Ecstasygroup drug consumption

Globally, ecstasy-group52 substances (primarily MDMA) are consumed by between 11.6-23.5 million people aged 15-64, or 0.3-0.5 of the population. As a proportion of the population, Oceania accounts for the highest annual prevalence of any region (3.6-4.0 of the general population), but has the fewest users in absolute numbers. The region with the highest number of users is Asia, with an estimated range between 3.6-13.6 million annual users, aged 15-64. Most are living in the East and South-East...

Myanmar

Fact Sheet - Myanmar Opium Survey 2008 1 Fact Sheet - Myanmar Opium Survey 2008 1 Opium poppy cultivation in Shan State Average opium yield (weighted by area) Potential production of dry opium in Myanmar (including the Shan State) Total potential value of opium production Estimated number of households involved in opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar Number of persons involved in opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar Estimated number of households involved in opium poppy cultivation in the Shan...

Vienna

Copyright 2009, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) United Nations Publication Sales No. E.09.XI.12 This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNODC would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or any other commercial...

Fig 17 Opiate use trends as perceived by experts of developed OECD and developing nonOECD countries 19982007 baseline

Sources UNODC, Annual Reports Questionnaire Data, UNODC Field Offices, UNODC's Drug Use Information Network for Asia and the Pacific (DAINAP). 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 OECD -Global A Non-OECD Opiate consumption may be falling in East and South-East Asia In East and South-East Asia, it was estimated that 2.85.0 million persons aged 15-64 years used opiates in the past year. Use in China has been estimated at around 0.19-0.31 (1.8 to 2.9 million persons).1 Higher levels...

Cannabis Wholesale street prices and purity levels

CANNABIS HERB Retail and wholesale prices and purity levels breakdown by drug, region and country or territory (prices expressed in US or converted equivalent, and purity levels in percentage) CANNABIS HERB Retail and wholesale prices and purity levels breakdown by drug, region and country or territory (prices expressed in US or converted equivalent, and purity levels in percentage) CANNABIS HERB Retail and wholesale prices and purity levels breakdown by drug, region and country or territory...

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7 9 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 88999990000 99999990000 West and Central Europe North America South America* Other Declining trafficking of cocaine towards North America, the world's largest cocaine market Cocaine trafficked to North America typically originates in Colombia and reaches the USA through Mexico, either directly by speed boats or via countries such as the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. Most of the cocaine (close to 70 ) is estimated to be transported via the...

Opiates Wholesale street prices and purity levels

Retail prices (street price), US gram Sources UNODC ARQ data, EUROPOL and UNODC estimates (in italics Sources UNODC ARQ data, EUROPOL and UNODC estimates (in italics Source ONDCP, The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs 1981-2007 (Reports prepared by the Institute for Defense Analysis for ONDCP. 1990-2000 (prices for 1 gram or less, at street purity), ONDCP, ONDCP, The Price & Purity of Illicit Drugs 1981-2003 (prices for < 2 grams) for 2001-03, Community Epidemiology Network - June 2005...

Ats

Global seizures of ATS have continued to increase, totalling nearly 52 mt in 2007, surpassing their 2000 peak by more than 3 mt.4 The amphetamines-group dominates ATS seizures, accounting for 84 of all seizures by volume, with methamphetamine making up the largest part. The year 2007 also saw a dramatic jump in ecstasy-group seizures (16 of all ATS seized) significant increases were noted in several large markets. Trafficking in ATS substances is most commonly intraregional, thus crossing fewer...

Amphetaminetype stimulant consumption

The number of ATS consumers is very uncertain In 2007, there were between 16 and 51 million people aged 15-64 who consumed amphetamines-group substances (annual prevalence 0.4 -1.2 ). Ecstasy-group users numbered between 12 and 24 million worldwide (annual prevalence 0.3 -0.5 ). The width of these ranges is far greater than for cocaine and heroin. Illicit drug use is difficult to assess accurately, but ATS use even more so, for a variety of reasons. These include the speed with which ATS...

Cultivation and eradication

In 2008, the area under coca cultivation decreased by 18 to 81,000 ha, roughly the same level as in 2006. Most of the decrease of 18,000 ha took place in the regions of Meta-Guaviare, Putumayo-Caqueta and Orinoco. On the other hand, a significant increase was observed in the Pacific region as well as in some smaller cultivation regions. Thus, the Pacific region remained the region with the largest area under coca cultivation, with just below 30,000 ha or 38 of the total area, followed by the...

