Relaxation Techniques

Relax Your Mind

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Deep Muscle Relaxation Practice Exercise

Arrange to spend some quiet time in a room where you will not be interrupted. Try to practice this relaxation technique at least three times during the next week. Proceed through the eight groups of muscles in the list below, first tensing each for 5 seconds and then relaxing each for 15 to 20 seconds.

Mechanisms of vasorelaxation for endocannabinoids

In rat mesenteric vessels, anandamide-induced relaxation is sensitive to nonspecific potassium channel blockers, including cytochrome P450 inhibitors (Randall et al., 1997). In isolated mesenteric arterial segments the relaxation to anandamide was blocked by selective inhibitors of large conductance calcium-activated K+-channels (charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin Plane et al., 1997). Furthermore, in similar mesenteric vessels, the anandamide-induced relaxation was insensitive to the combination of charybdotoxin and apamin (White and Hiley, 1997). By contrast in the perfused mesenteric arterial bed the combination of charybdotoxin and apamin abolished relaxation to anandamide, although neither agent alone affected the responses (Randall and Kendall, 1998). In the guinea-pig carotid artery, the anandamide-induced hyperpolarization, which was insensitive to charybdotoxin plus apamin, was blocked by the ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor, glib-enclamide (Chataigneau et al., 1998). By...

The Chemical Imbalance Theory

First, no biological etiology has been proven for any psychiatric disorder (except Alzheimer's disease, which has a genetic component) in spite of decades of research. Second, life experiences contribute to the development of some psychiatric disorders. For example, parental loss prior to the age of 18 leads to an increased risk of developing panic disorder and different phobias as adults.8 Third, non-biological treatments effectively treat some psychiatric disorders. For example, a combination of practice with relaxation techniques, two to three months of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and attention to lifestyle changes can ameliorate panic attacks in many people. These facts, and others, strongly suggest that abnormal biology is not the sole cause of psychiatric disorders.

Make a Complete Diagnosis

We discussed the difficulties with making a diagnosis in part I. Nevertheless, you need to come to some understanding about the difficulties you are having in order to figure out how to help yourself most effectively. The conclusions you reach will affect the treatment you choose. For example, if you've suddenly begun to experience panic attacks and you feel that nothing in your life causes them, you are more likely to look for medication as a solution. On the other hand, if you connect the panic attacks with the feeling of being out of control ever since your father died of a sudden heart attack, you will probably be more open to psychotherapy and relaxation techniques. If you see schizophrenia strictly as a brain disease, then medication can seem like the only sensible treatment. If you see it as an illness that strongly affects you as a person, however, you are more likely to see the additional value provided by psychotherapy and rehabilitation to help you cope successfully with...

AEA and Vanilloid VR1 Receptors

Relaxation of rodent small arteries in vitro, via a mechanism that was CBr and endothelium-independent and blocked by previous treatment of arteries with capsaicin and by the VR1 antagonist, capsazepine (Zygmunt et al., 1999). Accordingly, AEA activated the recombinant rat VR1 receptor overexpressed in either human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells or Xenopus oocytes, although less potently than with native vanilloid receptors in the rat mesenteric artery (Zygmunt et al., 1999). The subsequent discovery that a similar action was exerted more efficaciously and potently also at recombinant human VR1 receptors (Smart et al., 2000) triggered a series of studies aimed at investigating whether other pharmacological activities of this compound might be mediated by vanilloid receptors. There are now tens of reports indicating that AEA might work as an activator of native vanilloid receptors and possibly as an endovanilloid, under both physiological and, particularly, pathological conditions,...

General Information

Decamethonium, a depolarizing neuromuscular blocker, is little used nowadays. A dose of 3 mg provides adequate relaxation for intra-abdominal surgery for about 15 minutes, supplements being required at intervals of 10-30 minutes. It is not as rapid in onset of action as suxametho-nium. It is not hydrolysed by plasma cholinesterase, but is eliminated by the kidneys (1).

How to Stop Medication

The Effectiveness of Other Treatments You need to judge the effectiveness of alternative treatments. Are there other treatments that would allow you to get off the medication at some point For example, panic attacks often resolve with a combination of brief psychotherapy, relaxation exercises, and lifestyle changes. While taking medication during the first few weeks after they've started may provide

Treatment Implementation

It is always advisable to provide patients with information on good sleep hygiene practices (see Table 5-1). Although behavioral techniques such as stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, and sleep-restriction seem to complement pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone may have better long-term outcome, compared to the combination of CBT and medications. In contrast, added CBT seems to facilitate the tapering of hypnotics.

See also Neuromuscular blocking drugs General Information

For tracheal intubation the usual dose is 0.1 mg kg. When given after suxamethonium, 0.05 mg kg is sufficient for good abdominal relaxation. Further doses of about one-quarter to one-third of the initial dose are given at intervals of 30-40 minutes to maintain relaxation. Reversal is easily achieved with neostigmine, provided there is some spontaneous return of neuro-muscular transmission beforehand. If the evoked twitch height is less than 10 of the control value, there can be difficulty in reversing the blockade this applies to all non-depolarizing relaxants, except perhaps vecuronium and atracurium.

Organs and Systems Cardiovascular

D-Tubocurarine commonly causes a fall in blood pressure, associated with a slight tachycardia and a reduction in total peripheral resistance cardiac output is not affected. The frequency of hypotension is reported as being 2090 . This wide range probably reflects the methods of measurement, the anesthetic agents used, and the general condition of the patients in the various studies, as well as the criteria for diagnosing hypotension. The magnitude of the fall in blood pressure is generally about 20 , and it occurs within 5 minutes of injection. Histamine release is considered to be the principal cause (17), but blockade of autonomic ganglia may also contribute. It has been suggested that prostacycline, released by histamine acting on H1 receptors, is the final mediator intravenous administration of aspirin or an H1 receptor antagonist beforehand affords some protection (SEDA-15, 126) (18). Ganglion blockade may also contribute, particularly if high doses are used (19). Reduction in...

Family Menispermaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Moonseed Family

Block competitively acetylcholine at nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction hence causing complete relaxation of skeletal muscles and death by asphyxia. (+)-Tubocurarine which has been used to relax muscles in surgical anaesthesia (Tubocurarine Chloride, British Pharmacopoeia, 1963).

The Stages of Change Model

One's own ability to continue the new behaviors, serves as a hallmark of the maintenance stage. Self-efficacy and sustained change are the keys to maintenance. Client and therapist will work together now to prevent relapse. They will identify situations that put the smoker at high risk for relapse and plan ways to avoid problematic use in these circumstances. For example, clients may decide to avoid parties where drugs are present. They may role play refusing drugs if they are offered. They may practice relaxation techniques if tension often preceded their drug use. They may call a hot line or a friend in times of temptation. Note that these techniques for preventing relapse are consistent with twelve-step and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Perhaps this overlap contributes to the comparable results of these different programs.

Coleus scutellarioides L Benth

The increase of cyclic monophosphate adenosine in the cardiac muscle cells results in an inotropic positive effect, whereas the increase of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the smooth muscle cells causes relaxation (bronchioles, vessels Fig. 305). Forskoline given to dogs and cats causes a positive inotropic activity and lowers their blood pressure (Lindner E et al., 1978). Fig. 305. Mechanism of action of forsko-line forskoline binds to an extracellular receptor (R) which activates adenylate cyclase (A) in cell membrane (M) through the protein G (G). Increase of intracel-lular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMPc), hence contraction of the cardiac muscle cells (CM). The relaxation of the smooth muscle cells (SM) of the bronchioles and vessels.

Targeting DNA and Topoisomerase I with Indolocarbazole Antitumor Agents

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Mic

There are three classes of topoisomerase enzymes in human cells 2 . Topoisomerase I introduces breaks in one strand of DNA and mediates DNA relaxation in a process that does not require any cofactor. In contrast, topoisomerase II cuts the two strands of the double helix and changes the topology of the DNA by catalyzing the passage of one double-stranded segment of DNA through a double-strand break produced in a second DNA segment. Topoisomerase III, which was identified more recently 3 , cleaves single-strand DNA and binds covalently to the 5' end of the cleaved DNA 4 . There are, as yet, no specific inhibitors for topoisomerase III, whereas there are many for the two other enzymes. Both topoisomerases I and II have been shown to constitute critical cellular loci for a number of clinically important antitumor agents 5-7 . established that the presence of OH groups on the IND framework markedly changes the capacity of the drug to interact with DNA and topoisomerase I. KT6528 bears a...

