Zygophyllaceae

Tropical and warm, especially arid regions are home to (he Zygo-phyllaceae, They are sometimes halophilic. Timber (lignum-vitae), wax, some mcdicinals, dyes, and ornamentals constitute their economic importance. Alkaloid tests previously reported positive for Peganum mexica-num (2 2) and Porlieria angustifolia (1 2) were confirmed in the tests reported here. In addition, the following positives were observed Balanites australis, B. maughamii, B. roxburghii, Guiacum sanctum, Larrea tridentata (1...

MALP1Chjaceae 68 genera 1100 species

Representing 80 spccics gave the following positives Banisteriopsis caapi (1 2), Cabi ( Callaeum)paracusis (both previously known) Banisteria ( Heteropteris) campestris (1 2), B. colinifolia, Bun-chosia glandulifera, B. lindeniana, f . palmen (2 3), Diceila brac-teosa (1 2), Echinopteris glandulosa (1 4), Malpighia glabra (1 3), Mascagnia maavptera, M. ovata. Negative tests were obtained with the following Acridocarpus natal i tus, Aspidocarpa sericea, Banisteria ( Heteropteris) campestris, B....

Najadaceae I genus 35 species

This is a family of cosmopolitan fresh water aquatics. Alkaloids arc not known. In the tests recorded here, neither Najas marina nor two unidentified species of Najas were positive. These water lilies are ornamental aquatics of eastern Asia and North America, often included earlier in lhe Nymphaeaceae. The two species are alkaloidal in the present study, six samples of Nelumbo tutea and live of N. nuc fera were alkaloid-positive as has been recorded in earlier literature. These insectivorous...

A

The family consists of trees, shrubs, and lianas of Southeast Asia and tropical America. An early report of a positive alkaloid test in a species of Meliosma exists, but cyanogenesis is more characteristic of this small family. In the present instance, six species of Meliosma and one of Sabia failed to give positive tests Meliosma dentata, M. humilis, M. my riant ha, M. rhoifolia, M. rigid a, Meliosma sp., Sabia pauci-flora. This is a subcosmopolilan family with concentration in (he northern...

About The Author

Raffauf, 1'IiD, is Professor Emeritus of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Chemistry at Northeastern University in Boston, lie currently holds an appointment as Research Associate at ihc Botanical Museum of Harvard University, where he lias also taught, lie has served as Visiting Professor at the School of Pharmacy at (he University of Puerto Rico and at the School of Biological Sciences of the National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico. Dr. Raffauf has led numerous expeditions in many parts...

Plant Alkaloids

G. superha, G. ulriculata, Grammatophyllum speciosum, G. scriptum, Cr. multi orum, Gussonea ( Soicnangis) chilochistac, llabe-naria clypeata, II. entomantha, II. guillemini, H. repens, Habenaria spp. (6), H. strictissima, Hexalectris brevicaulis, IL grandiflora, Houltetia hrockelhurstiana, IL roraimensis, Huntleya hurta, H. lucida, II. meieagris, Hybochilus inconspicuus, lona ( Sunipia) an-dersoni, lonopsis paniculata, I. satyr ides, I. utricularioides, Kef-ersteinia ladea, K. parvilabris, K....

Generic Index

Adhaloda, 3,4 Adiantum, 87 Adina, 186 Adinandra, 209 Adiscantlius, 190 Adolphia, 180 Adoiiis, 179 Adriana, 83 Acchma. 34 Acgele, 190 Aegiceras, 147 Acginctla, 164 Acgiphila, 217 Aeolantlius, 111 Aerangis, 156 Acrides, 156 Acrva, 12 Acschynnnthus, 98 Acschynomcne, 116,117,119 Aesculus, 105 Affonsea, 119 Afromomum, 222 Afzclia, 119 Aguuippcu, 54 Aganisia, 156 Aganosma, 18 Agapanllms, 128 Agapetes, 80 Agalhclepis, 99 Agathis, 23 Agathisanllicmum, 186 Agathosma, 189,190 Agcralina, 60 Ageratum,...

References

K. (Ed.), Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Legumes, Edward Arnold, London (1983). Salntmo, A, find 0. R. Gottlieb, Revista Brasiliera de Botanica 4 (1981) p. 83. The duckweeds are found in fresh water throughout the world and are used as ornamentals in aquaria. Alkaloids are not known for the family, and three samples, Lem-na minor, L. valdiviana, and Spirodela polyrhiza, gave negative tests in this study. LENT JB ULARJA CEAE 4 genera 245 species This is a family of the marsh...

F

The beeches are found mostly in the northern hemisphere from temperate to subtropical habitats. One genus is pantropical another approaches the Antarctic. Economically important species include varieties of lumber, edible chestnuts, and some ornamentals. There is one report of alkaloids, but this may have been due to the presence of amino acids otherwise known in the family. Four positive tests were obtained in the present study Quercus centralis (1 2), Q. laurina (1 3), Q. microphylla (1 5),...

