A biotechnologically produced non-reproducible surface antigen is used as hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), It is therefore a non-infectious vaccine, and no risks to the fetus have been reported following vaccination of their mothers in pregnancy (ACOG 1993). Immunization of groups at risk is recommended; if possible, it should be given after the twelfth week of pregnancy. Ayoola (1987) described a series of 72 pregnant Nigerians who were seronegative for hepatitis B and were given two intramuscular doses of vaccine in the third trimester. One month after the second dose, 84% were anti-HBs positive. No significant adverse effects were observed in the mothers or their newborns. Passive transfer of anti-HBs occurred in 59% of = the newborns. The antibodies disappeared rapidly in these infants, and by 3 months only 23% had detectable antibodies (Ingardia ^ 1999, Reddy 1994). No 11 BsAg carrier status developed in this g1 group. In contrast, the infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers had § a cumulative rate of HBV events of 20%. The authors concluded E that HBV vaccine is safe and immunogenic in pregnant women. -i The passive immunity conferred on the infants is of short duration "g (Lee 2006). Therefore, in, for example, The Netherlands, newborns ™ from HBsAg-positive mothers will be vaccinated immediately or g otherwise within 48 hours after birth, preferably following the 'y administration of hepatitis-B immunoglobulin with booster vaccinations at the ages of 3, 4 and 11 months, according to the Dutch ^ Health Council advice (Geelen 2006). in
Recommendation. Vaccination of pregnant mothers in hepatitis 6 high-risk populations may provide adequate protection before the child is vaccinated. There are no negative adverse effects to be expected.
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For many years, scientists have been playing out the ingredients that make breast milk the perfect food for babies. They've discovered to day over 200 close compounds to fight infection, help the immune system mature, aid in digestion, and support brain growth - nature made properties that science simply cannot copy. The important long term benefits of breast feeding include reduced risk of asthma, allergies, obesity, and some forms of childhood cancer. The more that scientists continue to learn, the better breast milk looks.