"Perhaps Í was acting strangely. Suddenly a pair of busy hands, which had been running neck and neck ail the evening with a nimble little crochet needle over a raec-ground of pink and blue silk, slopped at their goal, and their owner locked at me steadfastly. Ah! I was found out I had betrayed myself. In terror I wíiited, expecting every instant to hear the word 'hasheesh.' . No, the lady only asked me some question connected with the previous conversation. As mechanically as an automaton i began to reply. As I heard once more flic alien and unreal tones of my own voice, I became convinced that it was someone else who spoke, and in another world. I sat and listened: si ill the voice kept speaking. Now for (lie first time J experienced that vast change which hasheesh makes in all measurements of time. The first word of the reply occupied a period sufficient for the action of a drama; the last left, me in complete ignorance of any point far enough back in the past to date the commencement of tlte sentence, its enunciation might have occupied years, I was not in the same lite which had held me wJien 1 heard it begun/"
Fit/ Hugh Ludlow The Hasheesh Enter, 1857
known in Morocco. But long before that, the world was shaken by the Ismaili, "Faithful Ones," known to their enemies as the Assassins.
In a.d. 1090 a bold and brilliant revolutionary, Hasan-i-Sabbah, captured the Persian mountain stronghold of Aiamut and established a dissident sect that terrorized the Near East for several centuries thereafter A ccording to Crusaders, Marco Polo and other travelers, Hasan and later Ismaili chiefs (all of whom were called Old Man of the Mountain) in Persia and Syria would direct initiates into exquisite gardens and knock them out with a drug; when they awoke, surrounded by lovely hour is, they thought they were in paradise. The Old Man would assure them that indeed they'd had a taste of paradise and if they joined his sect they would forever after be admitted to heaven, even if they were killed. In this manner, youths were recruited, given an education that often involved learning several languages, trained as spies and sent into the retinues of Muslim or Christian officials. There they would remain undercover, sometimes for years, until their orders came to kill the specified victim.
Hasan-i-SabbahT üir Olí! Man of the Mo not air cannabis and its dert vat ives 123
Over the centuries, the Assassins legend grew to enormous proportions. Propagandists to this day have misconstrued the story to "demonstrate" that hashish causes violent crime and that people who turn on are fanatic slaves and wily murderers. Several points need emphasis. First, it is not known exactly what drug the sectaries used; all. their records were destroyed by later Mongol hordes. Second, only those who despised them called them Assassins-lhey called themselves Faithful Ones (faithful to the ''New Teaching1' of Hasan)-and the alleged etymological connection between assassins and hashishiyyun ("hash heads'") glosses over the fact that their enemies wished lo blame hashish for politically motivated crimes. This would be rather like establishment officials today calling any young radical a "dope fiend." Third, the drug employed for initiation into the cuIl was used to obtain a vision of paradise. It did not nerve them up for slaughter, was not used during their missions and did not make them crazy. Quite the contrary, it served to introduce illiterate young men to an education they might never have received from orthodox officials and gave them at least a fleeting glimpse of an altogether higher order of existence. If anything, political and religious intrigue, not hashish, caused assassination.
Nevertheless, the legend worked its way into literature, bringing an inevitable thrill of horror associated with cannabis. Boccaccio in the Decameron alludes lo the '"powder of marvelous virtue'1 used by the Old Man of the Mountain, and Dante puts a ''perfidious assassin"' in the nineteenth circle of hell.. Readers of ihe Thousand and One Nights became familiar with ihe antics of hashish eaters in several stories. Coleridge nodded out in an opium dream while reading tales of Mongol China in old travel books that also told the Assassins legend, and upon awakening he dashed off ''Kubla Khan,'1 in which imagery from both Oriental traditions is beautifully fused. The French Romantics patterned their Club des Haschischins after what they imagined the medieval cultls psychedelic sessions were like. Rimbaud's famous line, ''Now is the lime of the Assassins,"' created a prophetic and chilling metaphor for the modem age. And in the twentieth century, of course, American narcotics police made '"Assassin of Youth"' a synonym for marijuana that has echoed around the wodd.
Mongols and Mpghuls soon spread dope and lei-ior across Asia. The Mongol lord Tamerlane is said to have sown hemp around his splendid capital of Samarkand in Russia, and his descendant Babur the Great, first Moghul Emperor of India (ca. 1505), described how he would sometimes mix tincture of hemp and opium, loo.