Physiological Actions of Prostanoids

DP receptors are present on vascular smooth muscle, platelets, and in nervous tissue, including the central nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, PGD2 has been associated with sleep induction, as well as body temperature regulation, hormone release, nociception, and olfactory function. DP receptors have also been localized to smooth muscle in the gut, uterus, and airways. Northern blot and in situ hybridization studies have reaffirmed this, with only low levels of expression being detected in human retina and small intestine (49) .The physiological actions of PGD2, mediated through DP receptors, are generally inhibitory that is, smooth muscle relaxation and the inhibition of platelet aggregation. However, excitatory actions have also been 2.3.2 Prostaglandin PGE2 acts predominantly through EP receptors, which are abundantly distributed and are responsible for mediating the multitude of actions of PGE,. These include smooth muscle contraction and relaxation, stimulation and presyn-aptic...

An der Spritze hngen German colloquial

Some surgical procedures do not require total muscular relaxation and can be performed using local anaesthetics, which temporarily block nerve conduction without damaging nerve fibers. Local anaesthesia is produced by injecting into the tissues to be affected a solution of a natural alkaloid such as cocaine, the oldest of all local anaesthetics, or a synthetic agent such as procaine, widely known under the trade name Novocain, or lidocaine (Xylo-caine).

Physiology and Pharmacology

Minoxidil is converted to its active metabolite minoxidil sulfate by liver sulfotransferase sulfation (96). Minoxidil sulfate acts directly on the cutaneous blood vessels and induces smooth muscle relaxation. It has been suggested that minoxidil sulfate acts as a potassium channel agonist to enhance potassium permeability. This results in hyperpolariza-tion and causes reduction in agonist-stimulated Ca2+ influx and hence decreased cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration, and therefore causes smooth muscle relaxation (97, 98). Minoxidil sulfation occurs both in proliferating keratocytes and in hair follicles, which suggests that an additional mechanism that results in direct stimulation of the hair follicle independent of vasodilatation might be involved (99, 100). In vitro data suggest that the direct effect of minoxidil involves increased biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans (100). It has also been shown that minoxidil inhibits lysyl hydroxylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation...

Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Diarrhea that Display Antidiarrheal Activity

A large study by Atta and Mouneir 41 reported on the antidiarrheal properties of six Egyptian medicinal plants. At a dose of 200 mg kg-1, only some of the plant extracts showed a significant effect on castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats, while the effects were better with an increased dose of 400 mg kg-1. Some of the extracts induced a dose-dependent relaxation of rabbit duodenal smooth muscle while others increased the contractile force in contractions. Various phytochemicals were identified, including tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones, proteins amino acids, and saponins, although the active ingredients were not confirmed. Similarly, several medicinal plants used by people in the Democratic Republic of Congo 42 , India 43 , and Zulu traditional healers 44 to treat diarrhea have been evaluated. These plants showed activity that supported their traditional use, including activity against enteric pathogens, and activity in experimental models...

Benefits and Side Effects of Nabilone and Cannabis

The adjuvant effects of improved sleep, pain compressing , pain distancing , anxiolysis, relaxation, euphoria, and relief of depression all have benefits on the patient's perception and management of pain. These will be mediated through cortical and limbic system mechanisms.

Endocannabinoids And Gl Motility

Promoted by the intense peristaltic contractions of the stomach antrum. In general, vagal stimulation increases the force and frequency of contractions, whereas sympathetic stimulation decreases both of these parameters. The endocannabinoid anandamide has recently been shown to attenuate cholinergically mediated contractions of isolated rat gastric smooth muscle preparation produced by EFS (Storr et al., 2002). Anandamide also attenuated nonadrenergic, noncholinergic-mediated relaxant neural responses (in the presence of atropine and guanethidine) produced by EFS in this preparation. Because the depressant effects of anandamide were countered by the CB1 antagonist AM630, it is suggested that CB1 receptors play an important role in the attenuation of excitatory cholinergic and inhibitory NANC neurotransmission in the rat isolated gastric fundus preparation. The aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55212-2 also produces similar depressant effects in this fundus preparation. However, AM630...

Medical And Behavioral Toxicity Overview

The acute effects of alcohol are well known. In low doses, it causes blood vessels to dilate, and the skin to become flushed and warm. The individual under the influence of alcohol experiences a feeling of relaxation and mild sedation but may become talkative with loss of inhibitory control of emotions. Small doses (one to two drinks) do not impair complex intellectual ability however, as the dose increases (two or more drinks or as the blood alcohol concentration approaches and exceeds the legal limit) impairment at multiple levels of the nervous system occurs. All types of motor performance are eventually affected, including maintenance of posture, control of speech, and eye movements. Movement becomes slower and more inaccurate. Mental functioning decreases, such that there is impairment in attention and concentration and a diminishing ability to make mental associations. Concurrently, the ability to attend to incoming sensory information is decreased. Night and color vision are...

Adrenergic receptor blockers

Nebivolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, and timolol) have a wide spectrum of activity, and are often used to treat hypertension. There are two types of (3-receptors i -receptors predominate in the heart, and -receptors mediate relaxation (dilatation) of vascular and other smooth muscle (e.g. in the airways and blood vessels). Metoprolol is ii-specific, whereas the classic i-blockers such as propranolol and oxprenolol have both rtj and ,i2 activity. Labetalol has both 3- and a-receptor blocking activity, and has been successfully used in a number of pregnancies (Pickles 1992, Plouin 1990, 1987). All 3-blockers cross the placenta.

BuspironeIs Anxioselectivity Possible

Thus any overall mechanism presently proposed will likely be speculative. However, some evidence appears to zero in toward serotonin receptor antagonism, particularly the 5HT1A subtype, which likely mediated inhibitory effects in raphe neurons and pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. Affinity for BZD binding sites is very low. This fact goes a long way to explain the lack of sedation, ataxia, muscle relaxation, and the anticonvulsant properties of BS. The fact that BS, unlike diazepam, produces little or no loss of memory may be a considerable advantage in long-term anxiolytic therapy.

Type I Topoisomerases

Topi participates in the relaxation of negative super coils and has also been implicated in knotting and unknotting DNA and in linking complementary rings of single-stranded DNA into double-stranded rings 12 . The relaxation process catalysed by the enzyme essentially consists of a transient break of a segment of single-stranded DNA, followed by passing an intact strand of DNA through the gate (type I-A) or allowing rotation of the broken strand around the intact strand (type I-B), with final rejoining of the broken segment. Topi has several distinct features. Unlike type II enzymes, it appears to fully perform its functions as a monomer. In addition, it does not require ATP hydrolysis to catalyze the complex topological rearrangements of DNA.

Pregnancy Category None

In Europe methaqualone was initially a nonprescription item. In the United States the drug was first put in Schedule V, but as methaqualone became popular among illicit users seeking euphoria and relaxation, more restrictions were placed on its legal accessibility. The drug became a Schedule II substance in 1973. When President Jimmy Carter's drug policy adviser Dr. Peter Bourne wrote a methaqualone prescription that violated regulations, that incident started a series of events that hounded Bourne out of office. Eventually concern about the drug grew so high that it was reclassified in 1984 as a Schedule I substance having no recognized medical function.

Japanese Experimentation

Still, the reports about an irresistible urge to dance constitutes a rather unusual effect of psilocybin, from our current point of view. While psilocybin is initially known to cause fits of laughter, this phase is generally followed by a state of relaxation and a drop in levels of physical activity. It is likely that, in this case, medieval Japanese mentality was a cultural factor that modified the specific expression of an altered state of consciousness.

