Cannabis And Its Derivatives

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"There's been do top authority saying what marijuana docs to you, I really don't know that much about it,) tried it once but it didn't do anything to me."

John Wayne

This is a plant with a dream, a vision of world conquest in less than 10,000' years. From prehistoric times, the destinies of man and marijuana have been inextricably linked. Shamans toted magic weed around in medicine bags, and nomads introduced it everywhere they prowled in ancie.nt Eurasia. Familiar but enigmatic, provoking extravagant praise and ferocious condemnation, cannabis has long been t- most widely used hallucinogen on earth. Modern farmers sprout specimens from every nook and cranny of the globe. And every time the cry goes up for "more research," hemp gets scattered further. Recently the United Nations planted it above the Arctic Circle, where it was never known before, to see whether a powerful strain of South African dope will retain its potency up near the North Pole. And with all the scientists who now turn . on, it's safe to say it will. be one of the first drugs smuggled to the stars.

Like humankind. hemp is aggressive and versatile, spreading with ease across desolate steppes, up craggy mountains and hills, over deserts and plains, down along creekbeds and streams, even into swamps. A notorious camp follower, it thrives in nitrogen-rich soil, cropping up in wastelands and garbage dumps-sure to be noticed by nomads and plant gatherers.

The wild weed originated in temperate Central Asia, that vast region stretching between eastern Europe and China. Though its seeds can be carried by wind and water, birds and beasts, the foremost agent of its distribution has always been Homo sapiens. Some remote human ancestor perhaps noticed this beautiful leafy vegetable in the meadow and gobbled it down tor lunch. The effects were far out a jolt, to the forming of human consciousness. As Pamela Lloyd has said, "The shock of recognition must have registered: psychoactive animal meets psychoactive plant, . The two have been nearly inseparable ever since."

Or perhaps some ancient human discovered the gleaming white threads in the rotting stem of a plant that had fallen into the creek, twisted them together and made a tough cord-great for hunting or fishing nets and durable cloth. The first tangible evidence of hemp in the world appears as fiber marks on pottery (ca, 4000 B.C.) from the Neolithic village of Pan P'o in Shensi Province, north central China. Similar fabric-marked pots and hemp textiles have been unearthed in eastern I Siberia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Kansu and Chinese Turkestan. On the European side of central Asia, hempseeds have been recovered from Neolithic sites in Rumania, Austria, Switzerland and Germany. Hemp appears to be one of the oldest

Photos Lord Shiva During Doping Ganja

THE GREEDY JUDGE AND THE CAN.1A BAG "The Dhurtasamogomo, or 'Rogues' Congress»' . ¡s the name of an amusing if coarsely written farce of about die year 1500 A.D". the author of which was one Jyotirica. In the second act two Shiva mendicants come bfcfoie an unjust judge and demand a decision on a quarrel which ttey have about a nymph of tte bazaar. The judge demands payment of a deposit before he will give any opinion.

One of the litigants says-'Here is my ganja bag; let it be accepted as a deposit.' .

The judge (laking it pompously, and then smelling it greedily)-"Let me try what it is like flakes a pinch], AhJ I have just now got by the merest chance some ganja which is soporific and corrects dcrungnmunts of tlie humours. which produces a healthy uppct ile, sharpens the wits and acts as an aphrodisiac!'

Appendix to the Hepoii of ite lndion /}ctnp Drugs

Commission, 11194

the new world

"Grass was first discoveied in Twin Falls. Idaho, in 1907 by a small Polish immigiant hy the name of Wayne Krulka. The discoveiy occurred in early May, while Wayne was working late in Iiis study one evening, trying to find a shorter route lo India."

lack S, Margolis and Richard Clorfunr: A Child's Görden of Cruss, 19U9

cultivated plants in the world. Though its botany has been hopelessly confused byhuman meddling» there is some evidence of three different species in ancient times.