THE MIRROR WHICH MAGNIFIES "... Let it be well understood then, by worldly and ignorant folk, curious of acquaintance with exceptional joys, that they will find in hashish nothing miraculous, absolutely nothing but tlie natural in a superabundant degree. The brain and tlie organism upon which hashish operates will onJy give their oixlinary and individual phenomena. magnified, it is true, both in quantity and quality, but always faithful to their origin. Man cannot escape die fatality of his moral and physical temperament. . Hashish will be. indeed, for.the impressions and familiar thoughts of the man. a mirror which magnifies, yet no more than a mirror."
Charles Ba udela ire The Poem of Hashish, I860
According to Richard H. Blum. Babur also "ate hemp sweetmeats and. when taking hemp, abjured alcoLioL lie reported no il] or violent effects from either hemp or opium, but was surely distressed by wine his 'death in fife/
Perhaps because of the association between hashish and the Assassins, there was considerable legal controversy over recreational and religious use of the drug, as there was with coflee. Poets and mystics Invented myriad nicknames to cover their secret passion for the herb: ol khadra, "the green one"; shohcionoj\ "royal grain"; kit, "blissful mind"; 'utjclah, ''the lump"; and csror, "secrets." These became epithets for specific preparations during the Ottoman Empire of the Turks which began in the thirteenth century and continued until World War L Wayfarers and merchants apped stories over their hookahs in smoke-filled coffeehouses from Damascus to Constantinople. Cordoba to Isfahan.
AFRICA: BANG I. R IAMB A, MATOKWANE, DAGGA With rapid transcontinental communications and expanding trade, hashish pen el rated every Muslim kingdom. Ismail i devotees brought it to Egypt by the thirteenth
century. Uptight officials were aghast that the tabled Gardens of Djoncima became a hashish spa and fruitlessly tried to ban the drug. "It is recorded that in die year 1378 the emir Soudon Sheikhouni tried to end the abuse of Indian hemp consumption among the poorer classes by having all plants of this description in Joneinia destroyed and imprisoning all the hemp eaters, lie ordered, moreover, that all those who were convicted of eating the plant should have their teeth pulled out, and many were subjected to this punishment. . But by 1393 the use of this substance in Arabian territory had increased," Louis Lew in says.
Dervishes danced across North Africa, revealing the secrets of mo'joun (called do worn esc in Algeria) and coffee everywhere. Traders plunged overland into Ethiopia and there encountered a piece of paraphernalia _ for which the world has been eternally grateful: the water pipe. Though the Persians are usually credited with this invention, the earliest evidence of water pipes comes from Ethiopia in the form of two ceramic pipe bowls, originally attached to water pipes, excavated near Lake Tana. Carbon-dated at about ajx 1320, the bowls contained cannabinoid residue-firm evidence that people in Ethiopia
smoked 'hemp two or three hundred years before tobacco arrived. "Earth smoking" by building up a mound of clay and sucking smoke directly through a hole in the mound is an ancient custom in Africa, and the wood, gourd, bamboo and horn water pipes may havea evolved from this practice.
The Persian narghile (coconut hookah) was simply an African reed pipe or Indian chiUimi (Lube pipe) stuck in a coconut, and it soon became the beloved bubbly-bubbly of the Muslim empire. It allowed alchemists to refine the raw plant material into the resin now called hashish and to smoke this compact, potent goo without burping their throats. In Turkey, the hollow wooden chibouk, up to eight feet long, was often used to cool the smoke instead. In North Africa, a special sipping technique with the shorter sibsee evolved. When tobacco was introduced in the seventeenth century, cannabis was often blended with the newfangled American weed. This was especially] true in trade centers close to Europe: Moroccan kif, for example, is almost always traditionally \ smoked« with tobacco. Pol yd rug use included coffee as well.. A medieval Sufi tale says a Lebanese mountain man taught the women of Tripoli how to brew coffee by erecting his coffeepot on a tripod over the bowl of his Jong pipe.
Arab traders plied the east African coast, bringing the practice of smoking batij from Aden to Zanzibar, India to the south of Africa, Variations on the word bangi (mbange, tubange) for cannabis are common among Bantu- and Swahili-speakmg east African tri hes. As (he drag penetrated the interior, its name slowly changed. In central Africa it was revered as chamba, ria mba or diamba, eventually reaching the west coast (Angola) with these magic names. Further south, the Sotho call it maiokwotte or' lebake, titles that also worked their way west.. To the Zulus, whose gourd water pipes are justly famed, it is mighty jntsangu. The Hottentots seem to have heard an Arabic word for tobacco, daXab; and applied it to a species of Le on it is as well as cannabis; from this the word dagga derived.
