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ADRENOCHROME Basically oxidized epinephrine(adrenaline), this chemical is related to many hallucinogens. Besides mental and perceptual changes, it will induce a temporary schizuphrenic condition. The semicarbazone of adrenochrome is much milder and safer, commonly causing no untoward side effects bui providing physical stimulation and a feelijig of well-being. Ii is insoluble in water and must be dissolved in an alcohol or fatty base before ingestion.

ALPHA-CHLORALOSE Described as similar in effeci to PCP (phencycljdine), this chemical is prepared from chloral hydrate or chloral betaine. Although less loxic than PCP or chloral betaine, alpha-chloralose may cause nervousness or convulsions. Alcohol, , no matter how small the quantity, should be completely avoided with this drug.

AMYL NITRITE Discovered in 1857, amy 1 nitrite is a highly volatile yellowish liquid that dilates small blood vessels, lowers the blood pressure and relaxes ihe involuntary muscles when inhaled. Thomas Lauder Brunton, a Scot, introduced the drug into medicine in 1867 because of its effectiveness in relieving the pain of angina pectoris. Besides its main use in controlling heart spasm, it is currently prescri bed for the relief of some types of asthma.

Sold in bottles or small breakable glass ampules (of 0.2 ml.) nicknamed "poppers" or "snappers," amyl nitrite is inhaled to produce a quick, head-spinning, heart-pounding, disoriented kind of high. Sometimes likened to the high produced by nitrous oxide, it can also cause some interesting visual distortions, but one of its most popular applications is as a sex enhancer. When inhaled just before climax, it is said to intensify one's orgasm into something akin to a totally overwhelming experience of being a cosmically pounding ball of flesh hurtling through space. Hmmm.

In any case, amyl nitrite should not be used by people with low blood pressure. Side effects such as headache, vomiting, and falling down and cracking your head have also been observed. Tolerance can develop to poppers rather quickly, but sevei^e reactions or deaths from nitrite poisoning are rare. Although still available in some states without a prescription, it ¡s coming under increasing legal controls.

ANTIHISTAMINES Included in many over-the-counter and prescription drugs, antihistamines block the action of histamine, a substance released by the body in some allergic reactions. These drugs are effective in reducing symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, itching, congestion and skin conditions. In addition, some of the antihistamines are useful in preventing motion sickness.

The illicit use of these drugs, a very recent development, came about because one of their principal side effects is sedation. The active ingredient of many OTC sleeping pills is, in fact, an antihistamine. It is possible to get a euphoric, mellow head from antihistamines but they can be risky. Overdose can lead to tremors and jumpiness, and the drugs can actually cause death by respiratoi-y failure. Depending on the pharmaceutical purpose, an antihistamine's depressant action may be augmented by other sedatives (as in OTC sleeping pills) or counteracted by mild stimulants such as phenylpropanolamine, phenylephrine or ephedrine. Antihistamines have so many contraindications (they should especially not be used with MAO inhibitors and birth control pUls) that they are best avoided-just by themselves they cause various unpleasant side effects in about 20 percent of the population. Despite their widespi^ead employment in cold medications, they have been criticized as having no, or possibly negati ve, effects.

APOMORPHINE Although the drug is recommended by many for use in heroin or morphine withdrawal, , the Physician's Desk Reference of 1976 lists it as a ''centrally acting emetic"' (inducer of vomiting). Therapeutic, doses may cause CNS depression and euphoria, but also restlessness and tremors. Excessive doses can cause violent vomiting, cardiac depression and death. It is very dangerous in combination with other CNS depressants.

ASARONE The effective dose and particular consequences of this drug vary broadly among individuals. Related to mescaline and the amphetamines, asarone comes from the roots of sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and the Asarum species. It can act as a stimulant, sedative and hallucinogen simultaneously. It should not be taken with any MAO inhibitors.

ATROPINE This is an alkaloid found in belladonna (deadly nightshade), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), Jimsonweed (datura) and mandragora (mandrake). In these same solanaceous plants, in varying quantities, are the alkaloids scopolamine and hyoscyamine, so similar in nature and effect to atropine that the three are often referred to as '"the belladonna alkaloids.'" Used since anojent times for magic and sexual conquest, these potent drugs achieved tremendous noioriety during the Middle Ages, wlien they were staple ingredients in the concoctions of poisoners and witches.

Currently, atropine is mainly tised as an antispasmodic agent, especially to calm gastrointestinal excitation. because small doses relax the smooth muscles and block certain nerve endings to the stomach. Atropine does not cause nearly as much CNS depression or sedation as scopolamine or Iiyoscyamine. which are less often used in medicine. Alt three, however, are sometimes combined in trariquilizing medications. One called "Tension Relievers" by Arrow contains 0.008 mg. of scopolamine hydrochloride. 0.1 mg. Iiyoscyamine sulfate and 0.02 mg. atropine sulfate.

In larger doses, atropine can cause hallucinations, sensations of flying, disorientation and other fantastic consequences that some find enjoyable. Hardly anyone, however, gets pleasure ■ from the other possible particulars of the trip-delirium; blurred vision: rapid pulse and respiration; excitement cunfusion; hot. dry skin and mucous membranes; and finally paralysis and coma. Although deaths are rare, they can occur from very heavy doses, as can brain damage. It should never be used by people with glaucoma-as a matter of fact, while a few rugged individualists like these bizarre alkaloids as highs, they are so potentially destructive that they cannot be

Atropa belladonna

recommended for anyone. Another solanaceous (tomato family) drug is B-Z. developed by the CJ.S. Army as a weapon to frighten, disorient and physically, disable enemy personnel. .