The Magic Morning Glory Ololiuhqui

Contradictory findings had been published about the activity of the ololiuhqui seeds. The psychiatrist H. Osmond conducted a self-experiment with the seeds of Turbina corymbosa in 1955. After the ingestion of 60 to 100 seeds, he entered into a state of apathy and emptiness, accompanied by enhanced visual sensitivity. After four hours, there followed a period of relaxation and well-being, lasting for a longer time. The results of V. J. Kinross-Wright, published in England in 1958, in which eight voluntary research subjects, who had taken up to 125 seeds, perceived no effects at all, contradicted this report.

Psychedelics And Society

Opiates but less well known, at least in the West, are the benefits which psychedelics have produced. It is gradually becoming evident that the world owes much of its early art, music, literature, indeed perhaps the very fabric of many ancient cultures directly to the effects of the psychedelic state. Many millions of Westerners have recently gained personal experience with the euphoria, aphrodisia, relaxation, and stimulation of creative imagination which can result from psychedelic use. The failure of many otherwise enlightened people to accept psychedelics has many causes, one of the more important of which is probably that they are often among the fortunate rfew to escape the neuroses, psychoses, abuse of amphetamines, tranquilizers, barbituates, and alcohol, which is the fate of the majority of the straight world.

Neuromuscular function

Rarely, on injecting suxamethonium, contracture, instead of the usual relaxation, of skeletal muscles ensues. In denervated muscles the postulated mechanism is direct activation of the contractile mechanism by suxametho-nium because of the widespread chemosensitivity of the muscle fiber membranes. Failure of relaxation and generalized muscular rigidity after suxamethonium is sometimes also seen in patients who develop the syndrome of malignant hyperthermia. Isolated masseter muscle rigidity can occur after the administration of suxamethonium, being reported particularly in children given both suxamethonium and halothane. Most experts define masseter muscle rigidity as a major increase in masseter muscle tone severe enough to make mouth opening impossible and to prevent laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Referring to the high incidence of positive results with halothane-caffeine contracture testing, some believe that up to 50 of patients with masseter muscle rigidity are...

Singlet Oxygen And Its Reactivity

Singlet molecular oxygen is deactivated by physical or chemical quenching agents. The two physical mechanisms are energy-transfer and charge-transfer quenching. The carotenoid pigments play an important role in the protection of biological systems, apparently because they are particularly efficient energy-transfer quenchers. Beta-carotene is the most studied member of this group. The extended conjugated p-system of b-carotene has triplet energies close to or below that of singlet oxygen so that collisional energy transfer occurs. Subsequently, the excited b-carotene decays by vibrational relaxation and no net chemical change is observed (Gorman and Rodgers, 1981). Amines generally are capable of quenching singlet oxygen via a charge-transfer process, but may react chemically as well. The primary process is envisaged as formation of a complex between the electron-donating quencher and the electron-deficient oxygen species the quenching rate constants correlate with the amine ionization...

Chapter One Initiation into Infinity

Just before the colors hit and the curtain started down between sections of my brain, I had that wonderful relaxation which I had known before - the awe-inspiring relief, the letting go of psychological barriers which has come to be identified in my thinking with the relaxation of the ego. I could feel myself being drawn into a mystical experience - the sense of unity with all things in the universe. But as I felt the relaxing of the self boundaries, there was this flood of grateful tears which I stopped because of the three men present.

Receptors for Abnormal Cannabidiol

There is evidence, mainly from in vitro experiments with rat or mouse phenylephrine- or methoxamine-precontracted buffer-perfused isolated mesenteric arterial beds or isolated mesenteric arterial segments, for the presence in these tissues of non-CB1, non-CB2 receptors with which anandamide and methanandamide can interact to induce a relaxant effect (reviewed in Howlett et al. 2002 Pertwee 2004a Wiley and Martin 2002). There are several reasons for believing that these are not CB1 or CB2 receptors. First, relaxation is not induced in rat precontracted mesen-teric arterial beds by 2-arachidonoyl glycerol or by established non-eicosanoid cannabinoid receptor agonists such as 49-THC or -(+)-WIN55212 (Wagner et al. 1999) but is induced in rat and mouse precontracted mesenteric arterial beds or rat precontracted mesenteric arterial segments by two cannabidiol analogues, abnormal-cannabidiol and 0-1602 (Fig. 12), neither of which exhibits significant affinity for CB1 receptors (Ho and Hiley...

Other features of the patient

In pregnancy the risk of regurgitation has to be weighed against the advantage of rapid intubation. The use of precurarization'' with small doses of non-depolarizing drugs may reduce the intensity of the fasciculation, but is by no means reliable. If possible, relaxation is better achieved by using a non-depolarizing agent alone.

Cannabis Intoxication And Its Similarity To That Of Peyote And LSD

The difference between cannabis and the other hallucinogens must be understood in terms of the motivation of the user as well as the strength of the reaction. This is not to say that the set of the user is not very important for the others as well, but cannabis is especially amenable to control and direction so that the desired effects can usually be obtained at will. Michaux, a French writer, has repeatedly explored his own reactions to the various hallucinogens and writes, 'Compared to other hallucinogenic drugs, hashish is feeble, without great range, but easy to handle, convenient, repeatable without immediate danger.'5 It is these features, plus the fact that consumption by smoking enables the experienced user to accurately control the amount absorbed, that makes cannabis a dependable producer of the desired euphoria and sense of well-being. This aspect is pointed up in the study by the New York Mayor's Committee which examined the reaction of experienced users to smoking and...

Educating the Client on the Use of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements

The use of herbs and nutritional supplements to treat various disorders is common. Herbs are used for various effects, such as to boost the immune system, treat depression, and for relaxation. Individuals are becoming more aware of the benefits of herbal therapies and nutritional supplements. Advertisements, books, magazines, and Internet sites abound concerning these topics. People, eager to cure or control various disorders, take herbs, teas, megadoses of vitamins, and various other natural products. Although much information is available on nutritional supplements and herbal therapy, obtaining the correct information sometimes is difficult. Medicinal herbs and nutritional substances are available at supermarkets, pharmacies, health food stores, specialty herb stores, and through the Internet. The potential for misinformation abounds. Because these substances are natural products, many individuals may incorrectly assume that they are without adverse effects. When any herbal remedy...

Long Term Effects Drug tolerance

At first it was thought that tolerance was due to depletion of intracellular endothelial sulfhydryl groups (65), which are necessary for the biotransformation of organic nitrates to nitric oxide. It seems likely that tolerance occurs through several mechanisms, and the precise mechanisms are still uncertain (66). However, one possible mechanism of tolerance has been elucidated (67). Organic nitrates are converted to S-nitrosothiols when combined with sulfhydryl moieties in smooth muscles. These compounds activate guanylate cyclase, leading to an increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic GMP, with resultant vascular relaxation and vasodilatation. As the supply of sulfhydryl within the smooth muscles is limited, prolonged exposure to organic nitrates results in its depletion and hence tolerance (68). Other mechanisms of nitrate tolerance that have been proposed include neurohumoral adaptation and a plasma volume-dependent mechanism (69). A unifying hypothesis, involving the...

Cannabinoids and Cardiovascular Effects

Blood Pressure Ach

To confuse the issue of the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids further, anandamide is a vasodilator in vitro in selective isolated vessel preparations and not others, pointing at a direct effect on smooth muscle tone of the vasculature (89). Subsequent studies have suggested that anandamide acts through inhibition of calcium release in smooth muscle cells (90). Recently, anandamide has been implicated as a natural ligand of the vanilloid receptor VR1 (91). VR1 receptors are found on sensory nerves, and stimulation results in calcium entry and release by the nerve of a number of transmitters, which could be associated with vasodilatation, such as nitric oxide, substance P, neurokinins, ATP, and calcitonin gene-related peptide. For example, nitric oxide diffuses to the smooth muscle and increases cGMP as a mode of vasodilatation, and calcitonin gene-related peptide binds to G protein-linked receptors, which increase cAMP, another way of causing relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.

