N

Napoleon, 21, 128-129, 135 Naranjo, Claudio, 76, 77, 209 Nation, Carrie, 26

National Organization for the Reform of

Marijuana Laws (NORML),143, 144, 267,310-311 Native American Church, 3, 28, 58, 61, 62, 66,

195,204-205,208 Neimann, Albert, 166 Nelson, Lord, 128 Nembutal, 243 nepenthes, 2, 5, 217 Nero, 6-7,120,232 Neurosine,256 New land, Constance, 185 niacin, use in "bad trips", 192 Nicholas of Salerno, 234 Nicot, Jean, 93

nicotine, 93-94, 96, 222. See also tobacco Niemann, Albert, 23 nightshades, 67-69 active ingredients, 67 as aphrodisiac, 101-102 pharmaceutical preparations of, 69, 255 species included in, 67-69 See also belladonna; datura; henbane; mandrake nitrous oxide, 22-23, 235, 247-251, 257 Nixon, Richard, 141, 143,264,266,268,274,

283,312-313 NoDoz, 89, 259 Noludar, 245

nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), 66, 73-74,94,209

effects of, 83, 94-96 Nynauld,. 127

Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement

(ODALE),264 Ogata, 237

Olden, Marc, 110, 263, 278, 279 ololigue. See morning-glory seeds Operatjon Buccaneer, 266,274 Operation Intercept (Opln), 264-266, 268, 269 Operation Starttek, 270 opiates, 213-230, 252 addiction to, 197, 213, 216, 219, 222,

223-224, 228-230 analgesic, effects, 213,214-215,223,228 chief compounds, 213 codeine, 213,224

dependence and withdrawal symptoms,

216-217,229 euphoria. effects, 213,215 heroin, 213,214,215,216, 224-228 legal restrictions, history, 173,221-222,225,

298-299,313-314 mainlining effects, 215-216, 223 medical uses, 223, 224 methadone, 213, 214, 215, 228-229 morphine, 213, 214, 215, 216, 222-224 opium, 213,214,215,216, 217-222 pharmaceuticals, 229 potency, 213 side effects, 214 synthetic, 213,229,253 tolerance, 2 ยป3, 216, 223, 229 ways of taking, 213-214 See also analgesics; codeine; heroin; hydromorphone; meperidine; methadone; morphine; opium opium, 48, 127, 135, 168, 213, 214, 217-222 addiction to, 218, 219, 222, 223-224 as aphrodisiac, 104, 105, 106 collecting method, 217 effects of, 215, 217

in history of drugs, 5,6,7, 10, 13, 18,21,22, 23, 231

legal restrictions on, 219,221-222,298-299 medical practice and, 219-221, 222, 234 pharmacology and, 231, 232-233, 234, 235, 242

pipes, 285,291-294 source of, 217 tolerance to, 216, 223 use, history of, 217-219, 221-222, 285 OptimiL, 244 Ordin, Davis, 287

organic hallucinogens. See psychoactive vegetation; names of plants organic speed. See energizers, herbal O'Shaughnessy, WJUiam Brooke, 21, 131 Osier, Sir William, 223 Osmond, Humphry, 28,179,181,186,198,207 Oeeri, Joseph, 140

over the counter drugs (OTC), 255, 259 Owsley, Augustus Stanley HI, 31, 195,208,281 oxazepam, 247

oxycodone hydrochloride, 252 oxygen, 22

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