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The spectrum of action and indications of use of cephradin are the same as with cephalexin. Synonyms of this drug are velosef, sefril, cefro, and others.

Cefadroxil: Cefadroxil, [6^-[6a,7/i(^)]]-3-methyl-8-oxo-7-[[amino(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetyl]amino]-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-2-carboxylic acid (32.1.2.14), is an analog of cephalexin and differs only in the presence of a hydroxyl group in the fourth position of the phenyl ring of phenylglycine, and is synthesized by a scheme analogous to the scheme of cephradin synthesis [90-96].

Cefadroxil has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action; it is active with respect to Grampositive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Like all of the other drugs described above, it acts as a bactericide by disrupting the process of restoring the membranes of bacteria. Synonyms of this drug are bidocef, cefadril, duracef, ultracef, and others.

Second-generation cephalosporins

Second-generation cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cefamandole, cefonicid, ceforanide) are characterized by more expressed activity with respect to Gram-negative bacteria in comparison with first-generation cephalosporins. They have high beta-lactam resistance, although they do not have a noticeable effect on enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, drugs belonging to the second-generation cephalosporins are cefoxithin, synthesized from cefamicin C, cefotetan, a semisynthetic derivative of organomycin G, and also cefaclor. Cefoxithin and cefotetan are used for mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections. Their unique chemical feature is the presence of an additional methoxy group in position C7 of the aminocephalosporanic acid fragment, and the unique chemical feature of cefaclor, the absence of a substituted group at position C3 of the aminocephalosporanic acid fragment is also characteristic of all cephalosporins.

Cefuroxime: Cefuroxime, (Z)-mono(O-methyloxim) (6^,7^)-7-[2-(2-furyl)glyoxylamido]-3-(hydroxymethyl)-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-2-carboxylic acid carbamate (32.1.2.18), is synthesized from 2-acetylfuran. Oxidizing this compound with nitrous acid gives 2-furylglyoxalic acid (32.1.2.15), which is reacted with methoxylamine to give the corresponding oxime, syn-2-methoxyamino-2-(2-furyl)acetic acid (32.1.2.16), which is then transformed into a mixed anhydride when reacted with oxaloyl chloride in diemethylfor-mamide, and then reacted with benzhydryl ester of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. The resulting product (32.1.2.17) undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis in an alkaline medium, in which the benzhydryl protection is not affected, and only the acetoxy group of the molecule at position C3 of the aminocephalosporanic acid is hydrolyzed. The resulting product with a free hydrox-ymethyl group (32.1.2.18) is reacted with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate, with intermediate formation of the corresponding N-chlorosulfonyl urethane (32.1.2.19), which is hydrolyzed by water to the urethane (32.1.2.20). Finally, removal of the benzhydryl protection using trifluo-roacetic acid gives the desired cefuroxime (32.1.2.21) [97-109].

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