Relaxation Techniques

Relax Your Mind

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Deep Muscle Relaxation Practice Exercise

Arrange to spend some quiet time in a room where you will not be interrupted. Try to practice this relaxation technique at least three times during the next week. Proceed through the eight groups of muscles in the list below, first tensing each for 5 seconds and then relaxing each for 15 to 20 seconds.

Mechanisms of vasorelaxation for endocannabinoids

In rat mesenteric vessels, anandamide-induced relaxation is sensitive to nonspecific potassium channel blockers, including cytochrome P450 inhibitors (Randall et al., 1997). In isolated mesenteric arterial segments the relaxation to anandamide was blocked by selective inhibitors of large conductance calcium-activated K+-channels (charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin Plane et al., 1997). Furthermore, in similar mesenteric vessels, the anandamide-induced relaxation was insensitive to the combination of charybdotoxin and apamin (White and Hiley, 1997). By contrast in the perfused mesenteric arterial bed the combination of charybdotoxin and apamin abolished relaxation to anandamide, although neither agent alone affected the responses (Randall and Kendall, 1998). In the guinea-pig carotid artery, the anandamide-induced hyperpolarization, which was insensitive to charybdotoxin plus apamin, was blocked by the ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor, glib-enclamide (Chataigneau et al., 1998). By...

Herbal Therapy And Nutritional Supplements

Botanical medicine or herbal therapy is a type of complementary alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders. Individuals worldwide use both herbal therapy and nutritional supplements extensively. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80 of the world's population relies on herbs for a substantial part of their health care. Herbs have been used by virtually every culture in the world throughout history, from the beginning of time until now. For example, Hippocrates prescribed St. Johns Wort, currently a popular herbal remedy for depression. Native Americans used plants such as coneflower, ginseng, and ginger for therapeutic purposes. Herbal therapy is part of a group of nontraditional therapies commonly known as complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, CAM therapies are not widely taught in medical schools. A 1998 survey revealed that 75 of 117 US medical schools offered elective courses in CAM or included CAM topics in required...

See also Neuromuscular blocking drugs General Information

Alcuronium is a synthetic derivative of toxiferine, an alkaloid of calabash curare, and is a non-depolarizing relaxant with properties and adverse effects similar to those of D-tubocurarine. It is about twice as potent as D-tubocurarine, 0.15-0.25 mg kg usually being adequate for abdominal relaxation, and has a similar onset time and a slightly shorter duration of action. It is bound to albumin (40 ), and requirements for alcuronium are less if the plasma albumin levels are low, as may occur in hepatic disease. Like D-tubocurarine, alcuronium does not undergo biotransformation. Excretion occurs mainly in the urine (80-85 ), but, as with D-tubocurarine, some is also excreted in the bile (15-20 ) (1). Persistent relaxation has been reported in renal insufficiency (2) and the drug is relatively contraindicated in this condition.

The Chemical Imbalance Theory

First, no biological etiology has been proven for any psychiatric disorder (except Alzheimer's disease, which has a genetic component) in spite of decades of research. Second, life experiences contribute to the development of some psychiatric disorders. For example, parental loss prior to the age of 18 leads to an increased risk of developing panic disorder and different phobias as adults.8 Third, non-biological treatments effectively treat some psychiatric disorders. For example, a combination of practice with relaxation techniques, two to three months of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and attention to lifestyle changes can ameliorate panic attacks in many people. These facts, and others, strongly suggest that abnormal biology is not the sole cause of psychiatric disorders.

Voltage Gated Ca2Channels

L-type Ca2+ currents were inhibited by anandamide and WIN55212-2 in cat brain arterial smooth muscle cells that endogenously express the CB1 receptor (Gebremedhin et al. 1999). This response was blocked by SR141716 and pertussis toxin, indicating a critical role for CBi receptors and Gi o. Regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels in these smooth muscle cells could be pharmacologically correlated with vascular relaxation in cat cerebral arterial rings (Gebremedhin et al. 1999).

Pharmaceutical interest

Hypothetical pharmacological properties Cassythia filiformis L alkaloids the blockade of a1 -adrenoreceptors stimulates urination through relaxation of the trigone (T), ureter (UR) and sphincter (S). Blockade of Fig. 20. Hypothetical pharmacological properties Cassythia filiformis L alkaloids the blockade of a1 -adrenoreceptors stimulates urination through relaxation of the trigone (T), ureter (UR) and sphincter (S). Blockade of through relaxation of hair follicles, smooth noreceptors contracts the smooth muscle and scalp vessels. Contraction of muscle of arteries, veins, splenic uterus through prostaglandin. F2a. capsules, uterus, vas deferent, prostatic capsules, iris radial muscles (mydriasis), trigone and sphincter of the urinary bladder, ureter, hair follicles, and increases gland secretion. the scalp. Minoxidil is a vasodilator is used to stimulate hair growth. The diuretic use of Cassytha filiformis L. may involve relaxation of the trigone, sphincter and ureter. The...

Introduction To Medicinal Chemistry

For example, diphenhydramine exhibits clinically significant levels of H, antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and a-adrenergic blockage, CNS depression, and (at least topically) local anesthetic activity. It would be difficult to accept that diphenhydramine is chemically related to agonists as different as histamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and y-aminobutyric acid. Acceptance of the accessory-binding concept would increase our understanding of structural incongruity of agonists and competitive antagonists as well as existence of such multifaceted competitive antagonists as diphenhydramine. The breadth of action may be due in part to the fact that diphenhydramine is such a flexible molecule. This may give it the capability to interact hydrophobically with, or accommodate itself to, different accessory sites with facility even though the sites obviously differ. Decreasing this high degree of conformational freedom by the introduction of an ortho methyl group...

Helicobacter Pylori H Pylori

Esophagitis is a disorder of the defense mechanisms at the esophagealjunction, which is caused by regurgitation of the gastric contents, especially of gastric acid. GERD is associated with decreased gastric emptying and or increased incidence of transient lower esoph-ageal relaxation (T-LESR). Smoking and obesity are factors that increase the incidence cf GERD-like symptoms such as heartburn, belching, and bloating. Reflux has been observed in humans and dogs but not in rodents.

Make a Complete Diagnosis

We discussed the difficulties with making a diagnosis in part I. Nevertheless, you need to come to some understanding about the difficulties you are having in order to figure out how to help yourself most effectively. The conclusions you reach will affect the treatment you choose. For example, if you've suddenly begun to experience panic attacks and you feel that nothing in your life causes them, you are more likely to look for medication as a solution. On the other hand, if you connect the panic attacks with the feeling of being out of control ever since your father died of a sudden heart attack, you will probably be more open to psychotherapy and relaxation techniques. If you see schizophrenia strictly as a brain disease, then medication can seem like the only sensible treatment. If you see it as an illness that strongly affects you as a person, however, you are more likely to see the additional value provided by psychotherapy and rehabilitation to help you cope successfully with...

Know Your Treatment Preferences

Assess Your Motivation The success of any treatment depends on how willing you are to go along with it. Although psychotherapy and relaxation techniques can help many people with anxiety, they won't be effective for you if you don't do them. If your doctor is recommending medication, but you don't want to take it because of your concern about side effects or because you don't think you need it, you won't get much benefit if your ambivalence leads you to take it inconsistently.

Create Your Treatment Plan

Consider All Treatments It is essential that you consider all options, not just medications, before deciding on which treatment, or combination of treatments, is best for you. Educate yourself about what each treatment involves. Although some treatments may appear vague or complicated at first, you may get enormous benefit from them. For example, many people are skeptical when I describe the importance of relaxation techniques in minimizing their anxiety. The techniques sound cumbersome, ineffective, and perhaps even silly. However, people quickly notice that they are able to relax more effectively when they practice these exercises regularly. It is important that you consider alternative treatments with more thanjust a shake of the head.