Acute Effects of Marijuana on Airway Physiology

Although anecdotal reports dating back to the 19th century suggested a therapeutic role for marijuana in the relief of asthma, formal experiments first documented this effect in the 1970s. Smoke from marijuana cigarettes was found to produce short-term bronchodilation both in healthy individuals (11,12) and in patients with asthma (13). This bronchodilator effect was clearly attributable to the presence of THC, because oral administration of synthetic THC also produced a dose-dependent bronchodilatation (11). Recently, a potential mechanism for this effect on bronchomotor tone was identified. Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors were found on axon terminals of postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers in rat lung. These nerve terminals are in close proximity to airway smooth muscle (14). In the guinea pig airway, stimulation of these receptors by the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide resulted in dose-dependent relaxation of capsaicin-contracted airway smooth muscle, whereas anandamide...

Physiology of an Erection


Of parasympathetic pathways induces vascular smooth muscle relaxation and vessel dilation, causing increased arterial blood flow to the penis, engorgement of the erectile tissues, reduced venous outflow, and erection. elucidated neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS-1), inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS-2), and endothelial NOS (eNOS or NOS-3). Neurons that innervate the corpus cavernosa contain nNOS, while eNOS is localized in the endothelium and smooth muscle of the cavernosa. Inducible NOS does not appear to be involved in the physiology of erections, but may be a factor in the deleterious effects of aging on the delicate erectile tissues of the corpora cavernosa 16, 17 . Nitric oxide directly increases the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP). The cyclic nucleotide cGMP is a second messenger that activates cGMP-dependent protein ki-nase, leading to decreased intracellular calcium, smooth muscle...

Use in heart failure

Diastolic dysfunction can lead to congestive heart failure, even when systolic function is normal (29,30). Since ventricular filling occurs during diastole, failure of intra-ventricular pressure to fall appropriately during diastole leads to increased atrial pressure, which eventually leads to increased pulmonary and systemic venous pressures, causing a syndrome of congestive heart failure indistinguishable clinically from that caused by systolic pump failure (31). Diastolic dysfunction occurs in systemic arterial hypertension, hypertrophic obstructive cardio-myopathy, and infiltrative heart diseases, which reduce ventricular compliance or increase ventricular stiffness (32). As energy is required for active diastolic myocardial relaxation, a relative shortage of adenosine triphosphate in ischemic heart disease also often leads to co-existing diastolic and systolic dysfunction (33). Beta-blockers improve diastolic function in general, and this may be beneficial in patients with...

Marijuana And Alcohol

Marijuana is currently popular at Oxford and other universities. It is generally smoked in the company of others and its chief effect seems to be an enhanced appreciation of music and color together with a feeling of relaxation and peace. A mystical experience of being at one with the universe is common, which is why the drug has been highly valued in Eastern religions. Unlike alcohol, marijuana does not lead to aggressive behavior, nor is it aphrodisiac. There is no hangover, nor so far as is known, any deleterious effect. As with other drugs, there may be some danger that people turn to it as an habitual escape from life's problems.' Its supposed pleasures have at times been rather tediously over-sold. It is interesting that many undergraduates seem to be congenitally unable to experience the effects of Cannabis,, however many times they try. Were this not so the proportion of smokers within the University would be considerably higher than it is. To my knowledge, no serious research...

Overall level of evidence of adverse effects C

There are few reports on limited adverse effects of analgesics on erectile function. Ergotamine induced relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscles, but clinical studies are not available. Cavernous tissue in vitro Muscle relaxation Cavernous tissue, relaxation 1438 Barbanti G, Beneforti P, Lapini A, Turini D. Relaxation

Phenothiazine Derivatives

Phenothiazines have a diverse use in medicine. They are primarily used as antipsy-chotics. Despite the fact that they do not cure the disease, they reduce psychotic symptoms to a point where the patient is provided with a better sense of reality. Phenothiazines are sometimes used for relieving severe anxiety, especially in panic attacks caused by dependence on amphetamines or lycergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Phenothiazines are used for alleviating behavioral problems in children that do not respond to treatment of other agents. Phenothiazines are sometimes used during the preoperational period because they relieve anxiety, control nausea, hiccups, diarrhea, and also cause muscle relaxation.

Addicted to Sensation

He also acknowledges that drugs serve the function of relaxation, of play, escape and sociability. When policy makers struggle to comprehend and deal with the drugs problem through a prohibition framework, they fail to acknowledge the constant search by humanity to express feelings of personal power and enjoyment -to enhance and expand consciousness.107 For the younger generation of drug users, it is already part of their culture on a spiritual level, increasing as other religious institutions diminish. The authorities underestimate the power of popular culture.

Pharmaceutical interest

Other pharmacological properties Stimast-7-enol, lupeol and ursolic acid reduced by 80 , 57 and 76 respectively, and the formation of micronu-cleated polychromatic erythrocytes by mitomycin in mice (Guevana AP etal., 1996). Fulvoplumiericin, ursolic and oleanolic acid inhibit the enzymatic activity of human ligase I (hLI) without disrupting the DNA relaxation, suggesting an allosteric effect caused by conformational change (Tan GT etal., 1996).

Calcium Channel Blockers

In addition to being used as antianginal and antiarrhythmic agents, calcium channel blockers are used to treat weak and moderate hypertension. These drugs prevent calcium ions from entering into the smooth muscle cells of peripheral vessels, and they cause relaxation of peripheral vessels, which leads to lowering of arterial blood pressure. In clinically used doses, calcium channel blockers relax smooth musculature of arteries and have little effect on veins. In doses that relax smooth musculature, calcium channel blockers have relatively little effect on cardiac contractility.

Epidural Administration Of Opiates

Stephanie Smith Marijuana

There are, however, some side effects of epidural anesthesia. The patient's legs often become numb, and movement of the leg muscles is difficult. Other mild side effects include a backache (thought to be a result of over-relaxation of the back muscles), itchiness of the skin, and an inability to urinate. More rarely, patients experience headache, lowered blood

Intractable Breathlessness

Patients have reported anecdotally that cannabis can relieve breathlessness by relieving anxiety and promoting relaxation. CB1 receptors are virtually absent from the part of the brain-stem which drives respiration (Herkenham et al. 1990), so it seems possible that symptom relief maybe achieved without negative effects upon breathing. THC has been shown to have anxiety-reducing and sedating effects (Fabre and McLendon 1981 Nicholson et al. 2004), as has CBD in larger doses (Zuardi et al. 1997). CBD is also thought to have useful modulating effects on some of the undesirable effects of THC (McPartland and Russo 2001).

Neuromuscular Junction Blocking Agents

There are two suggested mechanisms of blocking nerve impulse transmission. One group of drugs, the typical representative and progenitor of which is tubocurarine, are called antidepolarizing drugs. By competitively binding with corresponding H-cholinore-ceptor regions, they counteract action of acetylcholine on the postsynaptic membranes, thus preventing its depolarizing action and excluding the possibility of exciting muscle fibers. It should be noted that because of minor differences in dosage causing necessary muscle relaxation and facilitating the development of paralysis of skeletal muscle, a slight overdose of muscle relaxant compounds can lead to serious damage of respiratory function and a sharp decline in blood pressure. Overdose is reversed by introducing anti-cholinesterase agents, which block acetylcholinesterase and elevate the concentration of acetylcholine in the synaptic chain, using artificial respiration with oxygen, and when necessary, using drugs that elevate...

Helicobacter Pylori H Pylori

Esophagitis is a disorder of the defense mechanisms at the esophagealjunction, which is caused by regurgitation of the gastric contents, especially of gastric acid. GERD is associated with decreased gastric emptying and or increased incidence of transient lower esoph-ageal relaxation (T-LESR). Smoking and obesity are factors that increase the incidence cf GERD-like symptoms such as heartburn, belching, and bloating. Reflux has been observed in humans and dogs but not in rodents.

Tissue Levels of 2AG Continued

There is also growing evidence showing that endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands play some essential roles in the cardiovascular system (for reviews, see Kunos et al., 2000 Hogestatt and Zygmunt, 2002 Randall et al., 2002 Kunos et al., 2002). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells generate 2-AG when stimulated with thrombin, and the CB1 receptor mRNA is present in human aorta smooth muscle cells (Sugiura, Kodaka, Nakane, et al., 1998). The administration of 2-AG or 2-AG ether elicited hypotension in experimental animals (Mechoulam, Fride, Ben-Shabat, et al., 1998 Jarai et al., 2000). 2-AG also induced the relaxation of blood vessels in vitro (Kagota et al., 2001) and affected the norepinephrine release from rat heart sympathetic nerves (Kurihara et al., 2001). 2-AG has also been shown to counteract with endothelin-1-induced cerebral microvascular endothelial responses (Chen et al., 2000). Moreover, Stefano et al. (2000) reported that 2-AG induced the generation of nitric oxide from...

