Respiratory system diseases can originate as a result of infection, foreign agents of various natures including dust, chemical substances, and smoking; aging, genetic factors, severe injury, or as a result of a hypersensitive reaction. Therapy of respiratory system illnesses generally consists of restoring appropriate physiological functions. In particular, antibiotics remove infections that have invaded the respiratory tract, glucocorticoids relieve inflammation, bronchodilators (broncholytics) relax smooth musculature of the bronchioles and open blocked air channel regions, and so on.
Asthma has a particular place among pulmonary illnesses—it is a chronic lung condition with clinical syndromes characterized by elevated excitability and contraction of the respiratory tract, and consequently, resulting in shortness of breath, breathing difficulties, and coughing. Patients suffering from asthma can develop signs of chronic bronchitis or pulmonary emphysema.
Mainly because the molecular mechanism of these pathological changes has not been sufficiently studied, therapy of asthma, pulmonary illnesses, and other respiratory system illnesses are generally aimed at preventing and relieving symptoms that accompany the disease.
Therefore, drugs for treating respiratory system illnesses can be examined as antiede-matous drugs whose vasoconstricting action can be taken in the form of nasal sprays, anti-cough and expectorant agents, as well as bronchiolytics and other drugs used to treat bronchial asthma, such as methylxanthine, anticholinergic drugs, adrenergic drugs, allergy mediator releasing inhibitors, and corticosteroids.
23.1 ANTIEDEMA, VASOCONSTRICTING DRUGS
Vasoconstricting drugs, as a rule a-adrenomimetics, are used as temporarily relieving agents for severe rhinitis of both viral and allergic origin, for sinitus, and for eustachitis. When locally administered in the form of drops or sprays, arterioles of nasal mucous membranes constrict, leading to reduced edema, hyperemia, and exudation. Sympatomimetics with pronounced antiedema action are frequently taken for this purpose, and they include naphazoline (11.1.36), tetrahydrozoline (11.1.37), xylomethazoline (11.1.38), oxymetha-zoline (11.1.40), and others whose properties and synthesis are described in Chapter 11.
Was this article helpful?
If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.