The Physical And Psychological Effects Of Marijuana

Forgetfulness. Hunger. Pain relief. Creative thinking. Panic attacks. Racing heart. Mouth dryness. Bloodshot eyes. Paranoia. Relaxation. Tiredness. Sensory awareness. Poor coordination. Uncontrollable laughter. difficulty in following a train of thought, and short-term memory loss. Many studies support THC's medicinal capacity to ease pain and nausea, decrease ocular pressure, and control convulsions. Typical psychological effects are anxiety, panic attacks, feelings of paranoia, confusion, relaxation and stress

Herbal Alert Passion Flower

The term passion flower is used to denote many of the approximately 400 species of the herb. Passion flower has been used in medicine to treat pain, anxiety, and insomnia. Some herbalists use the herb to treat symptoms of parkinson-ism. Passion flower is often used in combination with other herbs, such a valerian, chamomile, and hops, for promoting relaxation, rest, and sleep. Although no adverse reactions have been reported, large doses may cause CNS depression. The use of passion flower is contraindicated in pregnancy and in patients taking the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Passion flower contains coumarin, and the risk of bleeding may be increased when used in patients taking warfarin and passion flower.

Syndromes of Anxiety and Their Treatment

If you have panic disorder, you will benefit from eating a proper diet, eliminating caffeine and other drugs, exercising regularly, and practicing relaxation techniques. Psychotherapy can help you work on issues in your current life and past experiences that contribute to your anxiety. You may see a therapist for just a few sessions to help you during your current difficulties, or work for months or years on the underlying issues that led to your anxiety in the first place. Although some people rely on medications for years, the constant worry about having another attack takes its toll. It's hard to enjoy life and vigorously pursue all that it has to offer if you are constantly monitoring your level of anxiety and shaping what you do depending on how anxious it makes you feel. Psychotherapy and relaxation techniques may require more effort than medications, but they provide genuine long-lasting relief from anxiety so that you make your life as meaningful and satisfying as possible. A...

General Information

The effect of cisapride 10 mg qds for 5 days on the frequency of nocturnal transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and esophageal acid exposure has been studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 10 patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (4). Cisapride significantly reduced the frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation during sleep and increased lower esophageal sphincter pressure without changing gastric emptying. However, in a larger doubleblind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease, cisapride 20 mg bd for 4 weeks (despite adequate plasma concentrations) had no significant effects on swallow-induced esophageal peristaltic activity, the basal tone of the lower esophageal sphincter, or the number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations induced by gas distension of the stomach (5). Adverse effects were similar in the two treatment sequences, although there were a...

Novel and As Yet Uncharacterized NonCEI NonCB2 Receptors in the Endothelium

Strong pharmacological and biochemical evidence exists also for non-CB non-CB2 AEA receptors in vascular endothelium (Jarai et al., 1999 Wagner et al., 1999). Jarai and co-workers showed that AEA can induce an endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat and mouse mesenteric arteries via novel endothelial sites of action activated by the nonpsychotropic cannabinoid abnormal cannabidiol, as well as by some of its analogs, and antagonized by the natural cannabinoid, cannabidiol (Jarai et al., 1999) (Figure 6.1). Interestingly, the endothelium-dependent action of both AEA and abnormal cannabidiol on the mesenteric artery was partly antagonized by a rather selective concentration (0.5 M) of the CE antagonist SR141716A. More recent observations showed that the novel endothelial sites of action of AEA are (1) coupled to G-proteins, as they are blocked by pertussis toxin pretreatment of the rat mesenteric artery, (2) coupled to BK(Ca) calcium channels and to the PI3 kinase Akt signaling pathway,...

Acute Health Effects Of Cannabis

Cannabis produces euphoria and relaxation, alters perception, distorts time, and intensifies ordinary sensory experiences, such as, eating, watching films, appreciating nature, and listening to music. Users' short-term memory and attention, motor skills, reaction time and skilled activities are impaired while they are intoxicated (Hall & Pacula, 2003 Iversen, 2007). These effects develop rapidly after smoking cannabis and typically last for 1 to 2 hours (Iversen, 2007). Their onset is delayed for 1 to 4 hours after oral use (Iversen, 2007).

AEA and Vanilloid VR1 Receptors

Relaxation of rodent small arteries in vitro, via a mechanism that was CBr and endothelium-independent and blocked by previous treatment of arteries with capsaicin and by the VR1 antagonist, capsazepine (Zygmunt et al., 1999). Accordingly, AEA activated the recombinant rat VR1 receptor overexpressed in either human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells or Xenopus oocytes, although less potently than with native vanilloid receptors in the rat mesenteric artery (Zygmunt et al., 1999). The subsequent discovery that a similar action was exerted more efficaciously and potently also at recombinant human VR1 receptors (Smart et al., 2000) triggered a series of studies aimed at investigating whether other pharmacological activities of this compound might be mediated by vanilloid receptors. There are now tens of reports indicating that AEA might work as an activator of native vanilloid receptors and possibly as an endovanilloid, under both physiological and, particularly, pathological conditions,...

The Building Blocks

Anxiety or fear, pleasure or relaxation, all feelings wax and wane, overpoweringly intense or frustratingly absent. At the extremes lie terror or ecstasy. Two opposite feelings may exist together at the same time. Emotional conflicts become more painful, or a new emotional acceptance takes place. We have a new appreciation of how others feel, or no longer care about them at all.

Regulation of AEA Activity at VR1 Receptors

The possibility that AEA could be a physiological agonist of native vanilloid receptors in mammals was initially opposed due to the low potency observed with this effect as compared to the CB1-mediated pharmacological actions of AEA in heterologous expression systems (Zygmunt et al., 1999 Smart et al., 2000). Yet, there are now numerous studies where AEA actions on native vanilloid receptor are observed at concentrations (< 1 M) similar to those required to observe overt CB1-mediated effects. Thus, AEA induces relaxation of rat mesenteric and hepatic arteries and of electrically-stimulated mouse vas deferens, and contracts the guinea pig ileum, with ED50 ranging between 10 and 500 nM (Zygmunt et al., 1999 Ross et al., 2001 Mang et al., 2001). On the other hand, in the case of the vanilloid-receptor-mediated contraction of guinea pig bronchi, or the release of SP and CGRP from DRG slices, high M concentrations are necessary to observe a response. Interestingly, the very poor effect...

AEA Oxidation Products

The AEA oxidation products produced from the initial COX-2-derived products have been named prostamides (after prostaglandin-ethanolamides) (Figure 6.3) (Woodward et al., 2000). Prostamides are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less active than the corresponding prostaglandins (PGs) in both binding and functional assays of the several prostanoid receptors known to date (Ross et al., 2002 Woodward et al., 2001 2003). For example, prostamide E2 is 100 to 1000-fold less potent than PGE2 in binding assays carried out with EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptor-containing membranes. However, although this compound is, as expected, about 100-fold less potent than the free acid in functional assays of EP3 and EP4 receptors, it is also surprisingly only 15 times less potent than PGE2 in a functional assay of EP2 receptors, the relaxation of histamine-induced contractions of guinea pig trachea (Ross et al., 2002). Prostamide F2 and its 17-phenyl-derivative, bimatoprost (AGN192024, Lumigan ) (Figure 6.3)...

Tissue Levels of 2AG Continued

There is also growing evidence showing that endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands play some essential roles in the cardiovascular system (for reviews, see Kunos et al., 2000 Hogestatt and Zygmunt, 2002 Randall et al., 2002 Kunos et al., 2002). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells generate 2-AG when stimulated with thrombin, and the CB1 receptor mRNA is present in human aorta smooth muscle cells (Sugiura, Kodaka, Nakane, et al., 1998). The administration of 2-AG or 2-AG ether elicited hypotension in experimental animals (Mechoulam, Fride, Ben-Shabat, et al., 1998 Jarai et al., 2000). 2-AG also induced the relaxation of blood vessels in vitro (Kagota et al., 2001) and affected the norepinephrine release from rat heart sympathetic nerves (Kurihara et al., 2001). 2-AG has also been shown to counteract with endothelin-1-induced cerebral microvascular endothelial responses (Chen et al., 2000). Moreover, Stefano et al. (2000) reported that 2-AG induced the generation of nitric oxide from...

Gewurzkalmus Calamus GF 21 Alphaprodine

GHB is a central nervous system depressant that can relax or sedate the body. At higher doses it can slow breathing and heart rate to dangerous levels. GHB's intoxicating effects begin 10 to 20 minutes after the drug is taken. The effects typically last up to 4 hours, depending on the dosage. At lower doses, GHB can relieve anxiety and produce relaxation however, as the dose increases, the sedative effects may result in sleep and eventual coma or death. Overdose of GHB can occur rather quickly, and the signs are similar to those of other sedatives drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, headache, loss of consciousness, loss of reflexes, impaired breathing, and ultimately death.