Gewurzkalmus Calamus GF 21 Alphaprodine

GHB is a central nervous system depressant that can relax or sedate the body. At higher doses it can slow breathing and heart rate to dangerous levels. GHB's intoxicating effects begin 10 to 20 minutes after the drug is taken. The effects typically last up to 4 hours, depending on the dosage. At lower doses, GHB can relieve anxiety and produce relaxation however, as the dose increases, the sedative effects may result in sleep and eventual coma or death. Overdose of GHB can occur rather quickly, and the signs are similar to those of other sedatives drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, headache, loss of consciousness, loss of reflexes, impaired breathing, and ultimately death.

Develop Skills for Coping With Automatic Thoughts

Use other thoughts to challenge the resumption thoughts. For example, I cannot get a little high without increasing my risk of using more or I don't have to use marijuana to unwind after work I can use relaxation exercises or I can have good times without marijuana it may feel strange at first, but in time I'll feel more comfortable. Find distractions. Think about something pleasant, like holiday plans, vacation spots, loved ones, relaxation, or hobbies. Focus on a task you want to get done.

Herbal Alert Passion Flower

The term passion flower is used to denote many of the approximately 400 species of the herb. Passion flower has been used in medicine to treat pain, anxiety, and insomnia. Some herbalists use the herb to treat symptoms of parkinson-ism. Passion flower is often used in combination with other herbs, such a valerian, chamomile, and hops, for promoting relaxation, rest, and sleep. Although no adverse reactions have been reported, large doses may cause CNS depression. The use of passion flower is contraindicated in pregnancy and in patients taking the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Passion flower contains coumarin, and the risk of bleeding may be increased when used in patients taking warfarin and passion flower.

Cardiovascular Effects Of Cannabinoids

In addition, Grainger and Boachie-Ansah (2001) reported that, in the sheep coronary artery, anandamide caused relaxations and this involved cyclooxygenase-dependent metabolism to vasodilator prostanoids. Despite these observations, most other studies have ruled out a major role for prostanoids in anandamide-induced relaxation (Randall et al., 1996 Randall et al., 1997 Plane et al., 1997 White and Hiley, 1997). The role of the endothelium in vasorelaxation to endogenous cannabinoids varies between vascular beds and tissues. Most studies have shown that the vasorelaxant responses to anandamide are endothelium-independent (Randall et al., 1996 White and Hiley, 1997 White et al., 2001) or only partly endothelium-dependent (Chaytor et al., 1999). However, in the bovine coronary artery, anandamide induces relaxations that are strictly endothelium-dependent (Pratt et al., 1998). This was explained by the endothelial cells metabolizing exogenous anandamide, via a...

The Role of Excipients

The glass transition temperature (Tg is considered to be a critical variable in estimating the molecular mobility of amorphous materials, and the addition of excipients with a high Ts is believed to increase the storage stability of lyophilized formulations. Stabilization by excipients that have high Tg values has been demonstrated with lyophilized bovine somatotropin and lysozyme865 and with lyophilized interleukin-2.866 The NMR relaxation-based critical mobility temperature ( Tmc), described above, can also be used as a measure of storage stability of lyophilized protein formulations. The TiC of a lyophilized bovine serum y-globu-lin formulation containing dextran increased with increasing molecular weight of the

Noradrenergic Receptors

The Function The Brain Drugs

The division of adrenoceptors into a- and p-types emerged some 50 years ago and was based on the relative potencies of catecholamines in evoking responses in different peripheral tissues. Further subdivision of p-adrenoceptors followed characterisation of their distinctive actions in the heart (pi), where they enhance the rate and force of myocardial contraction and in the bronchi (p2), where they cause relaxation of smooth muscle. The binding profile of selective agonists and antagonists was the next criterion for classifying different adrenoceptors and this approach is now complemented by molecular biology. The development of receptor-selective ligands has culminated in the characterisation of three major families of adrenoceptors (a1, a2 and p), each with their own subtypes (Fig. 8.10). All these receptors have been cloned and belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors predicted to have seven transmembrane domains (Hieble, Bondinell and Ruffolo 1995 Docherty 1998).

The Physical And Psychological Effects Of Marijuana

Forgetfulness. Hunger. Pain relief. Creative thinking. Panic attacks. Racing heart. Mouth dryness. Bloodshot eyes. Paranoia. Relaxation. Tiredness. Sensory awareness. Poor coordination. Uncontrollable laughter. difficulty in following a train of thought, and short-term memory loss. Many studies support THC's medicinal capacity to ease pain and nausea, decrease ocular pressure, and control convulsions. Typical psychological effects are anxiety, panic attacks, feelings of paranoia, confusion, relaxation and stress

Vascular actions of endocannabinoids

Anandamide was first shown to be a vasodilator in the rat cerebral vasculature, but these effects were sensitive to indomethacin, suggesting that cannabinoids may cause relaxation through the stimulation of the metabolism of arachidonic acid (Ellis etal., 1995). Dependence on prostanoids was also found for the vasorelaxant effects of A9-tetrahydrocannabinol. In the rat isolated mesenteric and coronary vasculatures, anandamide is a vasodilator (Randall et al., 1996 Randall and Kendall, 1997 Figure 20.2). In mesenteric arterial vessels (Randall et al., 1996 Randall et al., 1997 Plane et al., 1997 White and Hiley, 1997), and the coronary vasculature (Randall and Kendall, 1997), anandamide induces relaxation in the presence of blockers of both nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase, and also in the absence of the endothelium (Randall et al., 1996 White and Hiley, 1997 Figure 20.2). Accordingly in these vessels it acts independently of endothelial autacoids. Early studies reported that...

Assessing Cannabis Craving in a Research Setting

At the conclusion of a session, participants should undergo a debriefing session to reduce potentially heightened craving. The debriefing session entails 10-15 min of guided progressive relaxation. This procedure involves alternatively tensing and relaxing the major muscle groups of the body (e.g., neck, shoulders, arms, legs). As the various muscle groups are tensed and relaxed, the person is encouraged to note the difference between muscle tension and relaxation. Relaxation has been shown to reduce craving in the laboratory (6,9,10). Participants should not be released from the laboratory until their self-reported cravings at the end of the relaxation session are less than or equal to their craving levels at the start of the session.

Acute Health Effects Of Cannabis

Cannabis produces euphoria and relaxation, alters perception, distorts time, and intensifies ordinary sensory experiences, such as, eating, watching films, appreciating nature, and listening to music. Users' short-term memory and attention, motor skills, reaction time and skilled activities are impaired while they are intoxicated (Hall & Pacula, 2003 Iversen, 2007). These effects develop rapidly after smoking cannabis and typically last for 1 to 2 hours (Iversen, 2007). Their onset is delayed for 1 to 4 hours after oral use (Iversen, 2007).

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

The peripheral vasodilating drugs are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drugs, women in the immediate postpartum period (isoxsuprine causes uterine relaxation), and in patients with arterial bleeding. Safe use during pregnancy has not been established (Pregnancy Category C). Cilostazol is contraindicated in patients with CHF and during pregnancy (Pregnancy Category C). These drugs are used cautiously in patients with bleeding tendencies, severe cerebrovascu-lar or cardiovascular disease, and after a myocardial infarction. There are no significant drug-drug interactions.

Syndromes of Anxiety and Their Treatment

If you have panic disorder, you will benefit from eating a proper diet, eliminating caffeine and other drugs, exercising regularly, and practicing relaxation techniques. Psychotherapy can help you work on issues in your current life and past experiences that contribute to your anxiety. You may see a therapist for just a few sessions to help you during your current difficulties, or work for months or years on the underlying issues that led to your anxiety in the first place. Although some people rely on medications for years, the constant worry about having another attack takes its toll. It's hard to enjoy life and vigorously pursue all that it has to offer if you are constantly monitoring your level of anxiety and shaping what you do depending on how anxious it makes you feel. Psychotherapy and relaxation techniques may require more effort than medications, but they provide genuine long-lasting relief from anxiety so that you make your life as meaningful and satisfying as possible. A...

