Brompheniramine is also used for allergy symptoms, rhinitis, and dermatitis. Its activity is approximately the same as that of chlorpheniramine. Synonyms of this drug are dimetane, brombey, spentan, veltane, and others.

16.1.4 Piperazines

Cyclizine: Cyclizine, 1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-methylpiperazine (16.1.15), is synthesized by alkylating 1-methylpiperazine with benzhydrylbromide [25,26].

Cyclizine exhibits antihistamine and anticholinergic action and is used for vomiting and diarrhea. The exact mechanism of action is not known. Synonyms of this drug are marezine and migril.

Meclizine: Meclizine, 1-[(4-chlorphenyl)methyl]-4-[(3-methylphenyl)phenyl]piperazine (16.1.16), is synthesized by reductive amination of a mixture of 3-methylbenzaldehyde with 1-(4-chlorbenzhydryl)piperazine using hydrogen over Raney nickel [27-29].

Meclizine actively affects the vomiting center and is used for vomiting and diarrhea. Synonyms of this drug are antivert, bonine, lamin, roclizin, and vertol.

Hydroxyzine: Hydroxyzine, 2-[2-[4-[(4-chlorophenyl)phenylmethyl]-1-piperazinyl]eth-oxy]ethanol (16.1.17), is synthesized by alkylating 1-(4-chlorbenzhydryl)piperazine with 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethylchloride [30-35].

CI—^S— CH — N ^N-H + CI—CH2-CH2—O—CH2-CH2-OH -

CI—C C^ —N N — CH2 —CH2—O—CH2 —CH2—OH

Hydroxyzine is an antihistamine drug with M-cholinoblocking properties and expressed action on the CNS. It suppresses subcortical regions of the CNS including the limbic system and reticular formation. It potentiates the effect of narcotic analgesics and exhibits sedative effects. It is used as a sympthomatic drug for atopic dermatitis as a sedative drug before and after operational interventions, for preventing vomiting and diarrhea, and for relieving agitation and emotional disorders. Synonyms of this drug are atarax, durrax, and vistaril.

16.1.5 Phenothiazines

Promethazine: Promethazine, 10-(2-dimethylaminopropyl)phenothiazine (16.1.18), is synthesized by alkylating phenothiazine with 1-dimethylamino-2-propylchloride [36,37].



ch-ch2-n( Ch3 CH3

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