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

The peripheral vasodilating drugs are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drugs, women in the immediate postpartum period (isoxsuprine causes uterine relaxation), and in patients with arterial bleeding. Safe use during pregnancy has not been established (Pregnancy Category C). Cilostazol is contraindicated in patients with CHF and during pregnancy (Pregnancy Category C). These drugs are used cautiously in patients with bleeding tendencies, severe cerebrovascu-lar or cardiovascular disease, and after a myocardial infarction. There are no significant drug-drug interactions.

How to Stop Medication

The Effectiveness of Other Treatments You need to judge the effectiveness of alternative treatments. Are there other treatments that would allow you to get off the medication at some point For example, panic attacks often resolve with a combination of brief psychotherapy, relaxation exercises, and lifestyle changes. While taking medication during the first few weeks after they've started may provide

Neuromuscular Junction Blocking Agents

There are two suggested mechanisms of blocking nerve impulse transmission. One group of drugs, the typical representative and progenitor of which is tubocurarine, are called antidepolarizing drugs. By competitively binding with corresponding H-cholinore-ceptor regions, they counteract action of acetylcholine on the postsynaptic membranes, thus preventing its depolarizing action and excluding the possibility of exciting muscle fibers. It should be noted that because of minor differences in dosage causing necessary muscle relaxation and facilitating the development of paralysis of skeletal muscle, a slight overdose of muscle relaxant compounds can lead to serious damage of respiratory function and a sharp decline in blood pressure. Overdose is reversed by introducing anti-cholinesterase agents, which block acetylcholinesterase and elevate the concentration of acetylcholine in the synaptic chain, using artificial respiration with oxygen, and when necessary, using drugs that elevate...

Noradrenergic Receptors

The division of adrenoceptors into a- and p-types emerged some 50 years ago and was based on the relative potencies of catecholamines in evoking responses in different peripheral tissues. Further subdivision of p-adrenoceptors followed characterisation of their distinctive actions in the heart (pi), where they enhance the rate and force of myocardial contraction and in the bronchi (p2), where they cause relaxation of smooth muscle. The binding profile of selective agonists and antagonists was the next criterion for classifying different adrenoceptors and this approach is now complemented by molecular biology. The development of receptor-selective ligands has culminated in the characterisation of three major families of adrenoceptors (a1, a2 and p), each with their own subtypes (Fig. 8.10). All these receptors have been cloned and belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors predicted to have seven transmembrane domains (Hieble, Bondinell and Ruffolo 1995 Docherty 1998).

Prolactin antagonists

Oxytocin produces contraction of the uterine muscle and the myoepithelial cells in the breast. During pregnancy, it is produced physiologically in increasing amounts at the same time, it is inactivated by a similarly increased synthesis of the so-called pregnancy oxytocinase. A role for oxytocin in the natural initiation of labor has been suspected but not proven, but oxytocin is used clinically to induce or augment labor. Undesirable effects of administered oxytocin, such as fetal hypoxia, are associated with excessively strong uterine contractions or inadequate uterine relaxation between contractions (see also Chapter 2.14).

Develop Skills for Coping With Automatic Thoughts

Use other thoughts to challenge the resumption thoughts. For example, I cannot get a little high without increasing my risk of using more or I don't have to use marijuana to unwind after work I can use relaxation exercises or I can have good times without marijuana it may feel strange at first, but in time I'll feel more comfortable. Find distractions. Think about something pleasant, like holiday plans, vacation spots, loved ones, relaxation, or hobbies. Focus on a task you want to get done.

Pregnancy Category None

In Europe methaqualone was initially a nonprescription item. In the United States the drug was first put in Schedule V, but as methaqualone became popular among illicit users seeking euphoria and relaxation, more restrictions were placed on its legal accessibility. The drug became a Schedule II substance in 1973. When President Jimmy Carter's drug policy adviser Dr. Peter Bourne wrote a methaqualone prescription that violated regulations, that incident started a series of events that hounded Bourne out of office. Eventually concern about the drug grew so high that it was reclassified in 1984 as a Schedule I substance having no recognized medical function.

Treatment Implementation

It is always advisable to provide patients with information on good sleep hygiene practices (see Table 5-1). Although behavioral techniques such as stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, and sleep-restriction seem to complement pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone may have better long-term outcome, compared to the combination of CBT and medications. In contrast, added CBT seems to facilitate the tapering of hypnotics.

Assays Using Electrically Unstimulated Tissue

This involves measuring the height of the contraction induced by each dose of the -adrenoceptor or P2X receptor agonist in the presence of a cannabinoid or its vehicle. In the mouse vas deferens, the addition of either an a1-adreno-ceptor or P2X receptor agonist results in a transient contraction followed by relaxation, even when there is no wash-out. Extra care is therefore needed to ensure that a measure is obtained of the maximal increase in tension produced by each dose of the contractile agonist. The size of each contraction should be measured from a point on the baseline just prior to the start of the induced contraction. Contractile responses are expressed in g tension, as discussed in Subheading 3.4.3.

Physiology and Pharmacology

Erection occurs as a result of increased pressure in the corpora cavernosa, which translates into penile rigidity. The pressure increase is caused by three synergistic processes (2) relaxation of the smooth muscles of the corpora cavernosa (2)increase in arterial blood flow to the penis and (3) restriction of the venous blood flow out of the penis. Both central and peripheral mechanisms contribute to the process of penile erection. At the central level, the psychological component of penile erection is controlled by the hypotha-lamic and limbic systems (140). At the peripheral level, both sympathetic and parasympa-thetic pathways as well as several mediators are involved. Psychogenic and local stimulation results in the release of neurotransmit-ters from the cavernosal nerve terminals and smooth muscle endothelium. Factors that mediate the corpus cavernosum relaxation include nitric oxide (NO), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide and prostaglandin....

Top Poisons 19311 Topi poisons

Relatively few topi poisons have been thus far described. A clinically useful drug known for a long time is camptothecin (CPT), discovered as an antitumor alkaloid from the Chinese tree Camptotheca acuminata approximately 30 years ago. CPT was later shown to stabilize the covalent topi-DNA cleavage complex by preventing DNA religation. In fact, CPT both inhibits DNA relaxation and induces cleavage complexes (protein-linked DNA single-strand breaks) 38 . The drug-stabilized cleavable complex formation is a reversible molecular event. In addition, the single-strand breaks resulting from topl-CPT interaction should in principle be easily repaired. Hence, it is difficult to explain the outstanding antiproliferative activity exhibited by topi poisons. In fact, to account for cell death stimulation, it is believed that collisions between ternary (drug-top-DNA) complexes and advancing replication forks generate double-strand breaks. These lesions are much more toxic than single-stranded...

Assessing Cannabis Craving in a Research Setting

At the conclusion of a session, participants should undergo a debriefing session to reduce potentially heightened craving. The debriefing session entails 10-15 min of guided progressive relaxation. This procedure involves alternatively tensing and relaxing the major muscle groups of the body (e.g., neck, shoulders, arms, legs). As the various muscle groups are tensed and relaxed, the person is encouraged to note the difference between muscle tension and relaxation. Relaxation has been shown to reduce craving in the laboratory (6,9,10). Participants should not be released from the laboratory until their self-reported cravings at the end of the relaxation session are less than or equal to their craving levels at the start of the session.

Cardiovascular Effects Of Cannabinoids

In addition, Grainger and Boachie-Ansah (2001) reported that, in the sheep coronary artery, anandamide caused relaxations and this involved cyclooxygenase-dependent metabolism to vasodilator prostanoids. Despite these observations, most other studies have ruled out a major role for prostanoids in anandamide-induced relaxation (Randall et al., 1996 Randall et al., 1997 Plane et al., 1997 White and Hiley, 1997). The role of the endothelium in vasorelaxation to endogenous cannabinoids varies between vascular beds and tissues. Most studies have shown that the vasorelaxant responses to anandamide are endothelium-independent (Randall et al., 1996 White and Hiley, 1997 White et al., 2001) or only partly endothelium-dependent (Chaytor et al., 1999). However, in the bovine coronary artery, anandamide induces relaxations that are strictly endothelium-dependent (Pratt et al., 1998). This was explained by the endothelial cells metabolizing exogenous anandamide, via a...

