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Neomycin, like streptomycin, has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. It is effective with respect to the majority of Gram-negative and a few Gram-positive bacteria; staphylococci, pneumococci, gonococci, meningococci, and stimulants of dysentery. It is not very active with respect to streptococci. The antibiotic effect of neomycin with respect to many types of bacteria is higher than that of streptomycin. At the same time, microorganisms sensitive to neomycin become resistant to a lesser degree than streptomycin.

It is used for various gastrointestinal diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to it, including enteritis, which is caused by microbes that are resistant to antibiotics. However, because of its high oto- and nephrotoxicity, its local use is preferred for infected skin diseases, infected wounds, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and others. Synonyms of this drug are framycetin, soframycin, tautomycin, and others.

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