7-chloro-1-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-1,4-benzo-diazepin-2-one (4.2.13). Finally, oxidation of the N4-C5 bond of the resulting 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoxyanone gives the desired flurazepam (4.2.14) [27-30].
Flurazepam is the most well-studied hypnotic. It is used for difficulties in sleeping or falling asleep, and frequent or early waking. Side effects are rarely observed. The most common synonyms are dalmadorm, dalmane, valdrom, felison, and others.
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