Effects on Excitatory Neuronal Pathways

Cannabinoids, via CB1 receptor activation, might reduce the apamin component (which is mediated by ATP or related purines) of the inhibitory transmission in the mouse colon. Other indirect evidence was provided by Heinemann and colleagues, which showed that methanandamide depressed intestinal peristalsis with a mechanism involving, at least in part, facilitation of inhibitory pathways operating via apamin-sensitive K+ channels and nitric oxide (Heinemann et al. 1999) as mentioned above (Sect. 3.1.1). The effects of cannabinoids on the smooth muscle relaxation of the isolated gastric fundus in response to EFS of NANC innervation are not clear. In rat preparations (Storr et al. 2002), both excitatory cholinergic and NANC transmission were reduced by WIN 55,212-2 and anandamide. Only the anandamide responses were antagonised by the cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM630. By itself, AM630 had no effect on the contractile responses but facilitated the relaxation. This latter effect implied...

Structure and Dynamics of Kinases by NMR

Full backbone dynamics data can be extracted from these samples. However, resonance assignment is not straightforward because the sequential assignment procedure does not work in selectively labeled proteins. A possible solution is the preparation of dual-labeled samples in which amino acid Yyy is 15N-labeled, and amino acid Xxx is 13CO-labeled. If Xxx and Yyy are chosen so that an Xxx-Yyy pair occurs at an interesting position, the adjacent 13CO-15N pair can be detected in an HNCO experiment, so that the 15N 1H resonances of Yyy are assigned (93). Alternatively, we developed a strategy for assignment of selectively labeled protein complexes. This strategy is based on the strong relaxation enhancement of protons that are in vicinity to a paramagnetic center (spin label). In practice, the ligand (Gleevec in our case) is chemically modified to incorporate a paramagnetic moiety such as TEMPO at a defined position. Measurement of paramagnetic relaxation enhancements are then used to...

The Action Of The Heart And Blood Circulation

The pumping of the heart or the heartbeat is caused by alternating contractions and relaxations of the myocardium. These contractions are stimulated by electrical impulses from the sinoatrial or SA node located in the muscle of the right auricle. An impulse from the SA node causes the two auricles to contract, forcing blood into the ventricles. Contraction of the ventricles is controlled by impulses from the atrioventricular or AV node located at the junction of the two auricles (Fig. 1). Following contraction, the ventricles relax and allow the pressure to fall. Blood again flows into the auricles and an impulse from the SA node repeats the cycle again this process is called the cardiac cycle. The period of relaxation is called a diastole and the period of contraction is called a systole. Diastole is the longer of the two phases so that the heart can rest between the contractions. Hence, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure are observed. The rate of SA impulse is subconsciously...

The Role of Excipients

The glass transition temperature (Tg is considered to be a critical variable in estimating the molecular mobility of amorphous materials, and the addition of excipients with a high Ts is believed to increase the storage stability of lyophilized formulations. Stabilization by excipients that have high Tg values has been demonstrated with lyophilized bovine somatotropin and lysozyme865 and with lyophilized interleukin-2.866 The NMR relaxation-based critical mobility temperature ( Tmc), described above, can also be used as a measure of storage stability of lyophilized protein formulations. The TiC of a lyophilized bovine serum y-globu-lin formulation containing dextran increased with increasing molecular weight of the

Organs and Systems Cardiovascular

In 28 subjects given either sevoflurane + nitrous oxide or enflurane + nitrous oxide anesthesia, sevoflurane caused fewer cardiodepressant effects than enflurane (3). Nevertheless, in 10 healthy subjects atrial contraction and left ventricular diastolic function, including active relaxation, passive compliance, and elastic recoil were impaired by sevoflurane (1 MAC) (4). randomized, placebo-controlled comparison with suxa-methonium in 40 children (24). Patients received sevo-flurane and nitrous oxide anesthesia followed by rapacuronium 2 mg kg. The study was stopped after only seven patients had been recruited, because the mean time to return of twitch height to 25 of baseline was 26 minutes. This time represents a stage at which neuromus-cular blockade can be reversed and in this case it was twice as long as predicted from experience in adult patients. The authors suggested that the prolonged neu-romuscular relaxation was due to the interaction of sevo-flurane with rapacuronium,...

Vascular actions of endocannabinoids

Anandamide was first shown to be a vasodilator in the rat cerebral vasculature, but these effects were sensitive to indomethacin, suggesting that cannabinoids may cause relaxation through the stimulation of the metabolism of arachidonic acid (Ellis etal., 1995). Dependence on prostanoids was also found for the vasorelaxant effects of A9-tetrahydrocannabinol. In the rat isolated mesenteric and coronary vasculatures, anandamide is a vasodilator (Randall et al., 1996 Randall and Kendall, 1997 Figure 20.2). In mesenteric arterial vessels (Randall et al., 1996 Randall et al., 1997 Plane et al., 1997 White and Hiley, 1997), and the coronary vasculature (Randall and Kendall, 1997), anandamide induces relaxation in the presence of blockers of both nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase, and also in the absence of the endothelium (Randall et al., 1996 White and Hiley, 1997 Figure 20.2). Accordingly in these vessels it acts independently of endothelial autacoids. Early studies reported that...

Where are endocannabinoids produced in the vasculature

Sensory nerves have been proposed as another potential site of production and release. In this respect Ishioka and Bukoski (1999) demonstrated that nerve-dependent calcium-induced relaxation of rat mesenteric vessels was blocked by SR141716A, with the suggestion that an endocannabinoid was released from the nerves, and mediated the vasorelaxation.

Preadministration Assessment

Ergonovine and methylergonovine may be given orally during the postpartum period to reduce the possibility of postpartum hemorrhage and to prevent relaxation of the uterus. When the patient is to receive either of these drugs after delivery, it is important to take the blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate before administration.

Biological Activities of Kinetin 2041 Influence of Kinetin on Plants

Kinetin's role is connected with the growth and development of plants. It stimulates seed germination, regulates cell division and reaction to stress, and determines apical dominance, formation, and activity of shoot meristems. Kinetin and 6-BAP counteract the inhibitory effect of darkness on epicotyl shoot formation and sprouting and raise it to the same level as in tissue incubated in light 13 . It is also implicated in the vascular development and synthesis of secondary metabolites like indol alkaloids and anthocyanins. Kinetin influences chloroplast differentiation and chlorophyll biosynthesis by stimulation of 5-aminolevulinc acid synthesis 8 , 14-16 . Cytokinin inhibits lateral root initiation by blocking the peri-cycle founder cells' cell division cycle at the G2 to M transition phase. It stimulates lateral root elongation by stimulating the G1 to S phase transition 17-19 and strongly inhibits of RNase from the Pisum sativum isolated leaf, inhibits proteolysis, and maintains...

Cognitive Motor Effects

Any medicine containing THC may produce similar acute cognitive effects to recreational cannabis if taken in sufficient dosage. These effects include euphoria, sensory enhancement, increased social conviviality, and a sense of relaxation and contentment perceptual effects including distorted time and space estimation and alteration in sensory modalities impairment in both sustained and divided attention impairment in reaction time, motor control and dexterity impairment in various aspects of memory and higher cognitive function including associative and abstractive processes, planning and organisational strategies (reviewed by Solowij 1998 pp 29-40). The possible implications for those receiving cannabis-based medicines who wish to continue driving have been reviewed by Hadorn (2004). Interestingly, analysis of responsibility for traffic collisions has repeatedly indicated that drivers with only cannabis in their systems (and especially no alcohol) were, if anything, less culpable...

Family Menispermaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Moonseed Family

Block competitively acetylcholine at nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction hence causing complete relaxation of skeletal muscles and death by asphyxia. (+)-Tubocurarine which has been used to relax muscles in surgical anaesthesia (Tubocurarine Chloride, British Pharmacopoeia, 1963).

The Stages of Change Model

One's own ability to continue the new behaviors, serves as a hallmark of the maintenance stage. Self-efficacy and sustained change are the keys to maintenance. Client and therapist will work together now to prevent relapse. They will identify situations that put the smoker at high risk for relapse and plan ways to avoid problematic use in these circumstances. For example, clients may decide to avoid parties where drugs are present. They may role play refusing drugs if they are offered. They may practice relaxation techniques if tension often preceded their drug use. They may call a hot line or a friend in times of temptation. Note that these techniques for preventing relapse are consistent with twelve-step and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Perhaps this overlap contributes to the comparable results of these different programs.