Hemp was little used for cloth in Africa. Instead, a tradition of religious, medical and recreational hemp smoking soon evolved. Pygmies in the equatorial forest believe they have "smoked hemp since the beginning of time." According to Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, "In Southern Rhodesia the African uses the plant, among otters, as a remedy for malaria, black water fever, blood poisoning, anthrax and dysentery and as a 'war medicine.1 . The Sotho administer the ground up seed with bread or mealie-pap to children during weaning.
DR„ LIVINGSTON ON MATOKWANE IN WEST CENTRAL AFRICA
'The Batoka of these parks art: very degraded in their appearance, and are not likely to improve, either physically or mentally, while so much addicted to smoking the mutok wants. This pernicious weed is extensively used in all th tribes of tltc interior. it causes a species of frenzy, and Scbituanc's soldiers, on coming in sight of their enemies, sat down anil smoked it, in order that the> mi.iiht make an effective onslaught. . I was unable to prevail on the young Makololo to forego its use, although (hey cannot point to an old man in the tribe who has been addicted to this indulgence. Never haviug tried it. I cannot describe the pleasurable effects it is said to produce. Some view everything as if looking through the wide end of a telescope; and others, in passing over a straw, lift, up their feet as il about to cross ilie trunk oj a tree. The Portuguese in Angola have such a belief, in its deleterious effects that the use of it by a si a ve is considered a crime. "
Dr. David Livingstone quoted m Arts cj fnlodcolion. 1871
Sotho women smoke cannabis to stupefy themselves during childbirth Speight is of the opinion that the Hottentot not only used the plant as a snakebite remedy but also for centuries as an intoxicant. ____ One African puts it thus: 'We forget all our troubles, we forget we are working and so work very much.
The most famous example of hemp smoking replacing earlier religious rites became known when Hermann von Wissmann visited the Balubas, a Bantu tribe in the Congo. Their chief,
Kalamba-Moukenge, seeking to unify diverse tribes he had conquered, in 1888 ordered their ancient fetishes to be burned and replaced with a ritual religion using cannabis as the central sacrament. , ''On all important occasions, such as holidays or the conclusion of a treaty or alliance,'1 Reininger reported in 1946, "the Baluba smoke hemp in gourds which may be as much as one meter in circumference. In addition, the men gather each evening in the main square, where they solemnly smoke hemp together. But hemp is also used for punishment. . The delinquent is compelled to smoke a particularly strong portion until he loses consciousness. The subjects of Kalamba began to smoke hemp with such passion that they ended by calling themselves bena-Riamba (sons of hemp), after the name which this plant has in their language.''
THE ACE OF DISCOVERY: EUROPE AND AMERICA Beginning in the sixteenth century, Europeans began discovering the nonfiber uses of cannabis in Africa and Asia. Leo Africanus, a Moroccan converted to Christianity, reported to the Pope in 1510 that he had observed Tunisian fakirs giggling under the influence of hashish. About the same lime, the adventurer Nicolas de Nicolay painted a group of Turkish soldiers in the streets of Constantinople stoned on the drug. Significantly, this was exactly the period when debate over the relative merits of wine and hashish was at its height in the Ottoman Empire: despite the Koranic prohibition against wine, it
Sevemeenlh Ccrluj. Indian miniature was considered the ''guest of the Sultan,'' while hashish, in the words of a Turkish poet, was '"the friend of the poor, the Dervishes and the men of knowledge, that is, all who are not blessed with earthly goods and social power.1' This meant that from the eatliest rumors of hashish in Europe il was associated with the poorest of the poor-and heathens, to boot,.
Following Vasco da Cama's voyage, Portuguese navigators took over many Arab outposts in Africa, introducing tobacco there and in Asia along with pipes. In exchange, their ships carried slaves long accustomed to hemp smoking to Brazil, where the Angolan names maconho, diamba and riarnba still, survive. On the opposite side of the globe, the Portuguese physician Garcia da Orta practiced in Goa (India) for decades, grew his own pot and left, a clear and scientific account of ''bangue1' in 1563. Others, like the African herbalist Christoval Acosla, soon followed suit.. And in China, the eatliest accounts of opium smoking mention hemp being mixed into the potent narcotic.
