Levimasole is also a drug of choice for ascardiasis. Numerous investigations show that a single dose of levamisole heals from 90 to 100% of patients with ascardiasis, in particular those infected with A. duodenale. It is less effective against ancylostomiasis and strongyloidiasis. However, it is not effective against N. americanus. It seems likely that it has a gangliostimulating effect on parasite tissues in both the parasympathetic and sympathetic regions. Moreover, it is presumed that this drug has an immunomodulatory effect on the host organism. Synonyms of this drug are decaris, solacil, ergamisol, tramisol, immunol, and others.

Niclosamide: Niclosamide, 2',5-dichloro-4'nitrosaicylanilide (38.1.34), is made by reacting 5-chlorosalicylic acid with 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline in the presence of phosphorus trichloride [38-40].

Niclosamide is a derivative of salicylamide and is an effective antihelmintic drug. Its action consists of inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in both mammals as well as in parasites. It simultaneously inhibits glucose and oxygen uptake by the parasite. In therapeutic doses, it has practically no pharmacological effect on the host organism. Niclosamide is effective against intestinal cestodes, such as Diphyllobothrium la-tum, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Dipilidium caninum, Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis diminuta, but it is ineffective against nematodes. It is effective in a single dose of 2 g. Synonyms of this drug are iomesan, iclocid, tredemine, and others.

Bephenium: Bephenium, 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoat benzyldimethyl(2-phenoxyethyl) ammonia (38.1.37), is made by reacting the sodium salt of 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid with benzyldimethyl(2-phenoxyethyl)ammonia chloride (38.1.36). This is in turn made from benzyl chloride and N-(2-phenoxyethyl)dimethylamine (38.1.35), which is synthesized by reacting sodium phenolate with 2-dimethylaminoethylchloride [41,42].

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