Foods That Reduce Inflammation

Reduce Inflammation

This eBook from professional trainer and nutritionist Thomas DeLauer and Dr. Mike Brookins shows you all of the secrets to reducing inflammation all through your body. These body hacks are secrets to the way that your body works that you would never have thought of. You will learn the foods that you will need to avoid in order to have a really healthy life. You will learn to reset your body in 7 days or less just by eating organic, really healthy foods. Food affects they way that your body works so much more than people tend to believe. You will learn how to cut through all the nonsense that you will read on the internet and get right to the part that heals your inflammation and other health problems. Inflammation is only a symptom If you are not healthy and eating well, your whole body will suffer. We give you a way to reverse that! Read more here...

Organic Health Protocol Summary


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The Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug

The ideal NSAID agent has not yet been developed. Efforts have been continuous since the introduction of aspirin in 1899. For example, the patent literature for 1966 alone reveals disclosures of more than 100 groups (not single compounds) of antiinflammatory structures. The pace of research is not likely to have abated. Unfortunately, only a small number of lead compounds emerge with sufficient potency and adequate tolerance for further development. Chronic toxicity determinations in animals further reduce the number of agents reaching even the preclinical stages of testing. The saga of the search for a better aspirin is particularly illustrative of the rationale involved and the problems encountered. The goal of a highly potent long-acting variant of aspirin with low toxicity has been pursued in both industrial and academic institutions. A long systematic study to determine the optimum structure-activity relationships of salicylates was undertaken to find the best candidate from over...

Cannabinoid Receptor Mediated Nitric Oxide Production

Inhibition of iNOS induction is an important function of cannabinoid receptor agonists in inflammatory reactions, and maybe a critical contributor to their antiinflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-y induced iNOS expression in saphenous vein endothelium, and this was inhibited by anandamide (Stefano et al. 1998). A similar phenomenon was reported for CP55940 in rat microglial cells (Cabral et al. 2001) and mouse astrocytes (Molina-Holgado et al. 1997 Molina-Holgado et al. 2002), and for WIN55212-2 in rat C6 astrocytoma cells (Esposito et al. 2002). The mechanism could involve feedback by NO, inasmuch as it could be mimicked by NO donors (Esposito et al. 2002 Stefano et al. 1998). The mechanism also appears to involve stimulation of the CB1 receptor and a reduction in cellular cyclic AMP, presumably via production of NO (Esposito et al. 2002 Molina-Holgado et al. 2002 Stefano et al. 1998). A9-THC inhibited iNOS induction in RAW264.7 macrophage...

General Information

Traditional NSAIDs inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2, providing benefit at sites of inflammation, but at the cost of potential adverse effects related to COX-1 inhibition, particularly in areas such as the gastrointestinal mucosa, platelets, and the kidney. The development of a drug that inhibits only COX-2 would offer the promise of relieving pain and inflammation without some, if not all, of these adverse effects. However, the concept that selective inhibition of COX-2 is only a positive event and inhibition of COX-1 a bad one may be simplistic, as it is flawed by many experimental data that have also implicated COX-2 as an integral component in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis (3). In particular, COX-2 may reduce inflammation by generating anti-inflammatory prostanoids (5) COX-2, like COX-1, may be present in normal gastric mucosa (6,7) and can play a physiological role there in defense mechanisms (8,9), and there is evidence that pros-taglandins derived from COX-2 may be...

Pharmacological Properties

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects have been revealed in several pharmacological studies of extracts of Hp and of compounds isolated from Hp 1, 14 . These studies were carried out over the years using in vivo and in vitro models for antiinflammatory or analgesic drug screening. More recently, studies of Hp extracts and constituent compounds have been performed with the aim of establishing the molecular targets within the network of cytokines, intracellular signal pathways and effector molecules that promote or mediate inflammation. The various pharmacological investigations of Hp are reviewed here. They generally support the notion that Hp extracts exert anti-inflammatory effects and provide some plausible insight into the possible mode of action of Devil's Claw as an anti-inflammatory drug. test extract or harpagoside is generally applied before induction of the inflammatory challenge, which is a standard pharmacological paradigm. But this does not reflect the therapeutic...

Pharmaceutical interest

Anti-inflammatory property The antiinflammatory property of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. is confirmed experimentally oleanolic acid saponins isolated from the roots of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. reduce pruritus induced in mice (Matsuda H et al., 1998).