Thus Europeans were alerted to ihe drug potential of their useful fiber plant. . Classical learning revived in the Renaissance, giving European authors access to Greek-Arabic information. The amazing botanist Leonhart Fuclis of Basel lavished praise on the plant he named Cannabis sativa in his herbal De HistoNa Stirpium (1542) and commissioned artists to draw it from life, giving ns a superb illustration of the northern European species. Rabelais, about 1550, ransacked classical souices and rendered an imaginative account of the herb Pantagruelion, in which its antibiotic properties are noted. Witches in Shakespeare's time stirred hemp in their cauldrons: Nynauld's Lycanlliropy, Transformation and Ecstasy of Sorcerers (1615) lists belladonna, henbane, aconite, opium and hashish as the main ingredients of their ointments and brews. Shakespeare himself called country rogues "hemp seeds" and "hempen homespuns," fit only for the hangman's hemp noose. Culpeper's Compleat Herbal (1645) commended the plant for hot or dry cough, jaundice and ague« fluxes, colic, worms
and earwigs, inflammations, gout, knotty joints, hip pains and burns. Thus long before Linnaeus classified it C. saliva (1753) and grew it in his apartment to prove the sexuality of plants, the manifold uses of hemp were well known.
But during the Age of Discovery, with ships of every flag sailing the seas, Europeans were mostly interested in hemp fiber. In 1533, the year Henry VOL married Anne Boleyn, demand for lope and sailcioth was so great that the corpulent monarch ordered every English farmer to sow a quarter-acre of hemp or flax for - each 60 acres tilled. EKplorers crossing the Atlantic expected to find hemp in the "Indies," and several, including Veriazzano, Carlier, Hariot and Lord Delaware, said they saw "wilde hemp" in Virginia and Canada. Whether this was in fact cannabis, or merely Apocynum cannabinum (dogbane, which resembles hemp and yields fiber), is still a matter of conjecture.- Much of the evidence for pre-Columbian cannabis in America has been collected in Jack Frazier's The Marijuana Farmers.
The Spaniards introduced hemp cultivation to Chile in about 1545 and to Colombia, Mexico and Peru in the ensuing century, but it thrived only in Chile. The Portuguese allowed slaves to plant maconha in Brazil between rows of sugar cane. Champlain's apothecary Hebert sowed it in Nova Scotia (1606); the Jamestown colonists, in Viiginia (1611); and the pilgrims, in New England (1632), and it soon provided sturdy work clothes for1 all.. Ironically, in light of the later war on marijuana, cannabis cultivation was one of the first enactments of the first truly representati ve legislature " in the colonies. The Viiginia General Assembly in 1619 declared, "For hempe also both English and Indian, we do require and enjoine all householders of this Colony that have any of those seeds to make tryal thereof the nexte season." This was democrac/s.first marijuana law; would that it had been the last..
Rigging ships with hemp was so common in the seventeenth century that the Dutch astronomer Cliristiaan Huygens thereby deduced hemp's existence on Jupiter. Galileo had sighted four moons orbiting that planet, and Huygens reasoned that their purpose, like that of our own moon, was to aid mariners in navigation. Mariners meant ships; ships meant lopes and sails, and that meant hemp on Jupilei t
Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French and British navies depended on hemp canvas and cordage, and imperial governments strewed hempseed all over the earth. Soldiers, merchants, slavers and bureaucrats roamed the high seas, and some had the temerity to try the drug so adored by the
But meanwhile, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and many other eighteenth-century
Women of Algiers in their Apartment by Delacroix
THEM FIRST KICKS "It's a funny thing about marihuana-when you first begin smoking it you see things in a wonderful soothing, easygoing new light.. All of a sudden the woiild is stripped of its dirty gray shrouds and becomes one big bellyful of giggles, a special laugh, bathed in brilliant, sparkling colors that hit you like a heatwave. Nothing leaves you cold any more; there's a humorous tickle and great meaning in the least little thing, the twitch of somebody's little finger or the click of a beer glass. All your pores open like funnels, your nerve ends stretch their mouths wide, hungry and thirsty for new sights and sounds and sensations; and every sensation, when it comes, is the most exciting one you've ever had. You can't get enough of anything-you want to gobble up the whole goddamned universe just for an appetizer. Them first kicks are a kilter, Jim."