Prolactin antagonists

Oxytocin produces contraction of the uterine muscle and the myoepithelial cells in the breast. During pregnancy, it is produced physiologically in increasing amounts at the same time, it is inactivated by a similarly increased synthesis of the so-called pregnancy oxytocinase. A role for oxytocin in the natural initiation of labor has been suspected but not proven, but oxytocin is used clinically to induce or augment labor. Undesirable effects of administered oxytocin, such as fetal hypoxia, are associated with excessively strong uterine contractions or inadequate uterine relaxation between contractions (see also Chapter 2.14).

Introduction To Medicinal Chemistry

For example, diphenhydramine exhibits clinically significant levels of H, antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and a-adrenergic blockage, CNS depression, and (at least topically) local anesthetic activity. It would be difficult to accept that diphenhydramine is chemically related to agonists as different as histamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and y-aminobutyric acid. Acceptance of the accessory-binding concept would increase our understanding of structural incongruity of agonists and competitive antagonists as well as existence of such multifaceted competitive antagonists as diphenhydramine. The breadth of action may be due in part to the fact that diphenhydramine is such a flexible molecule. This may give it the capability to interact hydrophobically with, or accommodate itself to, different accessory sites with facility even though the sites obviously differ. Decreasing this high degree of conformational freedom by the introduction of an ortho methyl group...

Create Your Treatment Plan

Consider All Treatments It is essential that you consider all options, not just medications, before deciding on which treatment, or combination of treatments, is best for you. Educate yourself about what each treatment involves. Although some treatments may appear vague or complicated at first, you may get enormous benefit from them. For example, many people are skeptical when I describe the importance of relaxation techniques in minimizing their anxiety. The techniques sound cumbersome, ineffective, and perhaps even silly. However, people quickly notice that they are able to relax more effectively when they practice these exercises regularly. It is important that you consider alternative treatments with more thanjust a shake of the head.

The Building Blocks

Anxiety or fear, pleasure or relaxation, all feelings wax and wane, overpoweringly intense or frustratingly absent. At the extremes lie terror or ecstasy. Two opposite feelings may exist together at the same time. Emotional conflicts become more painful, or a new emotional acceptance takes place. We have a new appreciation of how others feel, or no longer care about them at all.

Herbal Therapy And Nutritional Supplements

Botanical medicine or herbal therapy is a type of complementary alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders. Individuals worldwide use both herbal therapy and nutritional supplements extensively. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80 of the world's population relies on herbs for a substantial part of their health care. Herbs have been used by virtually every culture in the world throughout history, from the beginning of time until now. For example, Hippocrates prescribed St. Johns Wort, currently a popular herbal remedy for depression. Native Americans used plants such as coneflower, ginseng, and ginger for therapeutic purposes. Herbal therapy is part of a group of nontraditional therapies commonly known as complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, CAM therapies are not widely taught in medical schools. A 1998 survey revealed that 75 of 117 US medical schools offered elective courses in CAM or included CAM topics in required...

Preadministration Assessment

Ergonovine and methylergonovine may be given orally during the postpartum period to reduce the possibility of postpartum hemorrhage and to prevent relaxation of the uterus. When the patient is to receive either of these drugs after delivery, it is important to take the blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate before administration.

Effects on Excitatory Neuronal Pathways

Cannabinoids, via CB1 receptor activation, might reduce the apamin component (which is mediated by ATP or related purines) of the inhibitory transmission in the mouse colon. Other indirect evidence was provided by Heinemann and colleagues, which showed that methanandamide depressed intestinal peristalsis with a mechanism involving, at least in part, facilitation of inhibitory pathways operating via apamin-sensitive K+ channels and nitric oxide (Heinemann et al. 1999) as mentioned above (Sect. 3.1.1). The effects of cannabinoids on the smooth muscle relaxation of the isolated gastric fundus in response to EFS of NANC innervation are not clear. In rat preparations (Storr et al. 2002), both excitatory cholinergic and NANC transmission were reduced by WIN 55,212-2 and anandamide. Only the anandamide responses were antagonised by the cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM630. By itself, AM630 had no effect on the contractile responses but facilitated the relaxation. This latter effect implied...

Assays Using Electrically Unstimulated Tissue

This involves measuring the height of the contraction induced by each dose of the -adrenoceptor or P2X receptor agonist in the presence of a cannabinoid or its vehicle. In the mouse vas deferens, the addition of either an a1-adreno-ceptor or P2X receptor agonist results in a transient contraction followed by relaxation, even when there is no wash-out. Extra care is therefore needed to ensure that a measure is obtained of the maximal increase in tension produced by each dose of the contractile agonist. The size of each contraction should be measured from a point on the baseline just prior to the start of the induced contraction. Contractile responses are expressed in g tension, as discussed in Subheading 3.4.3.

Voltage Gated Ca2Channels

L-type Ca2+ currents were inhibited by anandamide and WIN55212-2 in cat brain arterial smooth muscle cells that endogenously express the CB1 receptor (Gebremedhin et al. 1999). This response was blocked by SR141716 and pertussis toxin, indicating a critical role for CBi receptors and Gi o. Regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels in these smooth muscle cells could be pharmacologically correlated with vascular relaxation in cat cerebral arterial rings (Gebremedhin et al. 1999).

Novel and As Yet Uncharacterized NonCEI NonCB2 Receptors in the Endothelium

Strong pharmacological and biochemical evidence exists also for non-CB non-CB2 AEA receptors in vascular endothelium (Jarai et al., 1999 Wagner et al., 1999). Jarai and co-workers showed that AEA can induce an endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat and mouse mesenteric arteries via novel endothelial sites of action activated by the nonpsychotropic cannabinoid abnormal cannabidiol, as well as by some of its analogs, and antagonized by the natural cannabinoid, cannabidiol (Jarai et al., 1999) (Figure 6.1). Interestingly, the endothelium-dependent action of both AEA and abnormal cannabidiol on the mesenteric artery was partly antagonized by a rather selective concentration (0.5 M) of the CE antagonist SR141716A. More recent observations showed that the novel endothelial sites of action of AEA are (1) coupled to G-proteins, as they are blocked by pertussis toxin pretreatment of the rat mesenteric artery, (2) coupled to BK(Ca) calcium channels and to the PI3 kinase Akt signaling pathway,...

Cognitive Motor Effects

Any medicine containing THC may produce similar acute cognitive effects to recreational cannabis if taken in sufficient dosage. These effects include euphoria, sensory enhancement, increased social conviviality, and a sense of relaxation and contentment perceptual effects including distorted time and space estimation and alteration in sensory modalities impairment in both sustained and divided attention impairment in reaction time, motor control and dexterity impairment in various aspects of memory and higher cognitive function including associative and abstractive processes, planning and organisational strategies (reviewed by Solowij 1998 pp 29-40). The possible implications for those receiving cannabis-based medicines who wish to continue driving have been reviewed by Hadorn (2004). Interestingly, analysis of responsibility for traffic collisions has repeatedly indicated that drivers with only cannabis in their systems (and especially no alcohol) were, if anything, less culpable...

Structure and Dynamics of Kinases by NMR

Full backbone dynamics data can be extracted from these samples. However, resonance assignment is not straightforward because the sequential assignment procedure does not work in selectively labeled proteins. A possible solution is the preparation of dual-labeled samples in which amino acid Yyy is 15N-labeled, and amino acid Xxx is 13CO-labeled. If Xxx and Yyy are chosen so that an Xxx-Yyy pair occurs at an interesting position, the adjacent 13CO-15N pair can be detected in an HNCO experiment, so that the 15N 1H resonances of Yyy are assigned (93). Alternatively, we developed a strategy for assignment of selectively labeled protein complexes. This strategy is based on the strong relaxation enhancement of protons that are in vicinity to a paramagnetic center ( spin label ). In practice, the ligand (Gleevec in our case) is chemically modified to incorporate a paramagnetic moiety such as TEMPO at a defined position. Measurement of paramagnetic relaxation enhancements are then used to...

