11 lakes about five keys of good hash to make one key of high-quality oil.. If lakes 25 keys of good grass to obtain an equivalent amount. „ The oil is manufactured by boiling finely powdered marijuana or hashish in a solvent such as methanol (methyl aJrohol) or eihanol (ethyl alcohol). The oil-which contains THC. cannabidiol and cannabinol-dissolves in the solvent, but the cellulose parts of the plant do not. These are removed by straining, and the solvent is removed by evaporation. The remaining residue is basic hash oiL It is often further refined into a more potent product by extmeting most of the substances that give it taste, smell and color. Contrary to rumor and much authoritative opinion, there is no essential difference between hash oil made from grass and hash oil made from hash. Virtually all the domestic, Mexican and South American hash oils are extracts of grass, not of hash. The extraction procedure takes longer, but the end result., is the same-a tasty, very potent smoke.

Good hash oil is such a tasty, potent smoke that the heavy thinkers predicted that its first appearance on the street in 1971 would render the common joint as extinct as the five-cent glass of beer. And this wasn't an especially outrageous prediction. The new product contained far more THC than anything yet corralled outside a government-sponsored lab, and the bigger-bang-for-your-buck philosophy is a fea tured player in tire American Dream.

Oil samples analyzed in 1974 averaged more than 23 percent THC. (Some were in the 45 to 65 percent bracket; some were rip-oft s with less than I percent THC.) Fresh primo Afghani hash, by contrast, ranges from 8 to 15 percent THC-in Kabill, I hat is". By the time it reaches American smokers, oxidation has usually reduced it to 3 to 5 percent THC, the potency generally found in the best Hawaiian and Thai grasses. Much of tire hash we get here contains less than ! .5 percent THC, and (lie great hulk of commercial weed contains no more than 1 percent. . Considering these figures, predicting that hash oil would become the common currency of the dope world was reasonable enough.

But history seldom follows reasonable expectations. Hash oil, so golden, so promising, never made it past the connoisseur market. .

Richard Ashley High Times- February 1977

The real scientific advance represented by the La Guardia Report, however, went on behind ihe scenes, far removed from the legal struggle. Along with street weed, the researchers tested the effects of new, potent "red oil," extracted by Roger Adams from wild Minnesota hemp. in tlie early Forties, Adams and his colleagues (and Lord Todd and co-workers in England) isolated the classic trilogy of hemp drugs: cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol. . The first two were not

THE TEA-TIME TERROR ISIS In Ohio a gang of seven young men, all less than 20 years old, had been caught after a series of holdups. An officer asked them where they got their incentive.

"We only work when explained.

"On lea. Oh, there people call it 'niu1 c moocah' or 'weed1 oames for iL"

"All of whi' h mean high tea, are lots of names for iu Some >r 'muggles1 or 'Mar) Weaver' or or 'reefers'<-lheres a million marijuana?"

"Sure. Us kids got on to it in high school three or four years ago; there must have been 25 to 30 of us who started smoking it„ The stuff " was cheaper then; you could buj a whole tobacco tin of it for 50 cents. Now these peddlers will charge you all they can get, depending on how shaky you are. Usually though, it's two cigarettes for a quarter.

Harry J. Anslinger High Times, March 1976

Lu si y rusty look at the weed.

psychoactive, bul THC was intensely so. Adams couldn't identify the precise THC isomer responsible for1 the effects but synthesized a powerful compound not found in the plant.. Called parahexyl or synhexyl, it reawakened medical interest in the drug, particularly for treatment of depressive mental states. For the first time in history, ¡t didn't make much difference what species or variety of hemp was used; scientists could- extract and synthesize much more potent cannabinoids in the lab.