Mew, Mez/jw and Bernard Wolfe Redly the Blues, ¡972
natives. Most explorers' accounts-that of the
British privateer Thomas Bowrey being a notable exception-of cannabis use in Asia were distorted and superficial, confusing it often with opium. Later on, the cumulative effect of this misinformation would be the prohibition of marijuana in every Western land.
But meanwhile, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and many other eighteenth-century farmers imported hempseeds from England, India and even New Zealand to grow experiment ally, hoping to establish it as a commercial crop to make America less reliant on Europe for hemp. The fact that Washington separated male from female plants, mentioned in his diary in 1765, does not indicate interest in the drug. It was recommended in hemp harvest manuals of his time that males he removed immediately after pollinating the females to give the latter plenty of sunlight and space to produce abundant seeds. Communities like Hempstead, Long Island, took their names from flourishing hemp fields. It was the chief cash crop of Kentucky from 1792 to the Civil War, and the economic basts of slavery there. Its ready availability throughout the South must have meant that at least a few farmers and slaves smoked the drug.
In 1798 Napoleon led his troops and a contingent of academicians into Egypt. . Much to their officers' dismay, an army of several thousand Frenchmen turned on with hashish. "The use of the strong liquor made by some Muslims with a certain weed called hashish, as well as the smoking of the flowering tops of hemp, is forbidden in ali of Egypt," Napoleon decreed, to no avail» Despite then disastrous defeat at the hands of Lord Nelson, the French learned much about hashish from this expedition. Overnight, all of France became fascinated with Oriental exotica; in this
Women of Algiers in their Apartment by Delacroix context, Sylvestre de Sacy first proposed the derivation of assassins from hashishiyyun 111 1809.
There were oilier repercussions. To recoup his financial losses, Napoleon sold ihe Louisiana Territory lo Jefferson in 1803. New Osleans, with its mixed Spanish, French, Creole, Cajun (originally French from Nova Scotia), Mexican and black population, teemed with adventurous sailors, some of whom surely knew aboul dope. Laler, as settlers pressed across the new territories, their Conesloga wagons were covered with the toughest available cloth-hemp canvas. Mexican governors in California may have tried lo planl the weed. The first dwelling erected by a white man in what is now San Francisco was a homely canvas teni made by Captain W. A. Richardson oul of liis ship's foresail.., He called the site Yerba Buena, "good herb," which conventional historians think refers lo a mint that grew profusely in the area.
And in 1808 the Portuguese queen Dona Cadota Joaquina and her royal court, threatened by Napoleon's new advances into Iberia, fled to Rio de Janeiro. There I hey became acquainted with potent Amazon cannabis. Returning to Lisbon after the Napoleonic wars, Dona Carjota on her deathbed commanded her favorite slave, Felisbino, to provide her with dtatnba do amazonas. He cooked up an infusion of Brazilian weed with arsenic, which the queen took to soften
ihe pains of death, "thereupon taking up her guitar and singing." Felisbino later chose the same route to the world of the dead himself. _
Napoleon's lime, French art and literature. became drenclied in Norih African pleasures and pains. Young painters like Gros, Ceiicaull and Delacroix dared the derision of their neoclassical teachers by putting grisly plague victims, demented assassins and sexy harem courtesans with hookahs on canvas. For. students of every profession, a year or two in Algeria or Egypt was de rigueur, and Oriental customs like hash eating caught on. In 1840 a physician who had traveled widely in North Africa, Louis Aubert-Roche, published a book on the value of hashish in treating plague and typhoid fever» This caught the attention of a young psychologist, Jacques-Joseph Moreau de Tours, who had traveled in the Orient himself.Moreau began researching hashish (Algerian dawamesc) as a possible cure for mental illness. Knowing from personal experience that the drug induced a mental state "impossible to describe lo anybody who has not experienced it," he was particularly* hopeful that hashish might bring on a temporary derangement of the senses that, when studied, would illuminate the condition of his patients» With this flash of insight, Moreau invented the modern psychopharmacology.
