Drug Report

Ecstasygroup drug consumption

Globally, ecstasy-group52 substances (primarily MDMA) are consumed by between 11.6-23.5 million people aged 15-64, or 0.3-0.5 of the population. As a proportion of the population, Oceania accounts for the highest annual prevalence of any region (3.6-4.0 of the general population), but has the fewest users in absolute numbers. The region with the highest number of users is Asia, with an estimated range between 3.6-13.6 million annual users, aged 15-64. Most are living in the East and South-East...

Prevalence of lifetime cannabis use among young people

Cannabis And People Synergy

This map contains data from school surveys of young people The age groups (or school years) included for the estimates can vary slightly from country to country, so data are not directly comparable. For detail on each of the estimates included in this map, please consult the Statistical Annex (3.6). Note The boundaries and names shown and designation used do not imply official endorsement by the United Nations Analysing drug use among young people matters for several key reasons. First, most...

Prices for coca leaf cocaine and opium

UNODC's monitoring of coca leaf prices in Colombia is not yet fully developed and the availability of monthly average farm-gate prices differs from region to region and over the course of a year. Thus, small-scale price changes should be interpreted with caution. Farm-gate prices are also thought to be influenced by armed groups who are able to control prices in their region of influence. Farm-gate prices in Colombian pesos (COP) for coca leaf and derivatives changed little in 2008 compared to...

Sources of information

Sources Drug Information

Under the international drug control conventions, Member States are formally required to provide drug-related information annually, as detailed by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, to the 'Secretary-General of the United Nations' (that is, the Secretariat of UNODC). The Commission on Narcotic Drugs developed the Annual Reports Questionnaire (ARQ) to collect these data. The 2009 World Drug Report is based primarily on data obtained from the ARQs returned by Governments to UNODC over the June...

Illicit drug use at the global level

Spieki Tarczy

Number of people who inject drugs aged 15-64 years 11-21 million persons Number of problem drug users aged 15-64 years 18-38 million persons Number of people who have used drugs at least once in the past year aged 15-64 years 172-250 million persons Total number of people aged 15-64 years in 2007 4,343 million persons Number of people who inject drugs aged 15-64 years 11-21 million persons Number of problem drug users aged 15-64 years 18-38 million persons Number of people who have used drugs...

Making national estimates of the number of drug users

It is challenging to measure accurately how many people use drugs in a given country. Two broad approaches are direct survey approaches and indirect estimation approaches. No one method is perfect for all drugs or across all countries. Direct methods of estimating drug use prevalence. General population or household surveys. A common way to assess drug use is to conduct surveys of the general population, where people are asked if they have used drugs at least once in the past month, the past...

Making regional and global estimates of the number of drug users

Making estimates of the population who uses illicit drugs presents many challenges. The first challenge is that many countries have not done any studies to estimate how many people use drugs. In addition to this, although a variety of methods of estimating the prevalence of illicit drug use may be used, no one method is free of methodological or other biases, which means that country level estimates can never be 100 accurate. To better reflect the resulting uncertainty, a conscious decision was...

Fig 17 Opiate use trends as perceived by experts of developed OECD and developing nonOECD countries 19982007 baseline

Sources UNODC, Annual Reports Questionnaire Data, UNODC Field Offices, UNODC's Drug Use Information Network for Asia and the Pacific (DAINAP). 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 OECD -Global A Non-OECD Opiate consumption may be falling in East and South-East Asia In East and South-East Asia, it was estimated that 2.85.0 million persons aged 15-64 years used opiates in the past year. Use in China has been estimated at around 0.19-0.31 (1.8 to 2.9 million persons).1 Higher levels...

Amphetaminetype stimulant consumption

The number of ATS consumers is very uncertain In 2007, there were between 16 and 51 million people aged 15-64 who consumed amphetamines-group substances (annual prevalence 0.4 -1.2 ). Ecstasy-group users numbered between 12 and 24 million worldwide (annual prevalence 0.3 -0.5 ). The width of these ranges is far greater than for cocaine and heroin. Illicit drug use is difficult to assess accurately, but ATS use even more so, for a variety of reasons. These include the speed with which ATS...