Where are endocannabinoids produced in the vasculature

Sensory nerves have been proposed as another potential site of production and release. In this respect Ishioka and Bukoski (1999) demonstrated that nerve-dependent calcium-induced relaxation of rat mesenteric vessels was blocked by SR141716A, with the suggestion that an endocannabinoid was released from the nerves, and mediated the vasorelaxation.

AEA Oxidation Products

The AEA oxidation products produced from the initial COX-2-derived products have been named prostamides (after prostaglandin-ethanolamides) (Figure 6.3) (Woodward et al., 2000). Prostamides are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less active than the corresponding prostaglandins (PGs) in both binding and functional assays of the several prostanoid receptors known to date (Ross et al., 2002 Woodward et al., 2001 2003). For example, prostamide E2 is 100 to 1000-fold less potent than PGE2 in binding assays carried out with EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptor-containing membranes. However, although this compound is, as expected, about 100-fold less potent than the free acid in functional assays of EP3 and EP4 receptors, it is also surprisingly only 15 times less potent than PGE2 in a functional assay of EP2 receptors, the relaxation of histamine-induced contractions of guinea pig trachea (Ross et al., 2002). Prostamide F2 and its 17-phenyl-derivative, bimatoprost (AGN192024, Lumigan ) (Figure 6.3)...

The Action Of The Heart And Blood Circulation

Coronary Angion

The pumping of the heart or the heartbeat is caused by alternating contractions and relaxations of the myocardium. These contractions are stimulated by electrical impulses from the sinoatrial or SA node located in the muscle of the right auricle. An impulse from the SA node causes the two auricles to contract, forcing blood into the ventricles. Contraction of the ventricles is controlled by impulses from the atrioventricular or AV node located at the junction of the two auricles (Fig. 1). Following contraction, the ventricles relax and allow the pressure to fall. Blood again flows into the auricles and an impulse from the SA node repeats the cycle again this process is called the cardiac cycle. The period of relaxation is called a diastole and the period of contraction is called a systole. Diastole is the longer of the two phases so that the heart can rest between the contractions. Hence, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure are observed. The rate of SA impulse is subconsciously...

Know Your Treatment Preferences

Assess Your Motivation The success of any treatment depends on how willing you are to go along with it. Although psychotherapy and relaxation techniques can help many people with anxiety, they won't be effective for you if you don't do them. If your doctor is recommending medication, but you don't want to take it because of your concern about side effects or because you don't think you need it, you won't get much benefit if your ambivalence leads you to take it inconsistently.

Regulation of AEA Activity at VR1 Receptors

The possibility that AEA could be a physiological agonist of native vanilloid receptors in mammals was initially opposed due to the low potency observed with this effect as compared to the CB1-mediated pharmacological actions of AEA in heterologous expression systems (Zygmunt et al., 1999 Smart et al., 2000). Yet, there are now numerous studies where AEA actions on native vanilloid receptor are observed at concentrations ( 1 M) similar to those required to observe overt CB1-mediated effects. Thus, AEA induces relaxation of rat mesenteric and hepatic arteries and of electrically-stimulated mouse vas deferens, and contracts the guinea pig ileum, with ED50 ranging between 10 and 500 nM (Zygmunt et al., 1999 Ross et al., 2001 Mang et al., 2001). On the other hand, in the case of the vanilloid-receptor-mediated contraction of guinea pig bronchi, or the release of SP and CGRP from DRG slices, high M concentrations are necessary to observe a response. Interestingly, the very poor effect of...

Top Poisons 19311 Topi poisons

Relatively few topi poisons have been thus far described. A clinically useful drug known for a long time is camptothecin (CPT), discovered as an antitumor alkaloid from the Chinese tree Camptotheca acuminata approximately 30 years ago. CPT was later shown to stabilize the covalent topi-DNA cleavage complex by preventing DNA religation. In fact, CPT both inhibits DNA relaxation and induces cleavage complexes (protein-linked DNA single-strand breaks) 38 . The drug-stabilized cleavable complex formation is a reversible molecular event. In addition, the single-strand breaks resulting from topl-CPT interaction should in principle be easily repaired. Hence, it is difficult to explain the outstanding antiproliferative activity exhibited by topi poisons. In fact, to account for cell death stimulation, it is believed that collisions between ternary (drug-top-DNA) complexes and advancing replication forks generate double-strand breaks. These lesions are much more toxic than single-stranded...

Biological Activities of Kinetin 2041 Influence of Kinetin on Plants

Kinetin's role is connected with the growth and development of plants. It stimulates seed germination, regulates cell division and reaction to stress, and determines apical dominance, formation, and activity of shoot meristems. Kinetin and 6-BAP counteract the inhibitory effect of darkness on epicotyl shoot formation and sprouting and raise it to the same level as in tissue incubated in light 13 . It is also implicated in the vascular development and synthesis of secondary metabolites like indol alkaloids and anthocyanins. Kinetin influences chloroplast differentiation and chlorophyll biosynthesis by stimulation of 5-aminolevulinc acid synthesis 8 , 14-16 . Cytokinin inhibits lateral root initiation by blocking the peri-cycle founder cells' cell division cycle at the G2 to M transition phase. It stimulates lateral root elongation by stimulating the G1 to S phase transition 17-19 and strongly inhibits of RNase from the Pisum sativum isolated leaf, inhibits proteolysis, and maintains...


Apart from avoidance, the therapist also teaches the patients new skills to cope with high-risk situations. For example, if patients used heroin in times of stress, they can be taught relaxation techniques. If they have problems controlling their anger and use drugs after an angry confrontation, they can be taught to avoid anger-producing situations or they can be taught new self-statements to


The first category of antinicotinics are those which cause neuromuscular blockade, that is, muscle paralysis. They do so by stabilizing the membrane to depolarization. These drugs affect both the PNS and SNS and do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Look and their structures and see if you can determine why this is so. With these properties they are excellent agents for use in muscle relaxation prior to surgery.


What do you think of when we talk about the word travel Sunny beaches, bikinis, swimming, relaxation, exotic food, holidays, winter sports, flying, adventure It could be all of those things, it could be just going on business. Travel overseas is exciting, isn't it Especially if you haven't been there before. The expectations. What will it look like, smell like, taste like, what will the people be like

With Mescaline

(with 100 mg harmaline, 60 mg mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenethyl-amine) 20 min ) At two hours I was in a pleasant state of physical relaxation, a fine sense of well being, and I found music most enjoyable. From then to the fourth hour, thoughts flowed freely, and it became obvious that insight was a major part of this experience. Normally unconscious thoughts were easily available. It was as if I could observe my mind in operation, as facts were weighed to form conclusions. By the sixth hour music was a thing of beauty, with the higher notes crisp and clear. The harmaline has probably worn off. Sleep at eight hours, and the next day was without any adverse effects. This was a remarkable experience, the insight of TMA, and the relaxation of MDMA.

Anergia Anergy

He administered ether to a patient having a neck tumour removed at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, in October 1846. Crawford Long, an American surgeon, had used ether in his practice since 1842 but did not make his findings public until 1849. A few weeks after Morton's demonstration, ether was used during a leg amputation performed by Robert Liston at University College Hospital, London. In Britain, official royal sanction was given to anesthetics by Queen Victoria, who accepted chloroform from her physician, John Snow, when giving birth to her eighth child, Prince Leopold, in 1853. Early anesthetics had unpleasant side effects (often causing vomiting on recovery) and were somewhat hazardous, since the dose needed to produce unconsciousness and full muscle relaxation (so that the surgeon could work unimpeded) was not far short of that which would paralyze the breathing centre of the brain. In addition, the early anesthetics were administered by simple devices consisting of...