Order Polygalales Bentham Hooker 1862

The order Polygalales consists of 7 families and about 2300 species of woody or herbaceous plants, believed to have originated from the order Rosales alongside Linales and Sapindales. The Polygalales and Linales are regarded as a pair of closely related offshoots from the Rosales (Appendix I). Polygalales are known to abound with pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, tannins and indole alkaloids. Most of the medicinal plants classified within the order Polygalales are used to counteract putrefaction, alleviate cough and soothe inflammation, their effectiveness being attributed to the presence of surface-acting pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins that act against microbes, dissolve mucus and reduce inflammation.

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

Aloe is used to prevent infection and promote healing of minor burns (eg, sunburn) and wounds. When used externally, the herb helps repair skin tissue and reduce inflammation. Aloe gel is naturally thick when taken from the leafbut quickly becomes watery because of the action of enzymes in the plant. Commercially available preparations have additive thickeners to make the aloe appear like the fresh gel. The herb can be applied directly from the fresh leaf by cutting the leaf in halflengthwise and gently rubbing the inner gel directly onto the skin. Commercially prepared products are applied externally as needed. Rare reports of allergy have been reported with the external use ofaloe. Although available as an oral juice, its benefits have not been confirmed. Some individuals have reported the oral juice effective in healing and preventing stomach ulcers.

Corticosteroids Cortisone and Relatives

One of the dramatic effects of corticosteroids is to reduce inflammation and certain allergic reactions, such as skin rashes. Pharmacologists have maximized this action in some of the new steroids they have created in laboratories. When these drugs are applied topically that is, when they are put on the skin they are reasonably safe and sometimes miraculously effective. Doctors also frequently prescribe steroids for systemic use that is, to be taken internally. There are clear indications for such use, but because steroids seem almost to have magic powers, doctors tend to overprescribe them, sometimes dispensing them for mild cases of poison ivy, diaper rash, back pain, and other conditions not severe enough to warrant their use. The trouble is that the desirable anti-inflammatory properties of steroids are just one of many actions of these powerful hor

Why Chronic Stress Is Bad For Your Immune System

People with type A personalities (the kind of people who are always under the gun, working 80-hour weeks, stressed all the time) have a higher risk of developing health-related problems such as heart disease. They also can develop problems with their immune systems. The body produces its own anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, namely Cortisol. Production of this hormone by the adrenal gland is especially increased during times of psychological stress, whether it is a normal stress response (such as anticipating a final exam, being stuck in traffic, or being chased by a grizzly bear) or an abnormal stress response (such as being chronically depressed). Although the antiinflammatory actions of cortisol can be beneficial in the short run in relieving pain and inflammation, the increases in overall cortisol production in chronically stressed individuals can actually damage the immune system. Cortisol and other corticosteroids suppress the immune system by killing off immune cells and also...

Pregnancy Category B

Animal experiments show that various chemicals related to zolpidem relieve pain, reduce inflammation and body temperature, and protect against gastric ulcers. Chemically these substances differ from barbiturates and ben-zodiazepines, but have effects similar to them and operate in some ways similar to benzodiazepines. Monkeys responded in ways indicating that zolpidem shares similarities with benzodiazepines but few or none with barbiturates. Despite those resemblances to benzodiazepines, rats trained to distinguish differences in drug effects acted as if zolpidem was unlike the benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide. Various other differences have been documented. To take one example, caffeine typically counteracts some benzodiazepine actions, but counteraction does not necessarily happen when caffeine is administered with zolpidem. In animal experimentation chemicals related to zolpidem can produce sedation at doses low enough to avoid unwanted effects that occur with benzodiazepine...