"GREAT HEMP"-CANNABIS SATIVA

Cannabis has been treasured forever because of its multiple uses. To the Neolithic Chinese, it was a gift, of the gods, bequeathed by Hie Divine Cultiyator. Sheri Nuilg, for the needs and comforts of life; clothing» rope» fishnets» potiecy mats; food fEom the seeds rich in sugar and albumin; dear, shining oil. too, for sauces and salves and lamplights; and a miracle,, drug for body and mind.

The classic BOOK of Odes brings the hemp harvest season in Shensi vividly to life. Fi\>m the earliest times, the Chinese recognized that hemp plant.ed thickly produced tlie best fiber. They called it rnu, an ideogram depicting two sprightly plants (male and female?) growing up gracefully toward a ioof-a hint that hemp grew quite tall when properly tended. Later, wlien mu became the general term for fiber plants. cannabis was named la ma, "Great Kemp." This giant cultigen was dearly ihe talL sturdy, laxly bianclied species Cannabis saiivo, prized especially for its long stem-fibers and an abundance of nutritious seeds»

that HOLY AND GRACIOUS HERB He who scandalises tl^c IISI:rof bhclng shall su lln-r tilt: torments of hr-ll so long as till; suu nndurr^jL III: who drinks hhang foolishly or for plnusu rr: without C(,Ii-gious rites is »IS guilty <ISiili: sinurr of lulAs |l huu-sandsl of sins. Ill: who drinks wisl,I-' dill) kl|:coixling to rule, he h* ever so low» I~ven Ihollgh liis budy is smcarnd with humun ordure and uriru.{ is ShivJ. , No god or man is <ISgood as (hr: ('(oligiolis di'inkU of bhang. Tim si udc.nl s of Mm script urns <JtBI'iIares JJ'(: givl-n bhang bl~fol'(: Ihcv sil to stlldy"" , .Yogis" . .InJ.r dl,ep drdughls of bhdng Ihat Ihcv may chnllT link

Ihouulj Is on t hi: 1 k:il-J'JJU|____By 11)(4 I nip 01 bhillig ascetics pass days w il liuut food or drink» Till' sup porting powc-r: of hllang has brought imnv J I liudu<, family sad:: through Mm misurir^ol laminl:, To forbid or I-Vl -Butinuslv io it-si riiv! llu: (ISI; 01 s" hoi-' alld gracions a hr-x h as tlie hemj: would haliSF. wtdhsprkad sllrrkring and annoyance and to llir: LlPgl' hjnds "I wursh ippnd ascetics dl,q!-sl:JL|*d angl:I\, It would rob till:: people of a so lur.r: in d iscornfud. . of a CUIT in sickness, of a guardian whosr: gr»ll:iollS pi'" I I'd i111 1 saves them Irani (lu: attacks ovil influences. .uid wlwse mighly POWM' mjkr-» die dlAOt,:l:- of i lu: Victorious. oveieoming Ihr: dkmons of hunuur .11 Id I hirst of panic Ic,u:, 01 Ilu- glJIlJOUJ' of i^Lly/l (IF mal telV and of mudncss. .IlJU-in rl:sl lo hrood on Ilu-Eternal. , till die EILrnll. » posskssing him I]Qd~' all<:l soul., fill's him from till' hau ni fng of snlf all<l.(4(:u'iv('s him inlo dio orxu n in Iking. 'Ihr-sr lipids Ihr--Musalrnan devote!- shaius to H]('fu,ll. I.ikr- his Hindu hrodiei" the Mus.ilm.rn fakir ('(,UcITS bhang as Ihr Icngdicnor of life, Iht: frLi;r I ram till'. bUHlis "I sl,lj. Bhang brings union w ilh Ihr: iJivjru: Spirit,1V! VI.' drank bhang and ilir: mystery I.iui III: g('( ^ plain, So grand a result, so tiny a Sill,' "

