The efficacy of barbiturates as antiepileptic drugs can be attributed to their effect on the stimulation of epileptogenic neurons, and also on the GABA-ergic channel in the CNS by elevating of the inhibitory action of GABA. Furthermore, barbiturates can reduce the excitatory effects of glutamate at synapses. It is not presently known which of these proposed mechanisms is more important for the development of antiepileptic activity.
Phenobarbital: Phenobarbital is 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid (4.1.4). The methods of synthesis have already been described in Chapter 4. This drug is widely used independently as well as an ingredient in various composite medicinal drugs.
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