Schefflera octophylla Lour Harms

Pharmaceutical interest One might set the hypothesis that the medicinal properties mentioned above are most probably due to the presence of ursane, oleanane and lupane triterpenoids saponins. For instance, asiatic acid and its asiaticoside, characterized from Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms bark (Sung TV et a ., 1992), are responsible for the antiinflammatory property of Centella asiatica L. (family Apiaceae). Other active principles are polyacetylenes fatty acids such as falcarinol, falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone, which might not only contribute to the medicinal and the irritating properties of a number of plants classified within the genus Schefflera (Hausen BM eta ., 1987 Gnob M eta ., 1998). An ethanolic extract of leaves and roots

Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn

Uses The camphor of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. was known from very early times. It is from the Malay word kapur that the word camphor is derived. This camphor was the only kind known in Europe in the Middle Ages and was the Kapovpa of the later Greek physicians, who obtained knowledge of it through the Arab traders. It has been mentioned in a number of Arabian poems of the 6th century, and Marco Polo described it as being superior to any other and worth its weight in gold. In 1851, the price of this camphor in Borneo was 3 dollars a catty (95 shillings a pound), and in Canton 8 shillings a pound. Imported into China from very early times, it was valued for its ability to invigorate health, produce venereal desire, reduce inflammation and body temperature, stimulate appetite, and to aid the physiological pathways of the body. In Malaysia, the powdered oleoresin is used to heal wounds. Indonesians use the kernel of the fruit to assuage pain and to check bleeding. In Asia, camphor is...

Antiseptics and disinfectants

Glucocorticoids and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs When glucocorticoids (see also Chapter 2.15) or nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs such as bufexamac are applied regularly over larger areas of skin, absorption through the skin and transfer to the fetus must be assumed. There are no systematic studies for bufexamac, which is used widely in dermatology. Furthermore, there are no studies on other topically applied nonsteroid anti-inflammatory substances such as levomenol and benzydamine. NSAIDs for systemic treatment have not, as yet, shown any teratogenic effects (see Chapter 2.1). Recommendation. There is no objection to topical therapy with glucocorticoids or bufexamac, as long as treatment time is brief and the area covered is moderately sized. Because of their prostaglandin antagonism, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs should be limited to small areas after the thirtieth week of gestation.

Acacia farnesiana L Willd

Pharmaceutical interest It is quite probable that most of the medicinal properties mentioned above are attributed to tannins. The anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties of Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd are confirmed experimentally extracts of this plant inhibit moderately the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens (Sotohy SA et al., 1995) and reduce inflammation in animals (Trivedi CP et al., 1986). References

Sulfonylphenyl COX2 Class

Cox2 Inflammation

Most investigated area of selective COX-2 inhibitors is the 4-sulfonylphenyl super genus or family, to which both Celebrex (celecoxib)and Vioxx (rofecoxib) belong (325, 326). Often referred to as the tricyclic, diaryl, or cis-stilbene class, the lead structures for this general class were a series of known diaryl antiinflammatory agents. The most referenced lead structure appears to be DuP 697 (49) (327). The development of this compound was in part driven by the observation of less gastrointestinal irritation in animal models. A structural representative of this early class of anti-inflammatory agents, predating DuP 697, is illustrated by flumizole (50) (328). After the discovery of the inducible COX isoform, analogs having a methanesulfonylphenyl moiety

Lonicera japonica Thunb

Botany Flower Types

Anti-inflammatory properties The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic property of Lonicera japonica Thunb. is confirmed and involves a biflavonoid that inhibits the enzymatic activity of rat platelet phospholipase A2 with an IC50 value of 3 fiM in an irreversible, concentration- and pH-dependent manner (Chang HW et al., 1994). Phenylethanoid glycosides of Lonicera japonica Thunb. such as 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid inhibit the enzymatic activity of reverse tran-scriptase activity of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1, with an IC50 value of 1.16 M (Chang CW et al., 1995) and may also contribute to the antiinflammatory element of this plant, similar to saponins and iridoid glycosides. Note that an aqueous extract of flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation through the regulation of NF-k B activation (Lee JH etal., 2001). Luteolin inhibits the production of TNF-a-induced interleukin-8 human colon epithelial cells (Kim JA etal, 2005).

Orophea polycarpa A DC

Pharmaceutical interest The antiinflammatory property of Orophea poly-carpa A. DC is still not confirmed yet. A dichloromethane extract of leaves of Orophea enneandra displays antifungal, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties on account of lig-nans (-)-phylligenin, (-)-eudesmin, (-)-epieudesmine, tocopherol derivative polycerasoidol and a polyacetylene oropheic acid (Cavin A et al., 1998). Aristolactams enterocarpam I and II are known to occur in Orophea enterocarpa (Kamalia M et al., 1986). Enterocarpam II has been synthesized (Couture A et al., 1998).