Asia ATS use appears to be increasing but by how much

Global Map

There are no national prevalence estimates of ATS consumption in China and India. These gaps are major given the size of these countries' populations (0.95 billion persons aged 15-64 years in China, and 0.73 billion persons aged 15-64 years in India). Such gaps have an enormous impact upon the level of certainty of both regional and global ATS use estimates. Furthermore, with increases in both population and disposable income, their position next to several significant manufacturing countries,...

Why illicit drugs must remain illicit

Oddly, of all areas of international cooperation, drug control is uniquely subject to calls that the struggle should be abandoned. Despite equally mixed results in international interventions,1 no one advocates accepting poverty or war as inevitable. Not so with drugs, where a range of unintended consequences have led some to conclude that the only solution is to legalise and tax substances like cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, methampheta-mine, and heroin. The strongest case against the current...

Data on drug consumption

UNODC estimates of the extent of illicit drug use in the world have been published periodically since 1997. The latest estimates, presented in this report, are based on information received until April 2009. Assessing the extent of drug use (the number of drug users) is a particularly difficult undertaking because it involves measuring the size of a 'hidden' population. Margins of error are considerable, and tend to multiply as the scale of estimation is raised, from local to national, regional...

Indirect methods of estimating heroin use

Treatment multiplier If a survey among heroin users reveals, for instance, that one quarter of them were in treatment in the last year, the multiplication of the total treatment population with a multiplier of four provides an estimate of the likely total number of problem heroin users in a country. Police data multiplier Similarly, if a survey among heroin users reveals that one out of five was arrested in the previous year, a multiplication of the persons arrested for heroin possession by the...

The evolution of Captagon

Amphetamine Smuggling Routes

Captagon was originally the trade name for a pharmaceutical preparation containing fenetylline, a synthetic stimulant. Today, Captagon accounts for a significant amount of seized amphetamine-type stimulants in several countries, particularly in the Near and Middle East region. However, the drug has experienced a number of transitions since it was first developed for paediatric and geriatric use and given its trade name in the 1960s The original Captagon product contained fenetylline, which is...

Amphetaminetype stimulants market

Outlaws Johnstown

In 2007, UNODC estimates that between 230 and 640mt of amphetamines-group1 stimulants were manufactured. Ecstasy-group2 production was between 72 and 137 mt. As amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) can be produced virtually anywhere at relatively low cost, the locations of production are changing rapidly. Moreover, organized criminal groups are increasing the size and sophistication of manufacturing operations. A record level of nearly 52 mt of ATS was seized worldwide in 2007. The...

Cocaine Wholesale street prices and purity levels

Retail price (street price), USS gram Sources UNODC ARQ data and EUROPOL UNODC estimates in italics Sources UNODC ARQ data and EUROPOL UNODC estimates in italics Sources for 1990-06 Office of National Drug Control Policy, The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs 1981-2007. Washington, DC, July 2008 and UNODC calculations for 2007 and 2008 based on ONDCP, The Price and Purity of Cocaine (STRIDE data) the purity adjusted price according to the first publication amounted to US 122 per gram in 2007 at...

Supply side data

Drug cultivation, production and manufacture In line with decisions of the Member States (1998 UNGASS and subsequent Commission on Narcotic Drugs resolutions), UNODC launched an Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (ICMP) in 1999. The objective of the programme is to assist Member States in establishing national systems to monitor the extent and evolution of the illicit cultivation of narcotics crops on their territories. The results are compiled by UNODC to present global estimates on an annual...

Trafficking in ecstasygroup substances

Arbeitslose Zweiten Weltkrieg

Ecstasy seizures increase in most regions Ecstasy-group seizures increased by 62 in 2007 to a total of 7.9 mt. Notable increases were reported in sub-regions with significant trafficking activity West and Central Europe, Oceania, East and South-East Asia, and North America. Six countries accounted for more than 80 of reported seizures, with the largest amounts reported by the Netherlands 25 of total , followed by Australia, USA, Canada, the UK25 and China. Fig. 96 Global ecstasy-group substance...

Coca cocaine market

In 2008, a significant decrease in Colombia, the world's largest cultivator of coca bush, brought the total area under coca cultivation down by some 8 to 167,600 ha. Total cultivation is close to the average level since 2002, and well below the levels reached in the 1990s. Similarly, the estimated global cocaine production also decreased in 2008, due to a strong reduction in Colombia. The Plurinational State of Bolivia and Peru both registered small increases in cultivation and production....