I. fc'. (;ollpl)('11 ./„It'llII Ilh« ™rii~!i"ll„ilHHIV llt'U

But ancir.nt shamans knew live sl'crcl of 11](:drug in die plant, and niu III:CillTlC il COITIPOllLIll of many words relating 10 drugs» folu-yo w.r» mcrlicin« dissolvud in winu: IJ)u-tslli ("liemp-drunk") meani an intox icani: mu-rnu

("liemp" arul "I rr:u"J meant 10 he wOUUeUiy uu m h, oi" as we would sav,. storied. ttvlu-Jei-sulI, a "narcotic bubbling compound" used by the famed second-century physician II u: i To as all a uusl hci ir: for surgery. was pruhahlv , a cjmiuhis r:oljClJI:lo n. Til e Shun Nung phurmucopuio. compiled dmillgi die Hail dynasly (20(ji B.C.-fS.iJ.. 220), t;Llssifics /u rnu among Ihe "super ioc" im murl ali iy i.Jt x irs. Eilting hemp fiower-lops» it say's, rn.rk cs OUC "hecornn a divi ne tiunst.cndunl." hut ovruindulgcnco prnd ur.es h all uci nul ions. Mlurallv "seeing devils." Another hedia 1 silys divinr-rs Cilt hemp fruits, with ginseng "to gailfi knowil'dgc of mullers yet to come." A Iunl h-uun I ury summary of ancient lore adds: "Hemp IiAVU has a spicy" IHSII'. is toxic and is used foi" waslr: diseases anrl injuries.". . Taken to cxccss. il IllilkkS 0111'SC\'

"Kif is like fire; a little warms, a lot burns."

-Moroccan folk saying ghosts and stagger crazily aboul.. If taken over a long period, it causes one to communicate with spirits and lightens one's body."

Hempseeds and flower-tops were frequently recommended for constipation, difficult, childbirth, menstrual cramps, rheumatism, convulsions and fevers. (When a team of American pharmacologists visited China in 1974, they found dried ripe hemp fruits still prescribed for constipation.) All parts of the sacred plant had value. Shamans carved the woody stalk into a magic wand with a seipent coiled around it, beating on a patient's bed wilh this caduceus to drive off evil disease-demons. In veneration of ancestors; mourners at funeral lites wore hemp robes and caps. Legend has it that in a.d. 105, the eunuch Ts'ai Lun invented the world's first paper, using castoff hemp rags, nets and tree bark.. Chuang Tzu later speaks admiringly of a Taoist ascetic who for ten years wore only a tattered hemp robe: ''So it is that he who is nourishing his mind's aim forgets his body ... and he who is carrying out the Tao forgets his own mind."

BHANG: CANNABIS INDICA Cannabis swept into India from Central Asia in the second millennium B.C. during repealed migrations of fierce, chariot-riding Aryan nomads. Soma was their highest sacrament, but as they moved away from their mountainous soma source, cannabis also came to be regarded as sacred. A verse of the Atharva Veda, last of the four Vedas to be accepted into orthodox religion (ca. 1400-900 B.C.)» includes hemp among several woody plants thrown on a sacrificial fire in a soicerer's ceremony to conquer enemies. Another hymn adds: '"Five kingdoms of plants, with Soma as their chief» we address: darbha grass, bhanga, bauley, the herb saha; may they free us from distress."' Cannabis has been known as bhang in India ever since.

From the time of its introduction, Indian hemp appears to have been cultivated mostly for drugs rather than fiber. Like psychedelic, soma, it was especially revered by warriors and priests. Its inclusion among five sacred plants invoked for "freedom from distress" implies that its psychoactive powers were well known and even provides a clue to its size; the other plants listed are relatively small. In sum, the bhang of ancient India was probably the short, bushy, resin-rich species named Cannabis indica by Lamarck in 1783. Its stem is too Ugnifjed and not tall enough •(four feet) to produce long bast fibers, but its leaves and flower-tops produce a most potent drug.