Khat For Lowers Blood Sugar

Although khat has no approved medical use in the United States, elsewhere it is used against depression, stomach problems, headaches, coughs, as a mild stimulant, appetite suppressant, bronchodilator, aphrodisiac, and as a gonorrhea remedy. An antiinflammatory compound has been found in the natural product. Khat raises body temperature, breathing rate, blood pressure, heart action, and muscle tension.

Cordia dichotoma Forst f

Cordia Dichotoma Forst

Anti-inflammatory properties One might set the hypothesis that the antiinflammatory property is on the account of flavonoids, flavonols, quinones or other phenolic compounds, which are known to inhibit the enzymatic activity of lipo-oxygenase, cyclo-oxygenase, and to scavenge free radicals. Note that the fruit of Cordia myxa inhibits acetic acid-induced colitis in rats via antioxidant effects (Al-Awadi FM et al, 2001). Artemetin, or characterized from Cordia verbenacea DC. protects rats against carrageenan-induced paw edema (102.6 mg Kg-153.9 mg Kg), similar to calcium phenylbutazone (50 mg Kg Sertie JA etal., 1990). Oral administration of a lyophilized extract of leaves of Cordia verbenacea DC. (1.24 mg Kg) inhibits nystatin-induced edema in rodent. Topically, this extract (0.09 mg ear mice) is more effective than naproxen (1 mg Kg) in reducing croton oil-induced ear edema (Sertie JE et al., 1991). Robinin, rutin, datiscoside, hesperidin, dehydrorobinetin, chlorogenic acid and...

Sarcolobus Globulosus

Pharmaceutical interest Tylophora species have attracted a great deal of interest on account of their tendency to elaborate series of phenanthroin-dolizidine alkaloids such as tylocrebine, which behave pharmacologically like glucocorticoids. Such a property is conceivable since the chemical structure of tylocrebine, for instance, is relatively similar to the chemical structure our own steroids, hence confirming experimentally the anti-asthma and antiinflammatory properties (Fig. 289). Anti-asthma and anti-inflammatory properties The efficacy of Tylophora indica to treat asthma is confirmed (Thiruvengadam KV et al., 1978) in a per os double blind clinical trial (Gupta S et al., 1979). Tylophorine, the major phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid of Tylophora indica displays in vivo anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic properties (Gopalakrishnana C et al., 1979). The latter effect is known as the side effect of corticosteroid therapy. Ethanolic extracts of Tylophora indica tested on delayed-type...

Gout A Disorder Affecting Uric Acid Excretion

The treatment of gout involves diet and medication. The diet should be low in protein (so as to reduce acidity), provide adequate water, promote weight control, and includes no alcohol. Various antiinflammatory drugs can be prescribed but those which are acids such as aspirin will worsen the situation. Phenylbutazone, an antiinflammatory, is rarely used because low concentrations inhibit tubule secretion of uric acid. However, if no other drug relief can be found, it may be prescribed.

Topliss Decision Tree In Drug Designing

As one follows Figure 1-10, the first derivative of the lead compound would be its 4-C1 derivative. Since both n and o values for C are positive (Table 1-6), this is likely to result in the first analog being more active, M, than the lead. The next analog, the 3,4-dichloro, should be even more active. Further improvement should then be achieved by the 4-C1, 3-CF3 compound, and even by the 3-CF3, 4-N02 derivative. If the 4-C1 derivative were less active than the lead compound (e.g., due to steric effects), then positions other than para may be useful. Substituents with negative n and o values may be effective at the 4 position (e.g., the -OCH3). The decision tree also suggests a scheme for equiactive 4-C1 derivatives to follow an extension of the approach to side-chain alkyl groups as may occur in esters, ketones, amines, and so on. Applications to antiinflammatory agents, diuretics, and amphetamines illustrate the utility of this method.

Camellia sinensis L O Ktze

Anti-oxidant properties Note also that the relative risk of incident myocardial infarction is lower in tea-drinkers (Geleijnse JM et a ., 2002) and tea lowers cholesterolaemia in animal models (Bursill C et a ., 2001). Black tea has antiinflammatory properties (Chaudhuri AK et a ., 2005).


Myotonolytics are relatively contraindicated during pregnancy, and should be reserved for very special indications - e.g. dantrolene for malignant hyperthermia. Physiotherapeutic measures and antiinflammatory agents or antirheumatics are preferable. In certain cases, the tension-releasing action of the better-studied diazepam can be used. Exposure to the myotonolytics mentioned does not require either a termination of the pregnancy or invasive diagnostic procedures.

