Verapamil possesses antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and hypotensive activity. It reduces the myocardial need of oxygen by reducing contractibility of the myocardium and slowing the frequency of cardiac contractions. It causes dilation of coronary arteries and increases coronary blood flow. It lessens tonicity of smooth musculature, peripheral arteries, and general peripheral vascular resistance. It expresses antiarrhythmic action in supraventricu-lar arrhythmias.
Verapamil is used for preventing angina pectoris attacks, arterial hypertension, and treating and preventing supraventricular arrhythmia (paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, extrasystole). Synonyms of this drug are isoptin, calan, finoptin, falicard, manidone, and many others.
Nifedipin: Nifedipine, dimethyl ether 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2'-nitrophenyl)-3,5-piridindicarboxylic acid (19.3.16), is synthesized by a Hantsch synthesis from two molecules of a /¡-dicarbonyl compound—methyl acetoacetate, using as the aldehyde component—2-nitrobenzaldehyde and ammonia. The sequence of the intermediate stages of synthesis has not been completely established [20-23].
Nifedipine causes relaxation of smooth musculature of vessels, dilates coronary and peripheral arteries, and reduces peripheral resistance, arterial pressure, and the oxygen supply to the heart.
Nifedipine is used for preventing and relieving angina pectoris attacks, for hypertension, and as an ingredient in combination therapy for chronic cardiac insufficiency. Synonyms of this drug are adalat, corinfar, procardia, and nifecor.
Nicardipine: Nicardipine, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-methyl-2-[(methyl-phenylmethyl)-amino]ethyl ester 3,5-pirididincarboxylic acid (19.3.7), is synthesized in a manner analogous to the synthesis of nifedipine, the only difference being that in the Hantsch synthesis, two different /¡-dicarbonyl compounds are used simultaneously with onitrobenzaldehyde. During this, one of these in the enamine form of acetoacetic ester is simultaneously used as an amine component. A heterocyclization reaction is accomplished by reacting, the methyl ester of ¡-aminocrotonic acid with the 2-methyl-2-benzyl-aminoethyl ester of acetoacetic acid [24-27].
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Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...