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Streptomycin has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. It is effective with respect to most Gram-negative and a few Gram-positive bacteria; staphylococci, streptococci, pneu-mococci, gonococci, meningococci, stimulus of dysentery, brucellosis, tuberculosis, rabbit fever, plague, and others. It is used for various diseases caused by microorganisms that are sensitive to it in bacterial endocarditis, periotonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, gastric infections, and so on. Synonyms of this drug are streptan, streptocol, and others.

Neomycin: Neomycin is a complex mixture of antibiotics (neomycins A, B, C, D, E, and F), that is formed by the actinomycete S. fradiae. Neomycin A, also called neamine, is 2-deoxy-4-O-(2,6-diamino-2,6-dideoxy-a-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-streptamine (32.4.2), and it does not display antibiotic properties. At the same time, neomycin B, O-2,6-diamino-2,6-dideoxy-a-D-glucopyranosyl(1^4)-O-[O-2,6-diamino-2,6-dideeoxy-/-L-idopyra-nosyl-(1^3)-/-D-ribofuranosyl-(1^5)]-2-deoxy-D-streptamine (32.4.3), differs from neomycin A in the presence a second glycoside residue and exhibits powerful antibacterial activity. Neomycin C (32.4.4) differs from neomycin B in the orientation of the aminomethyl group in the neozamine part of the molecule [248-255].

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