F10 Intellectual illumination» .035 .032

F23 Communion with ultimate reality» (.227) (.227)


c. Content-analysis data:

Cll Insights into being and existence in general;

C12 Insights into personal finite self: (.11) (.25)

(2) Supplementary phenomena:


-drug data (8 times):


Intensity of the response to

ultimate reality:




Totality of the response to

ultimate reality:




Sense of being grasped and

dealt with:




Sense of having known the


universe in its wholeness;




Sense of ultimate goodness

as the basis of reality:




Intuitive knowledge of your





Seeing symbolic meanings of

thing st




Feeling of being very wise,

knowing everything:



Follow-up data (6 times)t


Intensity of your response

to the experience:




Totality of the response to

the experience*




Sense of being grasped and

dealt with by the experiencet




Enhanced capacity of mind*




Sense of having known the uni

verse in its wholeness*




Certainty of the reality of

what was experienced*



p values (for exporimentals) Using all Using only scores: "strong"


of the experience) was also significant at the .02 level, but was not listed as essential because a reality other than ordinary reality is not specifically mentioned. Most controls, in fact, rated this item as "4" ("strong"—similar to other strong experiences of reality), and most experimentáis rated it as "5" ("very strong"--stronger than ever before in ray life) . Other individual items which were not significant were: seeing symbolic meanings (PI), knowing everything (P4), knowledge of personal immortality (P24), communion with ultimate reality (F23), and psychological insight (C12). All these items received some scores from the experimentáis but not enough to show a significant difference from the controls. PI, P4, and P24 are clearly supplementary when compared to the ¿ priori definition of the category, and not essential. C12 compared to Cll showed that the intuitive insight gained through the experience was regarded by the experimentáis as more philosophical-religious than personal-psychological.

When these 18 individual items which were significant were analyzed most rigorously by only counting the "strong" level scores, the p values of P54, P18, P23, P55, F7, and Cll rose to .063. For the other 12 items, p remained less than .035.

A more precise analysis of this category, however, was obtained when those items which corresponded most closely to the £ priori definition of the category from the typology were combined separately. These items have been listed under the subcategory, "mo3t essential phenomena." As shown in Table 20 these basic items as a group were significant at the .02 "level for all methods of measurement. The total scores and frequency distribution of scores followed the 6ame pettern as did the combined scores in the same table.

Seven out of ten of these essential items were significant (p less than .035) and five of these seven remained significant when only "strong" scores were used (p less than .032). Of these five most important items, four were from the follow-up dsta after six months; one (P33) was from the post-drug dsta. Even under this most rigorous analysis., all of the rest of . these ten items were almost significant (p less than .063). Item Cll from the content-analysis data (insights from being and existence in general) was in this laBt group. This loss of significance for the content-analysis data raises some doubt as to the completeness of the cstegory as experienced by the experimentáis. Individusl item F70, however, was very strong evidence for this cBtegory because it measured after six months the retention of the certainty that ultimate reality had indeed been encountered (significant at the .032 level when only "strong" scores were used).

The content-analysis material itself illustrated this category, as the following examples show; Experimental Subject HQ:

I felt I was at the real level of being. Experimental Subject QX:

I finally determined the truth was in man and that all his seeking was in vain and absurd, for it was not ultimately important what man knew intellectually but rather that he was at one with himself end his follow nan, i.e., in harmony and unity and love with mankind Everything seemed to be more real and purposeful than I had ever known before.

(Comment: These two examples indicate the basic distinction between "ultimate" reality end "ordinary"reality.)

Experimental Subject FK:

Of first significance was the feeling of a profound religious "call"--the first I think I have ever really h8d. Before, I Just felt as if I should enter the ministry, but now I "know" that I must. ...up to this time, I have never known the reel meaning of the Christian truth--I have overintellectualized it, and have not involved myself in its eternal meaning and significance.

(Comment: This example also has strong overtones of the category

"sense of sacrednesa.")

Experimental Subject FK:

I would most emphatically emphasize this: I was helped in the liberation of previously repressed or inhibited areas of ray life. That which was just a conception, was now made real. I had realized that one of my problems was my far-reaching ego-centricity—for the first time, I truly felt it, in the whole of my being.

Experimental Subject KRt

The experiences are not unpleasant which confirms my belief that the Self (Jung's term for'the integrating principle in the collective unconscious) has been further released in me toward greater whole-•..•■. ness.

(Comment: The certainty of intuitive-psychological knowledge of self in the last two examples represented a very meaningful kind of ultimate reality for these subj ects.)

The evidence taken together certainly indicates that phenomena corresponding to that described in our typology did occur and to a marked degree in the form of most essential elements as well as some supplementary ones. The lack of consistency, however, in all three methods of measurement when only "strong" scores were analyzed makes not fully certain the conclusion that the experimentáis experienced the most complete form of this category.

We thus conclude that the phenomena described by the category "objectivity and reality" did occur significantly more in the experimentáis who received psllocybin than in the controls who did not, as judged from analysis of the essential items alone aa wall as in combination with the supplementary ones. Evidence showed that the experience of this category was very close to, but not quite identical with, the most complete form of the mystical typology.

Category VI: Paradoxicality

As seen in Table 22, the experimentáis scored significantly higher than the controls in the phenomena of paradoxicality for all three methods of measurement (p less than .004). The experimentáis had more "strong" ratings than the controls, as demonstrated by the frequency distribution of scores. In other words, there are only four chances in 1000 that this difference between experimentáis and controls was not enhanced by psilocybin.

All phenomena which were used to measure paradoxicality are listed in Table 23. All individual items were significant at the .016 level except F73. The interviews revealed the reason for this apparent discrepancy. The wording of this item made the statement untrue for most subjects because of the words, "You have been accused." Subjects who later were found to be experimentáis stated that they had not been accused of logical contradiction because they had not even tried to describe their experience to someone who would be unsympathetic enough to accuse them of such contradiction. These subjects readily admitted the difficulty of being strictly logical in descriptions of thoir experience. The contont-analysi« data and other item»

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