"... Wc can see llie psychological process throughout llie [ibogaine] session above as one of a progressive recognition, acceptance and expression of impulses. Wlial had first reached consciousness as fleeting and threatening images (suffused with both aggression and sensuality) became more and more detailed and led to llie idea of dancing, to actual movement, to sexual arousal and to ihe paiienfs shouiiug at ihe top of her voice. More precisely, we can speak of an unfolding of.repressed inslincts side by side with an unfolding or expression of 'phantoms^-the 'intio [ects," llie top-doggisli monsters which constitute the clamp that holds down llie impulses. Yet these phantoms are nourished by the blood of the repressed. Il is precisely in these guardian-monsters that the patient's energy is imprisoned, and in giving ihe phantoms a voice, il is eventually ihe energies ihey have swallowed that speak-ihe patient's impulses- heiself."

Claudio Naranjo The Hen/iixg Journey. 1973

explorers: its hallucinogenic effects were first noted in 1906. Ibogaine is ihe principal alkaloid among 12 in iboga. Use of the plant is religious among several tribes, notably the Bwiii cult, where it is used in initiation rites, in seeking information from ancestral spirits, as a folk medicine and as a giver of strength and endurance, especially^ for. hunting.

Pipiadenia peregrina-source of cohoba snuff

Unlike other plant hallucinogens, ibogaine does not dUale the pupils or raise the blood pressure. The visions it brings are similar to those of B. caapi-wild animals, primitive men, themes of aggression and sex (ibogaine is also used as an aphrodisiac). The hallucinations under ibogaine are characterized as "dreaming without loss of consciousness." As a result., il has been found to have great potential in psychotherapy. Naranjo has given it to patients to enable them to confront and combai fantasies or symbolic hang-ups from ihe past.. He dcscribcs ibogaine as a "work drug" and a icvealer of "ihe instinctive life." Iboga loot is very nausea-provoking and usually has to be given with dramamine. The best dosage range is 200 to 300 mg. (about 4 mg. per kg. body weight). The effects come on in 45 minutes to an tour and last a full 8 to 12 hours. The FDA and DEA do not consider ibogaine lo have any but experimental medical use, and they want against its high potential for abuse. But like yage,' iboga root and its active alkaloid are unknown on the illicit underground market. .

YOHIMBINE Another well-Joiown West African drug used in folk medicine is ihe baiic of the yohimbe tree (Corynanthe yohimbe). Yohimbine and two other indole alkaloids are the aclive constituents. There are two methods of preparation: a drink made by boiling the shaved inner baik for at least a half-hour: or in the more potent hydrochloride form, a snuff or a joint of one thin, cocainelike line across the grass. The effects of ihe beverage are potentiated by the addition of vitamin C% Yohimbine is a psychic energizer and an aphiodisiac. And in hydrochloride form with a dose range of 15 to 50 mg., it is a mild hallucinogen. Once taken, its use should not be repealed for several weeks, and it should never be used wiih alcohol or amphetamines. Yohimbe bark has been commercially available for the past two years in "sensuous-herb" smoking mixtures and teas. A marriage ceremony employing yohimbe as a sacrament has been observed in California.

BUFOTENINE Bufotenine (5-0H-DMT) is an hallucinogenic substance of the indole group found in extremely diversified places: toad skin, rabbil lung, a psychoactive tree (Amidemuithera peregrina), a vine (Banisteriopsis rusbyunu) and a mushroom (Amanita muscuria). Il is even found in human urine. Its molecular structure very closely resembles that of serotonin, the neurohormone lhat regulates the transmission of nerve impulses across synapses-the interference of which is a major- factor. in producing Ihe psychedelic _ experience.

Tlie extent of the hallucinogenic role of bufolenine has been the subject of controversy, but injections of 16 mg. in a controlled experiment did produce strong color hallucinations, time-space distortion and other signs of mental alteration. While some investigators quarrel with its classification as a hallucinogen, it remains on the controlled substances list. It was probably an ingredient in a pre-Colombian ritual brew of Mesoamerica and possibly the active agent in Kyphosus fuscus, the psychedelic, fish found off New South Wales. Bufolenine was used by European witches in their polions and is a component of the Haitian snuff cohoba, the first New Wosld plant hallucinogen to be discovered-by Columbus in 1496.

DMT SNUFFS Hallucinogenic snuffs are widely used by natives of the northwest Amazon and upper Orinoco region of South America. The two main sources are trees: the blood-red resin of the inner bark of the virola of the nulrneg family; and the crushed seeds of I he Anadenanthera peregrina, formerly Piptadenia peregrina.

The powder is blown up into the nostrils through a hollow bone tube by another person, and like those of synthetic DMT, the effects begin within several minutes. Initially, there's extreme stimulation and a lack of motor coordination, then visual hallucinations, especially macropsia, that

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