Meanwhile, back in the dark ages, Anslinger blasted the La Guardia Report as "extremely dangerous" at the first U.N. narcotics meeting in 1946, and in 1948 he began promoting a scheme for a Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. In the Fifties, with sex pulps like Reefer GirJ selling like hotcakes, he urged Hale Boggs, Wilbur Mills and other politicians to increase pot penalties along with those for heroin. But when the Single Convention was finalized in 1961, the U.S. didn't ratify it, because he felt the "communists" had watered it down. (In fact, delegates from India succeeded in removing cannabis leaves, sacred bhang, from the list of prohibited goodies.) Not until 1967, when the legalize-marijuana movement was in full swing, did the U.S. sign the treaty-in secret Senate sessions to which no medical or promarijuana witnesses were invited. "We've got it locked up so tightly now they'll never change the law,"' Anslinger crowed.

THE MARIJUANA REVIVAL Bul mystical revolution is one thing no government can cope with. The Back-to-Africa movement aroused black pride everywhere. In Jamaica the Rastafaris sprang up in the Thirties, chanting the praises of God (personified in Haile Selassie of Ethiopia) and tracing their ganja smoking back to Genesis. Ganja use by West Indian, African and East Indian immigrants in 1950s London could not be contained and quickly pervaded the rock music scene. The Beatles signed a full-page ad demanding legalization in the London Times (1967). Two years later Baroness Wootton's government committee recommended decriminalization: "Possession of a small amount of cannabis should not normally be regarded as a serious crime to be punished by imprisonment.".. The following year, Canada's Le Dain Commission proposed a maximum $100 civil fme for simple possession. These ideas became standards for pot reform.

In America, "beat generation" writers who had been smoking dope since La Guardia's time (Allen Ginsberg first turned on in 1944 in New Orleans) openly exalted drug use in poetry that shook the world. Acid burst into the scene in the eauly

CARLIN ON GRASS "Doesn't make you sick, your breath doesn't stink and you don't puke on your shoes."

George Carlin Toledo Window Box

Sixties, revitalizing interest in hallucinogens. Though we didn't know it at the time, John F. Kennedy became the first U.S. president to smoke marijuana-m 1962. The Peace Corps took thousands of young Americans to the dope capitals of the worJd. Soon millions more poured into Southeast Asia for the war, learning drug use abroad as some of their fathers had in Would War II and Korea.

The legalize-marijuana (LEMAR) movement was bom in San Francisco in 1964, when attorney James R. While III mounted legal cases challenging ihe constitutionality of the laws. Ginsberg, Ed Sanders and olhers mimeo'd newsletters and picketed the women's prison in New York to protest pot penalties. Ginsberg's scholarly artiole 'The Great Marijuana Hoax-First Manifesto to End the Bringdown" (1966) became ihe centerpiece of The Marihuana Papers, the book thai really awakened public consciousness. Festive be-ins and smoke-ins brought thousands to public parks. Playboy and America's first national dope magazine, The Marijuana Review, called attention lo outrageous sentences handed out to blacks and hippies. (Lee Otis Johnson, Houston SNCC leader, 30 years for a joint; John Sinclair, Detroit, poet, 91h-10 years for two joints.) At National Student Association conferences, narcotics police found themselves confronted by well-informed, clean-cut collegians. Attorneys Joseph Oteri and Harvey Silvergate called drug experts galore for a landmark test case in Boston. Suddenly the old arguments (marijuana causes crime and insanity, leads to heroin, etc.) didn't seem quite relevant anymore. People born again with acid and nurtured in protest against the war were not about to be told by hypocritical government agents that marijuana was deadly.

The great breakthrough in cannabis chemistry came in 1964-65, when Mechoulam and Gaoni isolated pure delta- 1-trans-lelrahydrocannabinol and identified it aspol's main psychoactive ingredient. . (Chemists and connoisseurs agree, however, that the herb's total effects depend on the relative balance of constituents.) To date, 30 or 40 cannabinoids have been identified along with many congeners, synthetics and metabolites. Modem cannabis research began in 1968 with Weil Zinberg and Nelsen's double-blind study in


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Shirley Temple Black l>K,k S Murgolif» and Richard Clorfr.no A Child's Gordon of Croft*. 1969

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