Illicit drug use at the global level

Number of people who inject drugs aged 15-64 years 11-21 million persons Number of problem drug users aged 15-64 years 18-38 million persons Number of people who have used drugs at least once in the past year aged 15-64 years 172-250 million persons Total number of people aged 15-64 years in 2007 4,343 million persons Number of people who inject drugs aged 15-64 years 11-21 million persons Number of problem drug users aged 15-64 years 18-38 million persons Number of people who have used drugs...

Coca cocaine market

In 2008, a significant decrease in Colombia, the world's largest cultivator of coca bush, brought the total area under coca cultivation down by some 8 to 167,600 ha. Total cultivation is close to the average level since 2002, and well below the levels reached in the 1990s. Similarly, the estimated global cocaine production also decreased in 2008, due to a strong reduction in Colombia. The Plurinational State of Bolivia and Peru both registered small increases in cultivation and production....

Indirect methods of estimating heroin use

Treatment multiplier If a survey among heroin users reveals, for instance, that one quarter of them were in treatment in the last year, the multiplication of the total treatment population with a multiplier of four provides an estimate of the likely total number of problem heroin users in a country. Police data multiplier Similarly, if a survey among heroin users reveals that one out of five was arrested in the previous year, a multiplication of the persons arrested for heroin possession by the...

Amphetaminetype stimulants market

In 2007, UNODC estimates that between 230 and 640mt of amphetamines-group1 stimulants were manufactured. Ecstasy-group2 production was between 72 and 137 mt. As amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) can be produced virtually anywhere at relatively low cost, the locations of production are changing rapidly. Moreover, organized criminal groups are increasing the size and sophistication of manufacturing operations. A record level of nearly 52 mt of ATS was seized worldwide in 2007. The...

Why illicit drugs must remain illicit

Oddly, of all areas of international cooperation, drug control is uniquely subject to calls that the struggle should be abandoned. Despite equally mixed results in international interventions,1 no one advocates accepting poverty or war as inevitable. Not so with drugs, where a range of unintended consequences have led some to conclude that the only solution is to legalise and tax substances like cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, methampheta-mine, and heroin. The strongest case against the current...

Prices for coca leaf cocaine and opium

UNODC's monitoring of coca leaf prices in Colombia is not yet fully developed and the availability of monthly average farm-gate prices differs from region to region and over the course of a year. Thus, small-scale price changes should be interpreted with caution. Farm-gate prices are also thought to be influenced by armed groups who are able to control prices in their region of influence. Farm-gate prices in Colombian pesos (COP) for coca leaf and derivatives changed little in 2008 compared to...

Cocaine Wholesale street prices and purity levels

Retail price (street price), USS gram Sources UNODC ARQ data and EUROPOL UNODC estimates in italics Sources UNODC ARQ data and EUROPOL UNODC estimates in italics Sources for 1990-06 Office of National Drug Control Policy, The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs 1981-2007. Washington, DC, July 2008 and UNODC calculations for 2007 and 2008 based on ONDCP, The Price and Purity of Cocaine (STRIDE data) the purity adjusted price according to the first publication amounted to US 122 per gram in 2007 at...

Asia ATS use appears to be increasing but by how much

Global Map

There are no national prevalence estimates of ATS consumption in China and India. These gaps are major given the size of these countries' populations (0.95 billion persons aged 15-64 years in China, and 0.73 billion persons aged 15-64 years in India). Such gaps have an enormous impact upon the level of certainty of both regional and global ATS use estimates. Furthermore, with increases in both population and disposable income, their position next to several significant manufacturing countries,...

Trafficking in ecstasygroup substances

Ecstasy seizures increase in most regions Ecstasy-group seizures increased by 62 in 2007 to a total of 7.9 mt. Notable increases were reported in sub-regions with significant trafficking activity West and Central Europe, Oceania, East and South-East Asia, and North America. Six countries accounted for more than 80 of reported seizures, with the largest amounts reported by the Netherlands 25 of total , followed by Australia, USA, Canada, the UK25 and China. Fig. 96 Global ecstasy-group substance...

The evolution of Captagon

Amphetamine Smuggling Routes

Captagon was originally the trade name for a pharmaceutical preparation containing fenetylline, a synthetic stimulant. Today, Captagon accounts for a significant amount of seized amphetamine-type stimulants in several countries, particularly in the Near and Middle East region. However, the drug has experienced a number of transitions since it was first developed for paediatric and geriatric use and given its trade name in the 1960s The original Captagon product contained fenetylline, which is...