Coleus scutellarioides L Benth

The increase of cyclic monophosphate adenosine in the cardiac muscle cells results in an inotropic positive effect, whereas the increase of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the smooth muscle cells causes relaxation (bronchioles, vessels Fig. 305). Forskoline given to dogs and cats causes a positive inotropic activity and lowers their blood pressure (Lindner E et al., 1978). Fig. 305. Mechanism of action of forsko-line forskoline binds to an extracellular receptor (R) which activates adenylate cyclase (A) in cell membrane (M) through the protein G (G). Increase of intracel-lular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMPc), hence contraction of the cardiac muscle cells (CM). The relaxation of the smooth muscle cells (SM) of the bronchioles and vessels.

Targeting DNA and Topoisomerase I with Indolocarbazole Antitumor Agents

There are three classes of topoisomerase enzymes in human cells 2 . Topoisomerase I introduces breaks in one strand of DNA and mediates DNA relaxation in a process that does not require any cofactor. In contrast, topoisomerase II cuts the two strands of the double helix and changes the topology of the DNA by catalyzing the passage of one double-stranded segment of DNA through a double-strand break produced in a second DNA segment. Topoisomerase III, which was identified more recently 3 , cleaves single-strand DNA and binds covalently to the 5' end of the cleaved DNA 4 . There are, as yet, no specific inhibitors for topoisomerase III, whereas there are many for the two other enzymes. Both topoisomerases I and II have been shown to constitute critical cellular loci for a number of clinically important antitumor agents 5-7 . established that the presence of OH groups on the IND framework markedly changes the capacity of the drug to interact with DNA and topoisomerase I. KT6528 bears a...

Physiological Actions of Prostanoids

DP receptors are present on vascular smooth muscle, platelets, and in nervous tissue, including the central nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, PGD2 has been associated with sleep induction, as well as body temperature regulation, hormone release, nociception, and olfactory function. DP receptors have also been localized to smooth muscle in the gut, uterus, and airways. Northern blot and in situ hybridization studies have reaffirmed this, with only low levels of expression being detected in human retina and small intestine (49) .The physiological actions of PGD2, mediated through DP receptors, are generally inhibitory that is, smooth muscle relaxation and the inhibition of platelet aggregation. However, excitatory actions have also been 2.3.2 Prostaglandin PGE2 acts predominantly through EP receptors, which are abundantly distributed and are responsible for mediating the multitude of actions of PGE,. These include smooth muscle contraction and relaxation, stimulation and presyn-aptic...

An der Spritze hngen German colloquial

Some surgical procedures do not require total muscular relaxation and can be performed using local anaesthetics, which temporarily block nerve conduction without damaging nerve fibers. Local anaesthesia is produced by injecting into the tissues to be affected a solution of a natural alkaloid such as cocaine, the oldest of all local anaesthetics, or a synthetic agent such as procaine, widely known under the trade name Novocain, or lidocaine (Xylo-caine).

Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Diarrhea that Display Antidiarrheal Activity

A large study by Atta and Mouneir 41 reported on the antidiarrheal properties of six Egyptian medicinal plants. At a dose of 200 mg kg-1, only some of the plant extracts showed a significant effect on castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats, while the effects were better with an increased dose of 400 mg kg-1. Some of the extracts induced a dose-dependent relaxation of rabbit duodenal smooth muscle while others increased the contractile force in contractions. Various phytochemicals were identified, including tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones, proteins amino acids, and saponins, although the active ingredients were not confirmed. Similarly, several medicinal plants used by people in the Democratic Republic of Congo 42 , India 43 , and Zulu traditional healers 44 to treat diarrhea have been evaluated. These plants showed activity that supported their traditional use, including activity against enteric pathogens, and activity in experimental models...

Benefits and Side Effects of Nabilone and Cannabis

The adjuvant effects of improved sleep, pain compressing, pain distancing, anxiolysis, relaxation, euphoria, and relief of depression all have benefits on the patient's perception and management of pain. These will be mediated through cortical and limbic system mechanisms.

Endocannabinoids And Gl Motility

Promoted by the intense peristaltic contractions of the stomach antrum. In general, vagal stimulation increases the force and frequency of contractions, whereas sympathetic stimulation decreases both of these parameters. The endocannabinoid anandamide has recently been shown to attenuate cholinergically mediated contractions of isolated rat gastric smooth muscle preparation produced by EFS (Storr et al., 2002). Anandamide also attenuated nonadrenergic, noncholinergic-mediated relaxant neural responses (in the presence of atropine and guanethidine) produced by EFS in this preparation. Because the depressant effects of anandamide were countered by the CB1 antagonist AM630, it is suggested that CB1 receptors play an important role in the attenuation of excitatory cholinergic and inhibitory NANC neurotransmission in the rat isolated gastric fundus preparation. The aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55212-2 also produces similar depressant effects in this fundus preparation. However, AM630...

Medical And Behavioral Toxicity Overview

The acute effects of alcohol are well known. In low doses, it causes blood vessels to dilate, and the skin to become flushed and warm. The individual under the influence of alcohol experiences a feeling of relaxation and mild sedation but may become talkative with loss of inhibitory control of emotions. Small doses (one to two drinks) do not impair complex intellectual ability however, as the dose increases (two or more drinks or as the blood alcohol concentration approaches and exceeds the legal limit) impairment at multiple levels of the nervous system occurs. All types of motor performance are eventually affected, including maintenance of posture, control of speech, and eye movements. Movement becomes slower and more inaccurate. Mental functioning decreases, such that there is impairment in attention and concentration and a diminishing ability to make mental associations. Concurrently, the ability to attend to incoming sensory information is decreased. Night and color vision are...

Adrenergic receptor blockers

Nebivolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, and timolol) have a wide spectrum of activity, and are often used to treat hypertension. There are two types of (3-receptors i -receptors predominate in the heart, and -receptors mediate relaxation (dilatation) of vascular and other smooth muscle (e.g. in the airways and blood vessels). Metoprolol is ii-specific, whereas the classic i-blockers such as propranolol and oxprenolol have both rtj and ,i2 activity. Labetalol has both 3- and a-receptor blocking activity, and has been successfully used in a number of pregnancies (Pickles 1992, Plouin 1990, 1987). All 3-blockers cross the placenta.

BuspironeIs Anxioselectivity Possible

Thus any overall mechanism presently proposed will likely be speculative. However, some evidence appears to zero in toward serotonin receptor antagonism, particularly the 5HT1A subtype, which likely mediated inhibitory effects in raphe neurons and pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. Affinity for BZD binding sites is very low. This fact goes a long way to explain the lack of sedation, ataxia, muscle relaxation, and the anticonvulsant properties of BS. The fact that BS, unlike diazepam, produces little or no loss of memory may be a considerable advantage in long-term anxiolytic therapy.

Type I Topoisomerases

Topi participates in the relaxation of negative super coils and has also been implicated in knotting and unknotting DNA and in linking complementary rings of single-stranded DNA into double-stranded rings 12 . The relaxation process catalysed by the enzyme essentially consists of a transient break of a segment of single-stranded DNA, followed by passing an intact strand of DNA through the gate (type I-A) or allowing rotation of the broken strand around the intact strand (type I-B), with final rejoining of the broken segment. Topi has several distinct features. Unlike type II enzymes, it appears to fully perform its functions as a monomer. In addition, it does not require ATP hydrolysis to catalyze the complex topological rearrangements of DNA.

Japanese Experimentation

Still, the reports about an irresistible urge to dance constitutes a rather unusual effect of psilocybin, from our current point of view. While psilocybin is initially known to cause fits of laughter, this phase is generally followed by a state of relaxation and a drop in levels of physical activity. It is likely that, in this case, medieval Japanese mentality was a cultural factor that modified the specific expression of an altered state of consciousness.

The Magic Morning Glory Ololiuhqui

Contradictory findings had been published about the activity of the ololiuhqui seeds. The psychiatrist H. Osmond conducted a self-experiment with the seeds of Turbina corymbosa in 1955. After the ingestion of 60 to 100 seeds, he entered into a state of apathy and emptiness, accompanied by enhanced visual sensitivity. After four hours, there followed a period of relaxation and well-being, lasting for a longer time. The results of V. J. Kinross-Wright, published in England in 1958, in which eight voluntary research subjects, who had taken up to 125 seeds, perceived no effects at all, contradicted this report.