BROMIDES Various bromide salts have been used as sleeping aids, calmatives and anticonvulsants since the middle 1800s. They were widely prescribed for general soothing purposes and were found especially, useful for tranquilizing extremely disturbed or excited psychiatric patients. By 1928. one out of five prescriptions was for bromides! They have been largely replaced in modem medicine because they were found to be toxic when used chronically. However, they are still, available today. One example is Neurosine, a combination of ammonium. potassium, sodium and zinc bromides augmented with a touch of Iiyoscyamine and atropine that is prescribed as a sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant.

DECONGESTANTS The most common ingredient in over-the-counter decongestants is phenylephrine. a mild stimulant. . Oral decongestants raise the blood pressure and heart rate and may increase pressure- in the eye. besides being relatively ineffective. Nose sprays will produce more results: but lend to precipitate a "rebound effect." of extra stuffiness when the medication wears off.

DEXAMYL This combination amphetamine-barbiturate sometimes appears in the illicit, market. . Prescribed as an aid in short-term dieting, the amobarbilal is included to counteract any overstimulation caused by the dextroamphetamine. Is this elevator going up or down?

Biphetamine T. an intriguing blend of methaqualone with two types of amphetamine, and Bambadex, the Disneyesque-sounding amalgam of dextroamphetamine and mepinbamale, also represent medicine's more two-fi&ied attempts to stifle rampant appetites.

DITRAN Chemically known as piperidyl benzilate. this is a hallucii»gen and a psychedelic.. It causes changes in perception of time, space, heating and color, although no real visual hallucinations. Subjects in experiments with Ditran often become incoherent. immobile and totally insensate to the outside environment.

EPHEDRINE It is traditional to attribute the fust mention of ephedrine to Shen Nung, the sagacious Chinese emperor who was allegedly prescribing cannabis 5.000 years ago. In any case. Orientals have been using plants of the Ephedra genus for at least 2,000 years, primarily for the treatment of asthma. Ephedra was also employed 10 improve the circulation (ii increases blood pressure)* as a cough sedative and as a fever reducer (ii piomoies perspiration).

First isolated in 1885 by Dr. G. Yamanaslii. ephediine was admilted as a standard drug by the American Medical Association in 1927. A CNS stimulant, , the drug is chemically very similar to epinephrine (adrenalin) and has been used to treat overdoses of alcohol* , opiates and barbiturates. Ephedrine, a bronchiodilator, is included in ihe majority of hay-fever and asthma medications and it is often included in a drug formula to counteract the sedative action of antihistamines.

Ephediine often appears on the black market under the guise of being a "white cross" amphetamine. Although it will give you a fair buzz, ephedrine potentiates the actions of brucine and strychnine, two potentially harmful drugs that arc also common ingredients in bootleg ups.

HARMINE This indole alkaloid is found in severa) psychotropic plants including Banisteriopis caClpi (source of yage), Peganum hormctla (Syrian rue), Zygophyllwv {obogo and others. Harmine (and related substances such as harmaline) is a hallucinogen, serotonin antagonist and CNS stimulant. .Small oral doses can produce mental exc¡Lotion and euphoria. Sometimes a user will enter into a dreamlike slate in which everything is perceived to be moving in wavelike patterns. Larger doses, or intravenous injection, will usually lead to intense hallucinations, but without the enthusiasm and joyful transcendence typifying the LSD experieiKe. The common reaction for harmine trippers is to become very passive; they lend to relax* close their eyes and enjoy the show. Harmine is sometimes eaten, snorted or injected along with LSD or mescaline to lend a more tdepathic quality to the trip.

Harmine is an MAO inhibitor and large doses can dangerously depress the central nervous system. A slight irritation may result from the nasal ingestion of the drug* bui six>rting is the most efficient way to use harmine.

HYOSCYAMINE One of the "belladonna alkaloids." it is very similar to atropine and scopolamine. However, since its depressant actions and effects on the peripheral nervous system are greater ihan those of atropine* hyoscyamine is less often used in medicine.

KETAMINE Discovered by Dr. Cal Stevens of Wayne State University, in 1961, ketamine hydrochloride is classified as a disassociative anesthetic. as are nitrous oxide and phencyclidine (PCP). Ketamine first gained attention during the Vietnam War, as it was the most common battlefield anesthetic. Its first casual use in the United States occurred in California, where its veixlant appearance caused it to be dubbed "greeiL" Ketamine* although manufactuied as a liquid, appears on the street as a powder, in pills or capsules, or soaked into pot, parsley or tobacco.

In medicine, the presurgery dose is anywhere from 400 to 700 mg.* but inpatients can take care of their iieeds with about 50 mg. of the powder. The ketamine high is described as an other-wordly, dreamlike state^a little taste of never-never land. Coordination, speech and other body fu iictions may be unpaired by an effecti ve dose.

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^F^T^fMAS ^ Hjwej were given acid not only to relieve their pain, but to help them better accept their forthcoming deaths. However, the ami-LSD hysteria that dominated the 1960s ended research into ihe therapeutic uses of ihe drug when the sole U.S. manufacturer. Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, was obliged to halt, production. *

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Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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