Amphetaminetype stimulant consumption

The number of ATS consumers is very uncertain In 2007, there were between 16 and 51 million people aged 15-64 who consumed amphetamines-group substances (annual prevalence 0.4 -1.2 ). Ecstasy-group users numbered between 12 and 24 million worldwide (annual prevalence 0.3 -0.5 ). The width of these ranges is far greater than for cocaine and heroin. Illicit drug use is difficult to assess accurately, but ATS use even more so, for a variety of reasons. These include the speed with which ATS...

Illicit drug use at the global level

Number of people who inject drugs aged 15-64 years 11-21 million persons Number of problem drug users aged 15-64 years 18-38 million persons Number of people who have used drugs at least once in the past year aged 15-64 years 172-250 million persons Total number of people aged 15-64 years in 2007 4,343 million persons Number of people who inject drugs aged 15-64 years 11-21 million persons Number of problem drug users aged 15-64 years 18-38 million persons Number of people who have used drugs...

Coca cocaine market

In 2008, a significant decrease in Colombia, the world's largest cultivator of coca bush, brought the total area under coca cultivation down by some 8 to 167,600 ha. Total cultivation is close to the average level since 2002, and well below the levels reached in the 1990s. Similarly, the estimated global cocaine production also decreased in 2008, due to a strong reduction in Colombia. The Plurinational State of Bolivia and Peru both registered small increases in cultivation and production....

Indirect methods of estimating heroin use

Treatment multiplier If a survey among heroin users reveals, for instance, that one quarter of them were in treatment in the last year, the multiplication of the total treatment population with a multiplier of four provides an estimate of the likely total number of problem heroin users in a country. Police data multiplier Similarly, if a survey among heroin users reveals that one out of five was arrested in the previous year, a multiplication of the persons arrested for heroin possession by the...

Amphetaminetype stimulants market

In 2007, UNODC estimates that between 230 and 640mt of amphetamines-group1 stimulants were manufactured. Ecstasy-group2 production was between 72 and 137 mt. As amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) can be produced virtually anywhere at relatively low cost, the locations of production are changing rapidly. Moreover, organized criminal groups are increasing the size and sophistication of manufacturing operations. A record level of nearly 52 mt of ATS was seized worldwide in 2007. The...

Why illicit drugs must remain illicit

Oddly, of all areas of international cooperation, drug control is uniquely subject to calls that the struggle should be abandoned. Despite equally mixed results in international interventions,1 no one advocates accepting poverty or war as inevitable. Not so with drugs, where a range of unintended consequences have led some to conclude that the only solution is to legalise and tax substances like cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, methampheta-mine, and heroin. The strongest case against the current...

Prices for coca leaf cocaine and opium

UNODC's monitoring of coca leaf prices in Colombia is not yet fully developed and the availability of monthly average farm-gate prices differs from region to region and over the course of a year. Thus, small-scale price changes should be interpreted with caution. Farm-gate prices are also thought to be influenced by armed groups who are able to control prices in their region of influence. Farm-gate prices in Colombian pesos (COP) for coca leaf and derivatives changed little in 2008 compared to...

Cocaine Wholesale street prices and purity levels

Retail price (street price), USS gram Sources UNODC ARQ data and EUROPOL UNODC estimates in italics Sources UNODC ARQ data and EUROPOL UNODC estimates in italics Sources for 1990-06 Office of National Drug Control Policy, The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs 1981-2007. Washington, DC, July 2008 and UNODC calculations for 2007 and 2008 based on ONDCP, The Price and Purity of Cocaine (STRIDE data) the purity adjusted price according to the first publication amounted to US 122 per gram in 2007 at...

Asia ATS use appears to be increasing but by how much

Global Map

There are no national prevalence estimates of ATS consumption in China and India. These gaps are major given the size of these countries' populations (0.95 billion persons aged 15-64 years in China, and 0.73 billion persons aged 15-64 years in India). Such gaps have an enormous impact upon the level of certainty of both regional and global ATS use estimates. Furthermore, with increases in both population and disposable income, their position next to several significant manufacturing countries,...

Trafficking in ecstasygroup substances

Ecstasy seizures increase in most regions Ecstasy-group seizures increased by 62 in 2007 to a total of 7.9 mt. Notable increases were reported in sub-regions with significant trafficking activity West and Central Europe, Oceania, East and South-East Asia, and North America. Six countries accounted for more than 80 of reported seizures, with the largest amounts reported by the Netherlands 25 of total , followed by Australia, USA, Canada, the UK25 and China. Fig. 96 Global ecstasy-group substance...

The evolution of Captagon

Amphetamine Smuggling Routes

Captagon was originally the trade name for a pharmaceutical preparation containing fenetylline, a synthetic stimulant. Today, Captagon accounts for a significant amount of seized amphetamine-type stimulants in several countries, particularly in the Near and Middle East region. However, the drug has experienced a number of transitions since it was first developed for paediatric and geriatric use and given its trade name in the 1960s The original Captagon product contained fenetylline, which is...