Opiates Wholesale street prices and purity levels

Retail prices (street price), US gram Sources UNODC ARQ data, EUROPOL and UNODC estimates (in italics Sources UNODC ARQ data, EUROPOL and UNODC estimates (in italics Source ONDCP, The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs 1981-2007 (Reports prepared by the Institute for Defense Analysis for ONDCP. 1990-2000 (prices for 1 gram or less, at street purity), ONDCP, ONDCP, The Price & Purity of Illicit Drugs 1981-2003 (prices for < 2 grams) for 2001-03, Community Epidemiology Network - June 2005...

Cannabis Wholesale street prices and purity levels

CANNABIS HERB Retail and wholesale prices and purity levels breakdown by drug, region and country or territory (prices expressed in US or converted equivalent, and purity levels in percentage) CANNABIS HERB Retail and wholesale prices and purity levels breakdown by drug, region and country or territory (prices expressed in US or converted equivalent, and purity levels in percentage) CANNABIS HERB Retail and wholesale prices and purity levels breakdown by drug, region and country or territory...

Estimated number of illicit drug users in the past year aged 1564 years by region and subregion 2007

Amphetamines-group users in the past year 3,670,000 to 9,320,000 16,110,000 to 27,080,000 4,490,000 to 9,030,000 4,570,000 to 10,950,000 120,000 to 490,000 550,000 to 650,000 100,000 to 1,330,000 230,000 to 310,000 30,000 to 50,000 750,000 to 1,320,000 estimate cannot be calculated 300,000 to 820,000 240,000 to 510,000 estimate cannot be calculated estimate cannot be calculated 210,000 to 650,000 estimate cannot be calculated estimate cannot be calculated estimate cannot be calculated 210,000...

Cocaine use trends among young people

Similar to cannabis, cocaine use among young people continued to decrease in the USA and Canada. In the last decade, annual prevalence of cocaine use among lO1 1 and grade high school students fell in the USA by 40 and 30 . School surveys in Ontario, Canada, showed a decline in the annual prevalence of cocaine use of around 35 between 2003 and 2007. Comparable data on annual prevalence of cocaine among high school students in South America show a mixed picture. A strong increase can be observed...

Cultivation and eradication

In 2008, the area under coca cultivation decreased by 18 to 81,000 ha, roughly the same level as in 2006. Most of the decrease of 18,000 ha took place in the regions of Meta-Guaviare, Putumayo-Caqueta and Orinoco. On the other hand, a significant increase was observed in the Pacific region as well as in some smaller cultivation regions. Thus, the Pacific region remained the region with the largest area under coca cultivation, with just below 30,000 ha or 38 of the total area, followed by the...

Amphetaminetype stimulants Wholesale street prices and purity levels

Retail and wholesale prices and purity levels breakdown by drug, region and country or territory (prices expressed in US or converted equivalent, and purity levels in percentage) 25,480.0 - 38,220.0 38,814.5 - 77,628.9 25,480.0 - 38,220.0 38,814.5 - 77,628.9 (*) in Gram or otherwise as indicated (**) in Kilogram orotherwise as indicated D Doses unit T Tablets unit TD Thousand of doses TT Thousandoftablets (*) in Gram or otherwise as indicated (**) in Kilogram orotherwise as indicated D Doses...

Drug control and the criminal black market

Last year's World Drug Report reviewed 100 years of drug control efforts, documenting the development of one of the first international cooperative ventures designed to deal with a global challenge. This pioneering work brought together nations with very different political and cultural perspectives to agree on a topic of considerable sensitivity the issue of substance abuse and addiction. Despite wars, economic crises, and other cataclysmic events of state, the global drug control movement has...

Trafficking

Global seizures of both cannabis herb and resin increased in 2007. Seizures of cannabis herb amounted to 5,600 mt, whereas for resin, the total was some 1,300 mt. An overwhelming proportion of all cannabis herb seizures was made in the Americas (82 ), mainly in Mexico and the USA, which together accounted for almost two thirds of global herb seizures. Most of the global increase in cannabis resin seizures was due to a strong increase in West and Central Europe, where seizures were up 33...