He invited the young poet Theophile Gauder to taste the confection dawamesc, and Gauder was overwhelmed with visions of artistic splendor. He turned on the painter Boissard, in whose suite at the swanky Hotel Pimodan .they founded the Club des Haschischins, attended over the next few years by the cream of literary society: Baudelaire, Dumas, Balzac, Flaubert and many others. Each in turn, worked hash-inspired imagery into their poems and stories, sparking great interest in the drug. Gauder sketched Moreau-the mysterious Dr. X who attended the club meetings in Turkish garb-and bugged the bourgeoisie by retelling the Assassins legend and announcing that "there exists in Paris in 1845, in this epoch of stockbrokers and railroads, an order of 'haschischins.* " Dumas waxed enthusiastic about the aphrodisiac effects of hashish in The Count of Mome Cristo. Scholarly Moreau submitted his manuscript > On Hashish and Mental Alienation to an Academy of Sciences competition, and though he won only honorable mention, it has since been recognized as the first great work of psychopharmacology. Stoned students paraded through the streets of Paris during the Revolution of 1848 waving reprints of a radical visionary novel by Lallemand, Le Hachych. Baudelaire, enchanted with De Quincey and Poe, recalled his weird experiences with hashish, opium and wine most eloquentLy in the classic essays later published together as Les Paradis Artiftciels.
And the same thing started happening in England when a brilliant young British East India Company surgeon stationed in Calcutta, William Brooke O'Shaughnessy, introduced cannabis to Western, medicine in 1839. Fresh out of Edinburgh medical school, O'Shaughnessy investigated Indian medicine thoroughly and recommended ganja's unique powers for a great variety of therapeutic purposes after experimenting with it on himself, animals and patients. He f" successfully, relieved the pain of rheumatism and stilled the convulsions of an infant with this strange new drug," Dr. Tod Mikmiya relates. "His-most spectacular success came, however, when he quelled the wrenching muscle spasms of tetanus and rabies with the fragrant resin."
O'Shaughnessy's paper caught the attention of doctor all over the would, who soon clamored for more news of Indian drugs. He responded by compiling Bengal's first massive pharmacopoeia in English, still regarded by experts as a masterpiece of Asian drug lore. Then this strange genius became obsessed with the idea of a communications network to span the vast subcontinent, returned to England, divorced his wife, changed his name (to William
VICTOR ROBINSON ON CANNABIS (In 1910, Robinson took 20 minims of CaiinoMsif j indico tincture and after an hour or two, fettling no effect, went to bed and fell asleep. Auditory hailuqi? -nations slowly wok» him up in the midst of an 4 i»ul-of-body experience he likens to spaa? travel.) > |
§/T hear music. There is something strange about this t music. I have not heard such music before. The ; anthem is far away, but in its vtry faintnuss there is a ¿; lure. In the soft surge and swell of the minor nctes . there breathes a harmony that ravishes the sense of , sound. A resonant organ, with a stop of sapphire and a diapason of opal, diffuses endless octaves from star to star. AH the moonbeams form strings \o vibrate the A perfect pitch, and this entrancing unison is poured into my cnchanted ears. Under such a spell, who can ^ remain io a bed? The mn^ic of that melody bewitches my soul. 1 begin to rise into the outside air. Sweeter; S and sWueler grows the music, it bears me higher and ; higher, and 1 float in tune with the infinite-under the turquoise heavens where globules of mercury are glitterind.
become an unhindered wanderer through unend* f-: ing space. No air-ship can go here. I say lam | -astonished at the vastness of infinity. I always knew i it was large. I argue, but I never dreamed it was as huge as this. 1 desire to know how fcst I am float in« "through the air, and 1 calculate that it must be aboutfe^ billion miles xi second. . _ ^
g "! am transported to wonderland. 1 walk insln?v.t$ where gold is dirt, and 1 have no desire to gather it.;! wonder whether it is worthwhile to explore the P canals of Mars, or rock myself on the rings of Saturp.
hut before I can decide, a thousand other fancies; • enter ray excited brain.. - '* f
O'Shaughnessy Brooke) and abruptly plunged into a new career: engineering. Sailing back to India, he strung telegraph wires from Calcutta to Delhi at a feverish pace. When the Sepoy rebellion erupted, the news flashed over the wire ahead of the mutineers, and the gifted doper who had foreseen the value of such a system was knighted by the queen.
Every era of fascination with this drug has been accompanied by inspired, visionary art and literature, burgeoning use of the drug despite prohibition attempts, investigation of its medical uses and the best chemical research possible. In 1857 the brothers T, and H. Smith of Edinburgh obtained a highly active alcohol extract of C, indica that became the basis for innumerable tinctures marketed thereafter. Queen Victoria's personal physician, Sir John Russell Reynolds, found it useful during 30 years of experience for dysmenorrhea, migraine, neuralgia, epileptoid
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