type is exemplified by the unitive state of ecstasy which includes the phenomena of (1) suddenness, (2) passivity, (3) loss of sense impressions of the outside world, (4) noetic insight or knowledge ot acquaintance which combines feeling and cognitive intuition, (5) ineffability, (6) immediate intuition of the Beyond, or God's presence, and (7) intense, ecstatic joy and love.® He takes his examples from both Eastern and Western sources.
Bucke has collected cases from various times and cultures with the following universal criteria of "cosmic consciousness": (1) suddenness or instantaneousness, (2) photism or subjective light, (3) moral elevation'? with an emotion of joy, assurance, and triumph, (4) ineffable intellectual illumination, (5) sense of immortality, (6) loss of the fear ofdeath, (7) loss of the sense of sin, (8) usual occurrence between the ages of 30-40, and (9) 8dded charm to the personality after the experience.9 Underhill gives four universal tests which must
M. Bucke, Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of the Human Hind (Philadelphio i Innen 6 Sons, 1901), pp. 60-62.
be satisfied by any example of true mysticism and which penetrate behind the particular descriptive symbolism employed.10 For her mysticism must: (1) be an organic life-process in which the whole self is involved in an active, practical, and intense experience (this in contrast to an intellectual opinion which can be merely passive and theoretical), (2) have a wholly transcendental and spiritual aim (i.e., the mystic. Is interested in a realm of ultimate reality, the changeless One, beyond ordinary, everyday reality); (3) know this One not merely as the Reality of all that is, but also as a living personal object of Love which draws one's whole being under the guidance of the heart—love is defined as the driving power and deep-seated desire of the soul toward its Source and is "the ultimate expression of the self's most vital tendencies";1* (4) have a Living Union with this One involving the liberation of a new, or rather latent, form of consciousness which is called "ecstasy" or better, the Unitive State.
10E. Underhill, Mysticism: A Study in the Nature and Development of Man's Spiritual Consciousness (New York» Meridian, 1955), pp. 81-94.
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