Lidocaine is the most widely used local anesthetic. Its excellent therapeutic activity is fast-acting and lasts sufficiently long to make it suitable for practically any clinical use. It stabilizes cell membranes, blocks sodium channels, facilitates the secretion of potassium ions out of the cell, and speeds up the repolarization process in the cell membrane. It is used for terminal infiltration, block, epidural, and spinal anesthesia during operational interventions in dentistry, otolaryngology, obstetrics, and gynecology. It is also used for premature ventricular extrasystole and tachycardia, especially in the acute phase of cardiac infarction. Synonyms for this drug are xylocaine, neflurane, and many others.
Mepivacaine: Mepivacaine is N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-1-methyl-2-piperindincarboxam-ide (2.2.3). Two primary methods of synthesis have been suggested. According to the first, mepivacaine is synthesized by reacting the ethyl ester of 1-methylpiperindine-2-carboxylic acid with 2,6-dimethylanilinomagnesium bromide, which is synthesized from 2,6-dimethylaniline and ethylmagnesium bromide [12-14].
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