Eauly grammarians mention bhang "dust" or pollen and list "hemp fields" among compound words, implying its eaisly cultivation. Buddhist monks, strictly forbidden to use drugs recreatenally, were allowed to inhale bhang fumes as a remedy for rheumatism. The ArfhashasirOy a political handbook, mentions bhang as an ingredient of a smoke bomb htided against enemies. The surgeon Sushmta eatly recognized that marijuana dries up mucous membranes, recommending it as an antj.phlegmatic. Later doctors prescribed it for fevers, dysentery, epilepsy; to bring on sleep, soothe nervous tension, stimulate appetite and.act as an analgesic and aphrodisiac.

In medieval times it was given revealing nicknames like ganja, "noisy" or "sweet-smelling"; Indrashana, "food of the king of the gods"; vijaya, "victorious"; and siddhi, "that which bestows magic power." Spiced bhang milkshakes consecrated to Kali, dread con soil of the god Shiva, were ceremonially. poured over the lingam (stone phallus) in Hindu temples and drunk by worshipper themselves as an aid to meditation. Highly sophisticated Tantric sex yoga developed from this tradition. To this day, most of India's wandering ascetics use cannabis constantly, drinking bowls of bhang to celebrate auspicious holy days and smoking fat chill urns of ganja at cremation pyres along the Ganges. Bhang drinks and sweetmeats are used on festive occasions by all, classes. Ganja made only from cultivated female flower-tops is the drug of choice among serious smokers, for religious purposes or simply to pleasure the senses. Hashish (charas) was a medieval Muslim innovation and is still most popular in areas of strong Muslim influence (Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir) and in Nepal and the other Himalayan kingdoms.

Bengal (Bangala) means "bhang land." The traditional Bengali ganja-cultivation technique has become wotld famous. The key to the process is the removal of male plants from the fields before they can pollinate the females. To accomplish this, a "ganja doctor" (poddar) would go through the fields many times as the plants matured. An experienced poddar could distinguish between males and females even before they flowered-perhaps by recognizing certain nodes and stipules that precede formation of the buds. As a result the female, anxious to protect her flowers from the broiling sun and to catch the pollen that never came, would devole all her energies lo resin production. Harvested, compressed, graded and packaged by experts, these practically seedless ganja-tops became the most valued marijuana of Asia. The cultivation method spread with Hindu emigrants to Southeast Asia, Africa and the, West Indies. Nowadays, the same technique is used lo grow sinsemilla everywhere in the worJd that people care about lop-quality dope.

ROADSIDE WEED: CANNABIS RUDERALIS As in India, cannabis penetrated the ancient Near East with the incursions of Central Asian nomads. A legend in the Persian A vesta, closely related to the Vedas of India, has it (hat the early heroes Gusiasp and Ardu Viraf were "transported in soul to the heavens, and had the higher mysteries revealed to them'' by drinking banha (bhang). Zoroaster's wife Hvovi sacrificed lo ihe gods, ''wishing thai holy Zarathuslra would give her his good narcotic, bangba ... thai she might think according to the law, speak according to the law and do according to the law." Bhang was classed as an oil seed in ancient Persia and valued in miscarriages.

Hittiles, Hunians and other northern charioteer plunged inlo the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and Turkey repeatedly during the second millennium b.c. Herodotus speaks of tribes along ihe Araxes River in the Caucasus singing and dancing while stoned on fumes from the ''fruit of a tree,1' pnabably cannabis, thrown into their fires. Phrygians invading the Hiltite empire in Turkey (ca. 800 B.C.) left hempen fabric in iheir grave mounds at Gordion, near Ankara. (Was ihe "Gordian knot" that Alexander the Greal sliced through on his way to conquer the worJd made of hemp rope?) Their neighbor, the Assyrians, burned incense called Qunupu or Qunabu, probably hemp because of affinity to the Greek word kannabis.