Psychedelics And Society

Opiates but less well known, at least in the West, are the benefits which psychedelics have produced. It is gradually becoming evident that the world owes much of its early art, music, literature, indeed perhaps the very fabric of many ancient cultures directly to the effects of the psychedelic state. Many millions of Westerners have recently gained personal experience with the euphoria, aphrodisia, relaxation, and stimulation of creative imagination which can result from psychedelic use. The failure of many otherwise enlightened people to accept psychedelics has many causes, one of the more important of which is probably that they are often among the fortunate rfew to escape the neuroses, psychoses, abuse of amphetamines, tranquilizers, barbituates, and alcohol, which is the fate of the majority of the straight world.

Neuromuscular function

Rarely, on injecting suxamethonium, contracture, instead of the usual relaxation, of skeletal muscles ensues. In denervated muscles the postulated mechanism is direct activation of the contractile mechanism by suxametho-nium because of the widespread chemosensitivity of the muscle fiber membranes. Failure of relaxation and generalized muscular rigidity after suxamethonium is sometimes also seen in patients who develop the syndrome of malignant hyperthermia. Isolated masseter muscle rigidity can occur after the administration of suxamethonium, being reported particularly in children given both suxamethonium and halothane. Most experts define masseter muscle rigidity as a major increase in masseter muscle tone severe enough to make mouth opening impossible and to prevent laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Referring to the high incidence of positive results with halothane-caffeine contracture testing, some believe that up to 50 of patients with masseter muscle rigidity are...

Singlet Oxygen And Its Reactivity

Singlet molecular oxygen is deactivated by physical or chemical quenching agents. The two physical mechanisms are energy-transfer and charge-transfer quenching. The carotenoid pigments play an important role in the protection of biological systems, apparently because they are particularly efficient energy-transfer quenchers. Beta-carotene is the most studied member of this group. The extended conjugated p-system of b-carotene has triplet energies close to or below that of singlet oxygen so that collisional energy transfer occurs. Subsequently, the excited b-carotene decays by vibrational relaxation and no net chemical change is observed (Gorman and Rodgers, 1981). Amines generally are capable of quenching singlet oxygen via a charge-transfer process, but may react chemically as well. The primary process is envisaged as formation of a complex between the electron-donating quencher and the electron-deficient oxygen species the quenching rate constants correlate with the amine ionization...

Chapter One Initiation into Infinity

Just before the colors hit and the curtain started down between sections of my brain, I had that wonderful relaxation which I had known before - the awe-inspiring relief, the letting go of psychological barriers which has come to be identified in my thinking with the relaxation of the ego. I could feel myself being drawn into a mystical experience - the sense of unity with all things in the universe. But as I felt the relaxing of the self boundaries, there was this flood of grateful tears which I stopped because of the three men present.

Receptors for Abnormal Cannabidiol

There is evidence, mainly from in vitro experiments with rat or mouse phenylephrine- or methoxamine-precontracted buffer-perfused isolated mesenteric arterial beds or isolated mesenteric arterial segments, for the presence in these tissues of non-CB1, non-CB2 receptors with which anandamide and methanandamide can interact to induce a relaxant effect (reviewed in Howlett et al. 2002 Pertwee 2004a Wiley and Martin 2002). There are several reasons for believing that these are not CB1 or CB2 receptors. First, relaxation is not induced in rat precontracted mesen-teric arterial beds by 2-arachidonoyl glycerol or by established non-eicosanoid cannabinoid receptor agonists such as 49-THC or -(+)-WIN55212 (Wagner et al. 1999) but is induced in rat and mouse precontracted mesenteric arterial beds or rat precontracted mesenteric arterial segments by two cannabidiol analogues, abnormal-cannabidiol and 0-1602 (Fig. 12), neither of which exhibits significant affinity for CB1 receptors (Ho and Hiley...

Other features of the patient

In pregnancy the risk of regurgitation has to be weighed against the advantage of rapid intubation. The use of precurarization'' with small doses of non-depolarizing drugs may reduce the intensity of the fasciculation, but is by no means reliable. If possible, relaxation is better achieved by using a non-depolarizing agent alone.

Cannabis Intoxication And Its Similarity To That Of Peyote And LSD

The difference between cannabis and the other hallucinogens must be understood in terms of the motivation of the user as well as the strength of the reaction. This is not to say that the set of the user is not very important for the others as well, but cannabis is especially amenable to control and direction so that the desired effects can usually be obtained at will. Michaux, a French writer, has repeatedly explored his own reactions to the various hallucinogens and writes, 'Compared to other hallucinogenic drugs, hashish is feeble, without great range, but easy to handle, convenient, repeatable without immediate danger.'5 It is these features, plus the fact that consumption by smoking enables the experienced user to accurately control the amount absorbed, that makes cannabis a dependable producer of the desired euphoria and sense of well-being. This aspect is pointed up in the study by the New York Mayor's Committee which examined the reaction of experienced users to smoking and...

Educating the Client on the Use of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements

The use of herbs and nutritional supplements to treat various disorders is common. Herbs are used for various effects, such as to boost the immune system, treat depression, and for relaxation. Individuals are becoming more aware of the benefits of herbal therapies and nutritional supplements. Advertisements, books, magazines, and Internet sites abound concerning these topics. People, eager to cure or control various disorders, take herbs, teas, megadoses of vitamins, and various other natural products. Although much information is available on nutritional supplements and herbal therapy, obtaining the correct information sometimes is difficult. Medicinal herbs and nutritional substances are available at supermarkets, pharmacies, health food stores, specialty herb stores, and through the Internet. The potential for misinformation abounds. Because these substances are natural products, many individuals may incorrectly assume that they are without adverse effects. When any herbal remedy...

Long Term Effects Drug tolerance

At first it was thought that tolerance was due to depletion of intracellular endothelial sulfhydryl groups (65), which are necessary for the biotransformation of organic nitrates to nitric oxide. It seems likely that tolerance occurs through several mechanisms, and the precise mechanisms are still uncertain (66). However, one possible mechanism of tolerance has been elucidated (67). Organic nitrates are converted to S-nitrosothiols when combined with sulfhydryl moieties in smooth muscles. These compounds activate guanylate cyclase, leading to an increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic GMP, with resultant vascular relaxation and vasodilatation. As the supply of sulfhydryl within the smooth muscles is limited, prolonged exposure to organic nitrates results in its depletion and hence tolerance (68). Other mechanisms of nitrate tolerance that have been proposed include neurohumoral adaptation and a plasma volume-dependent mechanism (69). A unifying hypothesis, involving the...

Cannabinoids and Cardiovascular Effects

Blood Pressure Ach

To confuse the issue of the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids further, anandamide is a vasodilator in vitro in selective isolated vessel preparations and not others, pointing at a direct effect on smooth muscle tone of the vasculature (89). Subsequent studies have suggested that anandamide acts through inhibition of calcium release in smooth muscle cells (90). Recently, anandamide has been implicated as a natural ligand of the vanilloid receptor VR1 (91). VR1 receptors are found on sensory nerves, and stimulation results in calcium entry and release by the nerve of a number of transmitters, which could be associated with vasodilatation, such as nitric oxide, substance P, neurokinins, ATP, and calcitonin gene-related peptide. For example, nitric oxide diffuses to the smooth muscle and increases cGMP as a mode of vasodilatation, and calcitonin gene-related peptide binds to G protein-linked receptors, which increase cAMP, another way of causing relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.

Acute Effects of Marijuana on Airway Physiology

Although anecdotal reports dating back to the 19th century suggested a therapeutic role for marijuana in the relief of asthma, formal experiments first documented this effect in the 1970s. Smoke from marijuana cigarettes was found to produce short-term bronchodilation both in healthy individuals (11,12) and in patients with asthma (13). This bronchodilator effect was clearly attributable to the presence of THC, because oral administration of synthetic THC also produced a dose-dependent bronchodilatation (11). Recently, a potential mechanism for this effect on bronchomotor tone was identified. Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors were found on axon terminals of postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers in rat lung. These nerve terminals are in close proximity to airway smooth muscle (14). In the guinea pig airway, stimulation of these receptors by the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide resulted in dose-dependent relaxation of capsaicin-contracted airway smooth muscle, whereas anandamide...

