Capreomycin IA R = OH Capreomycin IB R = H
Capreomycin has a pronounced suppressive effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Most strains of Mycobacterium kansasii are also sensitive to kanamycin, while other, nontuberculous strains are not sensitive to it. It is often used upon necessity of using parenternal therapy through deep intramuscular injections. Capreomycin is less toxic than kanamycin and has somewhat more of a bacteriostatic effect. Synonyms of this drug are capromycin, capastat, ogostal, and others.
Kanamycin: Kanamycin, 0-3-amino-3-deoxy-a-D-glucopyranosyl-(1^6)-0-[6-deoxy-6-amino-a-D-glucopyranosyl-(1^4)]-2-deoxy-D-streptamine (32.4.6), is isolated from a culture fluid of the actinomycete Streptomyces kanamyceticus, which produces three antibiotics—kanamycins A, B, and C. It is described in Chapter 32.
Kanamycin A is similar to streptomycin and neomycines, and it possesses a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action. It is active with respect to most Gram-positive and Gramnegative microorganisms (staphylococci, colon bacillus, klebisella, Fridlender's bacillus, proteus, shigella, salmonella).
It is used to treat sepsis, meningitis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, pyelocystitis, infected wounds, and post-operational, purulent complications that are caused by microorganisms sensitive to this drug. Kanamycin is used to treat tuberculosis of the lungs and other organs upon resistance to other antituberculosis drugs. Synonyms of this drug are karmycin, kamaxin, resistomycin, and many others.
p-Aminosalicylic acid: ^-Aminosalicylic acid, 5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (34.1.22), is synthesized in a Kolbe reaction, which consists of direct interaction of m-aminophenol with potassium bicarbonate and carbon dioxide while heating at a moderate pressure of 5-10 atm [43-47].
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