The origin of this word is obscure. It is usually considered Indo-European, related lo old Germanic hanapaz, from which ''hemp'1 ultimately derives. Dr. Sula Benet has proposed a Semitic origin instead in the Hebrew kaneh ("reed"') and bosm (''aromatic1'). If she is correct, the fragrant herb usually translated "calamus" in the Bible may actually have been marijuana. In Exodus 30:23, God commands Moses to make holy oil for anointing kings and priests out of "myrrh, sweet cinnamon, kaneh bosm and cassia." Among the delights' in the paradise-garden of the Song of Songs (4 : 14) is kaneh, also named in Ezekiel 27: 19 as an artiale of trade in Phoenicia. Hemp fabric, kanabos, is mentioned in the traditional lawbook, the Mishna.

SCYTHIAN PURIFICATION RITES "... After a burial, those involved have to purify themselves, which they do in this way. First they soap and wasli their heads, then to cleanse their bodies they make a little lent, fixing Ihree sticks in Ihe ground, lied together and lighUy covered with felt. Inside a dish is placed, with red-hot stones and some hemp seeds.

There is in that country kannabis growing, both wild and cultivated. Fuller and taller than flax, the Thra-dans use il to make garments very like linen. Unless one were a Master of Hemp, one could not tell which it was-those who have never seen hemp would think it was linen.

The Scythians take kannabis seed, creep in under the fells, and throw it on the red-hot stones. It smolders and sends up such billows of steam-smoke that no Greek vapor bath can surpass it. The Scythians howl with joy in ihese vapor-baihs, which serve lhem instead of bathing, for they never wash Iheir bodies with water.

Their women pour water onto a rough stone, pound cypress, cedar and frankincense into it, and smear this thick ointment all over their faces and bodies-which noi only leaves them fragrant with perfume, but also makes iheir skin shining and clean when they rub the goo off ihe next day."

Herodotus Histories IV

But the most famous poi passage in ancient literature1 concerns Central Asian nomads directly-the Scythians, who roamed ihe vast steppes (700-300 B.C.) from eastern Europe to Siberia. Herodotus speaks of Scylhians purifying themselves with kannabis after the buiial of a king, and hemp-smoking apparatus just as he described (except with six slicks, not three, about 18 inches high) has been excavated from Siberian lomb-barrows in the Altai Moumains. Both men a. Sticks from Scylliian liemp tenc b. Coppei' censer with stones for buttling Kemp c. Excavated Scythian pot contained hemp seeds

Scythian Hemp

a. Sticks from Scylliian liemp tenc b. Coppei' censer with stones for buttling Kemp c. Excavated Scythian pot contained hemp seeds and women smoked, for two sels of implements were found next to an ornately tattooed male corpse and a mummified female body. Near the lent poles were a copper cauldron, censer and leather medicine-bag containing hempseeds quick-frozen since about the fourth century B.C. When the seeds were sent to Soviet botanists for identification, they were found to be of the Cannabis ruderalis type.

Ruderalis means "roadside," and this wild species (first published by Janischewsky in 1924) has special characteristics that enable it to spread without much human help. As it now exists in southern Russia, it is a sprawling, very short, unbranched or slightly branched hemp with fat leaves and seeds that detach easily and can survive a freezing winter to germinate the next spring. This is probably the "wild" hemp of Herodotus, scattered by the trail as the Scythians wandered, later cultivated near settlements. Scholars have long debated whether the ''seeds'1 in Herodotus's account were the seeds alone or the entire flower-top. It's a silly argument. . Try throwing hempseeds on a hot stove in a sauna some time-they spurt smoke, just as Herodotus said, and enough of them will definitely get you stoned.

Similar hempseeds (not bo tan i call identified) have been found in German tombs (fifth century B.C.). showing how far-ranging this practice was in Herodotus's lime. Scythian cavalry led the armies of Alexander the Great across Asia, and Scythians often troubled the borders of India and China. The Amazons, who, according to Herodotus, intermarried with the Scythians to produce the Sarmatians, were also probably familiar with hemp smoking. A woman's body bearing Scytho-Sarmatian jewelry in a grave in France is thought to have been the queen-priestess of a

Unicorn Skeleton
Scythian fiant goddezs and rider

Celtic chieftain. Scythian funerary rites were perhaps the origin of throwing hempseeds into a fire as an offering to the dead in eastern Europe. In Russia, Lithuania and Poland, hempseeds are thrown on hot stones and the vapor is inhaled to alleviate toothache. Central Asian brides in the 1930s reportedly ale lamb's fat and hashish on their wedding nighl.. Dope smoking among contemporary heads in Russia is occasionally lambasted in the Soviet press. It seems that Scylhian "howls of pleasure" may still be heard in Russia today.