Physiology of an Erection

Of parasympathetic pathways induces vascular smooth muscle relaxation and vessel dilation, causing increased arterial blood flow to the penis, engorgement of the erectile tissues, reduced venous outflow, and erection. elucidated neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS-1), inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS-2), and endothelial NOS (eNOS or NOS-3). Neurons that innervate the corpus cavernosa contain nNOS, while eNOS is localized in the endothelium and smooth muscle of the cavernosa. Inducible NOS does not appear to be involved in the physiology of erections, but may be a factor in the deleterious effects of aging on the delicate erectile tissues of the corpora cavernosa 16, 17 . Nitric oxide directly increases the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP). The cyclic nucleotide cGMP is a second messenger that activates cGMP-dependent protein ki-nase, leading to decreased intracellular calcium, smooth muscle...

Use in heart failure

Diastolic dysfunction can lead to congestive heart failure, even when systolic function is normal (29,30). Since ventricular filling occurs during diastole, failure of intra-ventricular pressure to fall appropriately during diastole leads to increased atrial pressure, which eventually leads to increased pulmonary and systemic venous pressures, causing a syndrome of congestive heart failure indistinguishable clinically from that caused by systolic pump failure (31). Diastolic dysfunction occurs in systemic arterial hypertension, hypertrophic obstructive cardio-myopathy, and infiltrative heart diseases, which reduce ventricular compliance or increase ventricular stiffness (32). As energy is required for active diastolic myocardial relaxation, a relative shortage of adenosine triphosphate in ischemic heart disease also often leads to co-existing diastolic and systolic dysfunction (33). Beta-blockers improve diastolic function in general, and this may be beneficial in patients with...

Marijuana And Alcohol

Marijuana is currently popular at Oxford and other universities. It is generally smoked in the company of others and its chief effect seems to be an enhanced appreciation of music and color together with a feeling of relaxation and peace. A mystical experience of being at one with the universe is common, which is why the drug has been highly valued in Eastern religions. Unlike alcohol, marijuana does not lead to aggressive behavior, nor is it aphrodisiac. There is no hangover, nor so far as is known, any deleterious effect. As with other drugs, there may be some danger that people turn to it as an habitual escape from life's problems.' Its supposed pleasures have at times been rather tediously over-sold. It is interesting that many undergraduates seem to be congenitally unable to experience the effects of Cannabis,, however many times they try. Were this not so the proportion of smokers within the University would be considerably higher than it is. To my knowledge, no serious research...

Overall level of evidence of adverse effects C

There are few reports on limited adverse effects of analgesics on erectile function. Ergotamine induced relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscles, but clinical studies are not available. Cavernous tissue in vitro Muscle relaxation Cavernous tissue, relaxation 1438 Barbanti G, Beneforti P, Lapini A, Turini D. Relaxation

Phenothiazine Derivatives

Phenothiazines have a diverse use in medicine. They are primarily used as antipsy-chotics. Despite the fact that they do not cure the disease, they reduce psychotic symptoms to a point where the patient is provided with a better sense of reality. Phenothiazines are sometimes used for relieving severe anxiety, especially in panic attacks caused by dependence on amphetamines or lycergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Phenothiazines are used for alleviating behavioral problems in children that do not respond to treatment of other agents. Phenothiazines are sometimes used during the preoperational period because they relieve anxiety, control nausea, hiccups, diarrhea, and also cause muscle relaxation.

Addicted to Sensation

He also acknowledges that drugs serve the function of relaxation, of play, escape and sociability. When policy makers struggle to comprehend and deal with the drugs problem through a prohibition framework, they fail to acknowledge the constant search by humanity to express feelings of personal power and enjoyment -to enhance and expand consciousness.107 For the younger generation of drug users, it is already part of their culture on a spiritual level, increasing as other religious institutions diminish. The authorities underestimate the power of popular culture.

Calcium Channel Blockers

In addition to being used as antianginal and antiarrhythmic agents, calcium channel blockers are used to treat weak and moderate hypertension. These drugs prevent calcium ions from entering into the smooth muscle cells of peripheral vessels, and they cause relaxation of peripheral vessels, which leads to lowering of arterial blood pressure. In clinically used doses, calcium channel blockers relax smooth musculature of arteries and have little effect on veins. In doses that relax smooth musculature, calcium channel blockers have relatively little effect on cardiac contractility.

Epidural Administration Of Opiates

Stephanie Smith Marijuana

There are, however, some side effects of epidural anesthesia. The patient's legs often become numb, and movement of the leg muscles is difficult. Other mild side effects include a backache (thought to be a result of over-relaxation of the back muscles), itchiness of the skin, and an inability to urinate. More rarely, patients experience headache, lowered blood

Intractable Breathlessness

Patients have reported anecdotally that cannabis can relieve breathlessness by relieving anxiety and promoting relaxation. CB1 receptors are virtually absent from the part of the brain-stem which drives respiration (Herkenham et al. 1990), so it seems possible that symptom relief maybe achieved without negative effects upon breathing. THC has been shown to have anxiety-reducing and sedating effects (Fabre and McLendon 1981 Nicholson et al. 2004), as has CBD in larger doses (Zuardi et al. 1997). CBD is also thought to have useful modulating effects on some of the undesirable effects of THC (McPartland and Russo 2001).

Quinolines

2-carbon chain analogues of CQ (vide infra) have a significantly reduced distance for the protonated charged ammonium nitrogen to the carboxylates in the FP-drug complex (< 2.80 A). As shown in Fig. 4, modelling suggests that for a synthetic analogue F2Bu, the principal interactions are n-n stacking of the quinoline ring with an additional potential for an interaction of the protonated ammonium function with the FP carboxylates (F2Bu, 2.6 A for NH to O in FP) (Stocks et al. 2002 Fig. 4). With further appropriate isothermal titration calorimetry experiments on these short chain analogues, it remains to be seen whether the principal interactions in the FP-drug complex are the same as those in the CQ-FP complex with an absence of electrostatic interactions as suggested in these modelling studies. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of aqueous solutions of FP -oxo dimers with CQ, quinine and quini-dine have recently been performed (Leed et al. 2002). Based on the influence of...

How safe is cannabis

Currently cannabis is widely perceived to be relatively safe. Many people believe that there are genuine medical uses for cannabis-based medicines (6R, 7r, 8rs), and it seems likely that such products will gain official approval in several Western countries. At the same time there is a move towards relaxation of the criminal penalties associated with the recreational use of cannabis, ranging from a proposed downgrading of criminal penalties in the UK to the possibility of full legalization in Canada and Jamaica. In the light of these changes in attitude it is timely to consider again the adverse effects that are associated with the use of cannabis, since no drug can ever be considered completely safe.

Priapism

Priapism is the persistence of erection in the absence of sexual stimulation. The complete pathophysiology is unclear. Primarily, priapism was associated with venous occlusion (low-flow priapism), such as occurs, for example, in sickle cell disease, as a consequence of the injection of vasoactive drugs, which are associated with neoplastic diseases and haemotological malignancies, but also with traumata. Another form is high-flow priapism, in which arterial overflow is considered to be the pathogen. Priapism may also originate from neurological diseases by disturbance of the neuroregulatory mechanisms responsible for erection. On a molecular level, an altered balance of the interaction between NO-induced relaxation and adrenergic stimulation contraction of smooth muscle is of relevance. This concerns also other local factors which influence the erectile tissue, such as endogenous vasoactive substances (e.g. oxygen supply, endothelial factors), neurotransmitters (e.g. NO, vasoactive...

The Elderly

Because of these differences, the maxim Start low and go slow is a good guide for the prescription of any psychiatric drug to people over the age of sixty-five. Exercise, relaxation techniques, establishment of a good social support system, and psychotherapy are important alternatives to consider in place of, or as an adjunct to, psychiatric medications.

Psychotherapy

Relaxation Techniques Relaxation techniques are mental and physical exercises to induce a state of calm and relaxation. The goal of a relaxation technique is to achieve that sense of relaxation in a calm situation and gradually gain proficiency in achieving that same state of calmness and relaxation in anxiety-provoking situations. There are many different forms of relaxation techniques. Relaxation tapes provide soothing sounds such as the waves of the ocean. These are often a good way to begin learning how to relax. In progressive muscular relaxation a person slowly clenches and relaxes each of the body's muscle groups, in sequence, one after the other. Each clenching and unclenching should be gradual and take roughly ten to fifteen seconds. As the exercise proceeds, most people notice that they are physically much calmer. In using the breathing technique one sits quietly and comfortably breathing slowly in and out and saying in out in out with each breath. As thoughts come to your...