El Ahijado El Nene

Electronic drugs Colloquial term for electro-meditation devices which seek to produce effects similar to drugs by direct electrical stimulation of the brain - advertised as mellow, deeper relaxation, lucid dreaming, and increased psychic ability . Electuary A drug mixed with sugar and water or honey into a pasty mass suitable for oral administration. Middle English electu-arie, from Late Latin electuarium, probably alteration of Greek ekleikton, from ekleik-hein, to lick up ek-, out + leikhein, to lick. Elefant 1. Colloquial term for heroin. 2. Colloquial term for LSD on paper. 3. Colloquial term for PCP. Elefantenwinde Argyreia nervosa. Elefanti Colloquial term for PCP. Elefanti blanco Colloquial term for LSD. Elenium Chlordiazepoxide or Chlordi-azepoxide hydrochloride. Elephant 1. Colloquial term for heroin. 2. Colloquial term for LSD on paper. 3. Colloquial term for PCP, from its former use as a big animal tranquilizer. Elephant creeper Argyreia...

Purine Alkaloids

The purine alkaloids caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline (Figure 6.135) are all methyl derivatives of xanthine and they commonly co-occur in a particular plant. The major sources of these compounds are the beverage materials such as tea, coffee, cocoa, and cola, which owe their stimulant properties to these water-soluble alkaloids. They competitively inhibit phosphodiesterase, resulting in an increase in cyclic AMP and subsequent release of adrenaline. This leads to a stimulation of the CNS, a relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, and induction of diuresis, as major effects. These effects vary in the three compounds. Caffeine is the best CNS stimulant, and has weak diuretic action. Theobromine has little stimulant action, but has more diuretic activity and also muscle relaxant properties. Theophylline also has low stimulant action and is an effective diuretic, but it relaxes smooth muscle better than caffeine or theobromine.


As the twenty-first century began, the recreational use of marijuana was mainly for relaxation. The drug is often used in a social setting of mellow geniality. The drug can produce euphoria in that context recreational usage can leak over into self-medication easing depression. One authority has said that psychological effects are facilitated by the substance, not caused by it. In other words, marijuana may help people achieve states of consciousness that they can learn to achieve in other ways.

In Vivo Studies 321

Lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) relaxation is the chief mechanism for gastro-oesophageal reflux, and thus represents a potential target in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The principal anatomical components of LOS relaxation are afferent gastric pathways, brainstem integrative centre, and efferent inhibitory pathways to the lower oesophageal sphincter. Functional studies have shown that i.v. administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonists WIN 55,2122 and A9-THC inhibited (via CB1 receptor activation) LOS relaxation in dogs (Lehmann et al. 2002) and ferrets (Partosoedarso et al. 2003), the effect being associated, at least in the dog, with the inhibition of gastro-oesophageal reflux (Lehman et al. 2002). The CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, administered alone, stimulated the LOS relaxation incidence and increased the number of reflux episodes and swallowing rate, suggesting an involvement of endocannabinoids in ongoing suppression of LOS relaxation. The most...

Ginkgo biloba

The same group investigated the effect of 50 mg kg dose of Korean red ginseng in normal male rats and rabbits 28 . They found that the intracavernosal pressure was greater in the ginseng-treated rats and rabbits compared to the placebo-treated group, resulting in significantly increased rabbit and rat cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation after 3 months of treatment 28 .

Muscle relaxants

Muscle relaxants are usually used in surgical anesthesia because most anesthetics alone do not produce sufficient relaxation of the skeletal muscles. In contrast to general and local anesthetics, muscle relaxants cross the blood-brain barrier and the placenta only in limited amounts due to their high degree of ionization and limited lipid solubility. Thus, in fetal tissue these agents achieve only 5-10 of the concentration measured in the maternal blood (Demetriou 1982, Abouleish 1980). Hence, under regular anesthesia, it is presumed that the concentrations of these agents in fetal blood are well below the effective dose for production of fetal muscle relaxation. Indeed, no effects were observed in the fetuses of 25 women treated with tubocu-rarine in the second or third trimester of pregnancy (Moise 1987). On the other hand, there is one case report of an infant born with multiple congenital joint contractures whose mother was treated with multiple doses of tubocurarine (Jago 1970)....

Tao Of Hypnosis

It's time to change the way that you perceive and interact with your own mind, imagination and dream state. This guidebook and three audio CD set combines a mix of meditation, relaxation and self-hypnosis techniques, that enable you to enter a deep self-hypnotic trance where you will trek through the forest, fly above Experience visual, audio, tactile, smell and taste in virtual reality. Use Hypnotic Journeys for deep relaxation, as a sleep aid or as a unique new form of home entertainment and mind exploration.

Brain Function

EEG involves alterations in alpha waves in the frontal cortex. Alpha waves cycle at 7.5 to 12.5 hertz and usually indicate a state of quiet relaxation. People with an average of 10 years of daily marijuana use show more power in these alpha waves. Their frontal alpha waves also show greater coherence, meaning that the left and right sides of their brains seem to emit these waves at the same time. The meaning of this greater coherence in brain waves remains unclear. Greater brain wave coherence may mean a state of relaxation, sedation, or inattentiveness. Participants in this study had refrained from using cannabis for 24 hours, so it is unlikely that this effect stems from intoxication. These increases in frontal alpha waves parallel the effects of acute THC intoxication (Struve et al., 1999). Several studies reveal that alpha waves increase after THC ingestion, particularly during periods of subjective euphoria (e.g., Lukas, Mendelson, & Benedikt, 1995). Perhaps chronic users...


And it differs from sedative and hypnotic drugs of other classes. The primary effects of benzodiazepines on the central nervous system (CNS) are relief of anxiety, and worry, sedative effect, relaxation of skeletal muscle, and soporific action. They depress the respiratory system to a lesser degree than hypnotics and sedative drugs, and they also cause addiction to a lesser degree. A few representatives of drugs of the benzodiazepine series have a slightly different spectrum of use. Flurazepam, triazolam, and temazepam are used as soporific agents, whereas carbamazepine is used as an anticonvulsant.

Local Anesthetics

Spinal anesthesia Spinal anesthesia is the introduction of local anesthetics directly into the spinal fluid, which causes a sympathetic blockage, or loss of feeling as well as muscle relaxation resulting from the interaction of anesthetic with every spinal nerve tract. This method is used during major surgical interventions. As a rule, lidocaine, mepivacaine, and bupivacaine are used for this purpose.


You should check your local laws and see if you qualify as a medical user. There are many ailments that marijuana can reasonably be used for. Depression, chronic pain, insomnia, glaucoma, MS, cancer therapy, HIV, appetite depression and muscle relaxation to name a few. Strong marijuana can lower blood pressure significantly. Many medical users find that even a very small amount of marijuana can greatly alleviate their symptoms.

CNS Depressants

Cocaine And Biogenic Amine Transporters

Muscle relaxation Methoxyfluorane Nonflammable or explosive skeletal muscle Many of the early anesthetics such as ethylene, chloroform, and cyclopropane are considered obsolete in modern medicine. The reasons vary. Flammability and explosive potential apply to ethyl ether and cyclopropane. The inability of some to produce the skeletal muscle relaxation necessary for surgery, except at very deep levels of anesthesia, doomed them with the introduction of the muscle relaxants in the 1940s, beginning with curare and the synthetic analogs that followed (Chapter 8). This permitted the use of shallower levels of anesthesia and increased safety. Chloroform is quite hepato- and car-diotoxic, yet it was still widely used well into the twentieth century. Since ether was such an effective and toxicologically safe drug and had been in use for so long (since the mid-1840s), the idea of retaining the ether structure, but decreasing its flammability by substituting halogen atoms for hydrogens, was...


Treatments for this form of headache remain imperfect. Biofeedback, which trains people to use relaxation and imagery to change blood flow, has proven particularly helpful. With as little as eight sessions of proper therapy, people can learn to shrink the arteries or decrease the blood flow at the site of the pain, bringing meaningful relief to a headache (Elmore & Tursky, 1981). Several medications help alleviate symptoms for some sufferers, but fail to help 30 of people. These drugs also produce aversive side effects in up to 66 of patients. The disadvantages of these medications led some migraine sufferers to try marijuana. Physicians have prescribed cannabis for headache since as early as 1874. Advocates of the treatment protested when it was removed from the U.S. Pharmacopoeia in 1942 (Russo, 1998). Marijuana may have an advantage over other painkillers, such as the opiates, because cannabis not only combats headache pain, but it also inhibits the nausea and vomiting associated...