CULTIVATED HEMP: GREEK, ROMANS, VIKINGS Dioscorides, the first-century physician in Nero's army, says cultivated (cannabis is useful for weaving strong rope, has a foul odor and hollow stems. Ealing too many hempseeds may ''diminish sexual ability,'1 but its fresh juice, dropped in the ear, is terrific for earaches. The Anicia Juliana codex of Dioscorides (A.D. 512) gives us the first botanical drawing of hemp-a plant three or four feet tail, with both male and female characteristics.

Illustration of cannabis from the works af Dioscorides

Pliny, ¡11 the second century, repeals its use for earache, recommends it for consiipaied farm animals and adds that the root, boiled in water, eases cramped joints, gout and burns. His contemporary Galen is more explicit about recreational use of hemp seed cakes: ''There are some who fry and consume the seed together with other desserts. Desserts are foods consumed after dinner for pleasure and lo stimulate an appetite for drinking. The seeds create a warm feeling and, consumed excessively, affect the head by sending it a warm and loxic vapor Ii eliminates farting and dehydrates so much that if loo much is eaten it quenches sexual potency. Some folks squeeze its juice when fresh and use it as an analgesic for ear pains."

Interestingly, modern Czechoslovakia)! scientists have discovered that juicy resin expressed from fiber-hemp flower-tops when the seeds are fully mature is rich in cannabidiolic acid, remarkably effective as an analgesic (such as for burns) and as an antibiotic (such as for bacterial infections that might invade the ear, nose, throat or wounds).

The Romans prized hemp mostly for durable sailcloth (canvas = cannabis), fiber and rope. Remains of hemp rope and cloth have been dug up in Roman ruins in Britain and France. Their enemies the Carthaginians knew about cannabis too, for a bit of hashish (or perhaps only caulking?) has been recovered from the wrecked hull of a Carthaginian warship. Anglo-Saxon settlements, starting in Roman limes, brought widespread hemp cultivation to England, reaching apeak in a.d. 800-1200, the era of the Norman conquest., The Vikings loved cannabis loo: hemp seeds and fruits, cloth and fishing line have been found in iheir ships, graves and castles throughout Scandinavia. The plant reached Iceland by the mid-thirteenth century, and there is a remote possibility that Viking explorers brought the seeds to America.

HASHISH: ALCHEMISTS AND ASSASSINS Meanwhile, Muslim pharmacologists absorbed and magnified classical and Asian herbalism, spreading dope lore throughout the caliphates from Spain to India. Medical texts teem with words for cannabis: qinnab was the botanical term for the plant and banj was popular pa dance for both hemp and henbane, while hashish originally meant simply "grass" or "the herb." Many drugs and spices, including cannabis, went into chewy medicinal confections called ma'joun, for which hundreds of recipes are still passed along. Skilled alchemists with pretty classy lab equipment experimented with all kinds of potions; if Geber and others could distill alcohol, they could have made hashish (or even hash oil), and, indeed, Geber includes banj among his powerful prescriptions. An amusing tale of a hypocritical priest, from Arabian manuscripts dated about a.d. 950, shows that use of banj was secret and spread among religious persons who professed against its use to the outside world. Before social use of the drug became widespread, the secret was shared by thousands of Sufis, especially of the Haydari and Qalandari sects. The thirteenth-century story of Sheikh Haydar has been told in a previous chapter; a similar legend about "Sidi Hedi" was

Doping Ganja

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