Muscle relaxants

In 113 patients undergoing general anesthesia, intravenous midazolam 15 mg slowed recovery of the twitch height after vecuronium and atracurium compared with diazepam. The recovery index was not altered (160). However, in another study in 20 patients, midazolam 0.3 mg kg did not affect the duration of blockade, recovery time, intensity of fasciculations, or adequacy of relaxation for tracheal intubation produced by suxa-methonium 1 mg kg, nor the duration of blockade and adequacy of relaxation for tracheal intubation produced by pancuronium 0.025 mg kg in incremental doses until 99 depression of muscle-twitch tension was obtained (159). Furthermore, in 60 patients undergoing maintenance anesthesia randomly assigned to one of six regimens (etomidate, fentanyl, midazolam, propofol, thiopental plus nitrous oxide, or isoflurane plus nitrous oxide), midazolam did not alter rocuronium dosage requirements (163).

Crisis Plan

The first part is a daily maintenance list of things you do for yourself every day to keep yourself feeling good. These include eating sensibly, exercising, relaxation techniques, contact with a partner and friends, work, and engaging in fun activities. Extra activities might include getting a massage, meeting with a mental health professional, spending time with pets, doing laundry and housework, planning vacations, and planning other activities.

Procedure

Figure 1 shows the chemical structures for 14 phenylethylamine compounds. Nine of these compounds are used clinically as anorectics (d-amphetamine, phentermine, diethylpropion, phenmetrazine, phendimetrazine, clotermine, chlorphentermine, benzphetamine, and fenfluramine). Four of these compounds are not approved for clinical use and are reported to have hallucinogenic properties (MDA, PMA, DOM, and DOET). The final compound ( -ephedrine) is used clinically for bronchial muscle relaxation, cardiovascular, and mydriatic effects. Figure 2 shows the chemical structure for MDMA, the methyl analog of MDA. MDMA is not approved for clinical use and has been reported to produce both LSD-like and cocaine-like effects.

Laziness

We all enjoy lazy days, don't we Especially when the weather is fine, and we can sit in the park or on the beach or in our garden. Just sitting, doing nothing, maybe reading a book, sipping a long cool drink. Ahhh What better way to spend an afternoon I certainly wouldn't call it laziness. I would call it an important relaxation exercise.

Nitric Oxide

Laboratory studies indicate a role for NO in mediating many of the actions of ginseng and ginsenosides on copulatory performance. In rats treated for 3 months with oral ginseng extract versus no treatment, there was significantly increased intra-cavernosal pressure following stimulation of pelvic nerves innervating the corpus cavernosum 27 . Ginsenoside-containing extracts of P. ginseng produced a dose-related increase in cGMP and endothelium-dependent dilation and relaxation of penile corpus cavernosum in rabbit 28,29 treatment with the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine blocked the ability of ginseng to induce this relaxation. Ginseng extract also enhanced acetylcholine-induced and transmural nerve-stimulation-elicited relaxations in rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue and reversed phenylephrine-induced corpus cavernosum smooth muscle vasoconstriction 30 . Both the neurogenic and endothelium-mediated relaxations were enhanced by superoxide dismutase (SOD), a scavenger of the superoxide...

Rapacuronium

Pilocarpine-stimulated prejunctional M2 receptors in vitro (3E), they suggested that a similar effect might result in rapacuronium-induced bronchospasm. Prejunctional M2 receptors are thought to have a role in negative feedback and inhibition of further acetylcholine release, thereby reducing smooth muscle relaxation. These aspects will need to be taken into account when new substances are considered for clinical

Feeding And Appetite

Endocannabinoids and other A-acylethanolamines (NAPE) have been detected in several foods including chocolate (di Tomaso et al., 1996), milk, oatmeal, hazelnuts, millet and soy beans (Di Marzo et al., 1998b). The presence of endocannabinoids in chocolate is especially interesting and has been investigated further. Although the endocannabinoid concentrations in chocolate are far too low to induce visible marijuana-like euphoriant effects when taken orally (Di Marzo et al., 1998b), two alternative biological explanations may explain the phenomenon of chocolate craving. First, there may be enough endocannabinoids present in chocolate to activate the mesolimbic reward system (see Addiction) required for craving. Intriguingly, the smell of chocolate reduced theta brain waves, presumably reducing attention and promoting a sense of relaxation (Martin, 1998). Second, non-cannabinoid NAPE's found in chocolate, with entourage properties (see Pharmacological profile of endocannabinoids), i.e.,...

Alcohol

However excessive drinking is defined, stopping your alcohol use can be a difficult task. The alcohol itself and the life you lead are intertwined in many ways, and abstinence will require major changes in how you spend your leisure time, your methods of relaxation, and your relationships. There are several aspects to your recovery.

Music is the Drug

Popular music and drug are two products, which, by their very success, indicate the spread of behaviour previously reserved for the elites the right to explore one's interior or social space. They are tied to the growth of the industries of dream and relaxation.75 The evolution of the nightclub in Manchester has a history of intervention by the authorities and subsequent renewal to cater for youth tastes. For example, Alan Lawson notes that the coffee shop, with its jukebox and social space, was 'probably the first sign of social emancipation'.83 By 1958, the British coffee bar was threatening the traditional 'pub' that has been attempting to modernise to attract a youth market ever since. The Manchester Corporation Act of 1965 closed down most of the clubs that had sprung up with the relaxation of alcohol laws because of health and safety issues, and the use of 'uppers' like Dexedrine. In the late '80s and early '90s, the acid house scene was encouraged by high-profile busts at...

Affective Behavior

In humans, contradictory findings have been reported regarding involvement of the cannabinoid system in anxiety disorders. Thus, although experienced users report a mild relaxation after marijuana smoking, anxiety is the most common unpleasant side effect of occasional cannabis use and seems a reason for discontinuation of use (Hall and Solowij, 1998). A double-blind study gave evidence of a large increase in the level of anxiety in healthy volunteers after ingestion of A9-THC (Zuardi et al., 1982). However, other double-blind placebo-controlled studies showed that chronic treatment with nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, decreased anxiety score (Hamilton Anxiety Scale) in anxious patients (Fabre and McLendon, 1981 Ilaria et al., 1981). Similar discrepancies have been described in animals. Indeed, cannabinoids are able to display both anxiogenic- and anxiolytic-like effects depending upon doses, animal models, specific test conditions, and strains (Onaivi et al., 1990 Onaivi et al.,...

The ocReceptors

In the brief overview to follow it is not possible to detail all the research.12 Until the mid-1970s a-adrenoceptors in smooth muscles were viewed as functioning by increasing cell membrane permeability to cations on stimulation. Intestinal muscle cells show increased K+ entry. Relaxation then follows due to hyperpolarization. Elsewhere it is the influx of Na+ and Ca2+ that increase, the voltage drops, and contraction results from the excitation. More recently two concepts regarding a-adrenoceptors developed more or less simultaneously. One was that two types of a-receptors exist, and are now named a, and a2. The other was the demonstration that in vitro and in vivo NE released by a sympathetic neuron following its stimulation was itself inhibited by this liberated NE by activating inhibitory a-adrenoceptors located on the varicosities of this prejunctional neuron. In other words, an inhibitory feedback mechanism was operative. Such autoreceptors were initially classified as a2. In...

Prisons

Perhaps we could teach them martial arts like tai-chi, a chinese system of slow meditative physical exercise designed for relaxation, balance and health. A tai-chi practitioner knows he has the capacity for violence, but knows he will never use it and can help the violent man to understand his violence and transform it into a positive energy. What do you think I'm just thinking out loud here. Meditation, whether sitting or walking, calms the mind and creates harmony around us. It does so by slowing the brainwaves down. How does it do that Don't ask me the technical stuff, it just does.

Urologicals

In the past 20 years a number of drugs have been introduced which are able to induce or improve penile erection. There are two main groups of these drugs the vasoactive drugs applied intracavernously, which cause relaxation of the cavernous smooth muscle and are highly effective in inducing erection, and the 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which may be applied orally. These drugs are designated to treat the disease erectile dysfunction and improve sexual health, which is not a severe or life-threatening condition, and treated patients are often otherwise healthy persons thus, the absence of severe ADEs is essential.

Relaxation Audio Sounds Babbling Brook

Relaxation Audio Sounds Babbling Brook

This is an audio all about guiding you to relaxation. This is a Relaxation Audio Sounds with sounds from the Babbling Brooks.

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