Newer Nsaids

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, scientists succeeded in unraveling the mystery of why NSAIDs were so effective in reducing inflammation and pain while at the same time causing harmful side effects such as upset stomach, ulcers, and intestinal bleeding. It turns out that there are two forms of the COX enzyme that produce prostaglandins COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in the processes of blood clotting and maintaining a healthy stomach lining, whereas COX-2 is primarily responsible for inflammation in the skin and muscle tissue that causes pain. NSAIDs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen inhibit the activity of both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. This results in pain relief but also toxic side effects.

Doxaprost Si Em F

It may now be possible to hypothesize why acetaminophen, like aspirin, is antipyretic, but it exhibits minimal antiinflammatory properties at therapeutic doses. Acetaminophen has been shown to inhibit PG synthetase in brain areas well, but much less so in peripheral areas. This is most likely due to differences in the enzyme sensitivities to these drugs in different parts of the body (isozyme ). Research by Vane and others has by now established that inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis is the most plausible mechanism by which aspirin and aspirinlike drugs exert their antiinflammatory, antipyretic, and analgetic action. Even most of the side effects are explicable on this basis.

Apama Tomentosa

Times Drugs The Future

Glucocorticoidalproperties The antiinflammatory property of Aristolochia species is probably on account of a direct interaction of aristolochic acid and derivatives with the enzymes of the inflammatory process. For example, aristolochic acid inhibits in vitro and dose-dependent phospholipid hydrolysis by the human synovial fluid phospholipase A2, snake venom phospholipase A2, porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 and human platelet phospho-lipase A2 (Vishwanath BS et a ., 1988). An ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Aristolochia indica L. given postcoitally decreases the fertility of rats and hamsters (Che CT et a ., 1984). The concomitance of both anti-inflammatory and post-coital abortive properties brings to mind the property RU486 or mifepristone, a synthetic steroid antagonist of both progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors, which is used (tablets 50 mg or 200 mg) to stop pregnancy (Fig. 30).

Mitotic Inhibitors

Compounds known to inhibit the mitotic phase of the cell cycle offer potential usefulness in the treatment of cancer. Few such drugs, however, have reached clinical application either because of unacceptable toxicity or ineffectiveness. Two antimitotic agents are used for other purposes. The antibiotic griseofulvin is utilized for its antifungal properties. The alkaloid colchicine, although having antitumor activity, is used in the treatment of gout. Colchicine, obtained from the seeds of Colchicum autumnale, combines with tubulin reversibly. Tubulin is a protein, normally polymerizing to form microtubules found in animal and plant cells. Of particular interest is their function in chromosomal motion during mitosis. The ketonic area of the tropolone ring portion is the likely binding site. Inhibition of leukocyte microtubules is the probable reason for the alkaloid's strong antiinflammatory effect in gout. Podophyllotoxin, which is obtained from the resin of the May Apple or

Aerva lanata L Juss

Pharmaceutical interest The antiinflammatory and antidiabetes properties of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. mentioned above are probably due to saponins or flavonoids glycosides. An aqueous extract and the fresh juice expressed from Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. inhibits carrageenan-induced edema in rodent (Amin KMY etal., 1994) and an ethanolic extract of the plant protects rodent against alloxan poisoning (Vetrichelvan T et al., 2002).

Multiple Sclerosis

Two recent studies have examined the impact of cannabinoids on Theilers virus infection induced demyelination (Arevalo-Martin et al., 2003 Croxford and Miller, 2003). These studies reported a functional recovery even following disease establishment. Cannabinoids were reported to reduce microglial activation and diminish inflammation in a manner that paralleled remyelination (Arevalo-Martin et al., 2003). The CB2 selective agonist JWH015 also produced similar effects (Arevalo-Martin et al., 2003), suggesting that such processes may have been regulated by these receptors. However, this compound does exhibit low affinity for CB1 and, therefore, future studies are required to understand the mechanism of this effect. Treatment of primary astrocytes from 1-d-old postnatal mouse cerebral cortex, infected with TMEV, with anandamide has previously been demonstrated to induce production of interleukin-6 by a CB1-mediated process (Molina-Holgado et al., 1998). Interleukin-6 has been suggested to...

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