A macroflora Baurera tabloides Bergenta craSSifolia B ligulata

C. major, Decumaria barbara, Deutzia cotymbosa, D. crenala, D. pul hra, D. s cabra, D, taiwanensis, Heuchera americana, II. mexicana, H. micrantha, Hydrangea angustipetala, H. arbores-cens, II. aspera, H. bretschneideri, H. ckinensis, H. horten sis, II. integrifolia, H. longifolia, H. inacrophylla, H. opuloides, H. paniculata, II. peliolaris, II. quercifolia, II. radia ta, II. serrata, I. chinensis, I. oldhamii, I. virginica, Mitella breweri, M. formosa-na, Montinia caryophvllacea, Penthorum...

Alkaloid From Delonix Regia Flower Benefits

P. racemos am, Platymiscium polystachum, Pleiospora ( Phaenohoffmania) cajanifolia (2 2), P. lateobracteoplata, Podalyria cunei-fotia, P. glauca, P. myrlillifolia, Podalyria sp., Podopetalum ( Ormosia) ormondii (1 3), Poecilanthe ejfusa. Priest ley a hirsuta, Prosopis insulorum, P. palmeri, Psoralea ac lenla, P. oligophylla, P. polysticta, Pterocarpus rohrii, Pterogyne ni tens, Pul te e a hart-manii, P. subternata, P. Villosa, Pycnospora luteola, Rafnia opposi-ta, R. ovala, Rhynchosia albissima...

Vangueria Infeusia

Diplospora oust ml is, Duggena hirsuta, Duroia genipoides, D. hirsuta, Elaeagia sp., Emmenopterys henry i, Emmeorhyza umbel lata, Er-nodea augusta, Exostema brachycarpum, E. ilegana, E. linea turn, E. mexicanum, E. peruvianum, Eagodia agrestis, F. fro grans, F. mont cola, F. odorata, F. tetraquetra, Faramea anisocalyx, F capil-lipes, F. maynensis, E occidentalis, F. quinqueflorum, F. rectinervia, Faramea spp. (2), F. subbasiliaris, Ferdinandusa elliptica, F. paracusis, F. a IT. paracusis, F...

Vel L 07aa Cea E

VERBENACEAE 9 genera 1,900 species There are a few temperate representatives of this family, which is otherwise tropical. It is best known, perhaps, for teak and weedy plants (Lantana). A variety of alkaloidal structures have been identified in the family, known positive plants having included Citharexylum inerme (1 4), Duranla repens (2 3), Lantana com a to (2 14), Verbena officinalis (3 5), and V. trifoliu (2 3), which were also positive when tesled in this study. Oilier alkaloid-positive...

Excortica Orchids

A cosmopolitan family, it is found principally in warm and temperate America. A familiar member, cultivated as an ornamental, is A few positive alkaloid tests had been recorded earlier, but litlle is known of the chemical nature of the compounds. Positive results were obtained on testing Diplandra ( Lopezia) lopezioides, Fuchsia thymifolia (1 2), Jussiaea decurrens ( Ludwi-gia) (1 2), Lopezia sp., Ludwigia palustris (1 2), Semeiandra ( Lopezia) grandiflora. The following species were negative...

Philydraceae 4 genera 5 species

The family extends from Australia through southeast Asia up to southern Japan, Neither alkaloids nor economic uses are known. Philydrttm lanuginosum was negative for alkaloids in this study. PHYTOLACCACEAE 18 genera 65 species The tropical and warm areas, especially those of the Americas, arc home to this family. Some of the genera previously included in it have been shifted into other families, but they arc included in the results cited below. Other than a few ornamentals and the use of...

Berber Id Aceae

A few members of the family are found in South America but as a group the Berberidaceae are chiefly north temperate. Many are used as ornamentals and some bear edible fruit. Earlier taxonomists included 12 genera in the family, 11 of which have been reported to contain alkaloids in 86 species. Thirty-two samples of 16 species were tested in this study. The following were found to be alkaloidal as reported in the literature Berber s laurina, t . thunbergii, B. trifoliata, B. vulgaris (2 2), B....

The family is cosmopolitan but has no significant economic importance

Alkaloids have not been discovered in the family. In the tests of the samples collected in this study, Selaginella can data, S. invol-vens, and S. longipinna gave positive results while the remainder were negative S. arenicola, S. atroviridis, S. caudata, S. deliculata, S. deoderleiriii, S. galeotii, S, involvefis, S. lavonlei, S. lepidophylla, S. leptophylla, S. longipinna, S. mollendorjti, Selaginella spp. 2 , S. stenophylla, S, tamariscina, SIMAROVBACEAE 22 genera 170 species This is a...

L

Maxillaria, 155,160 Mayaca, 139 Mayna, 95 Maytenus, 43,44 Mazus, 198 Mearnsia, 148 Mecardonia, 198 Mecodium, 90 Medicago, 118,124 Mediocolar, 161 Melaleuca, 148 Melampodium, 60 Melampyrum, 198 Malanantha, 201 Malanolepis, 85 Melanoxylon, 124 Mclanthera, 60 Melasma, 198 Melastoma, 140 Mclhania, 205 Melia, 141 Melianthus, 141 M lica, 101 Melicocca, 193 Mel i cope, 189,190 Melicytus, 219 Melilotas, 117,124 Mciiosma, 191 Melissa, 111 Melochia, 205 Melodinus, 18,19 Melolobium, 118 Melolhria, 69...

Were tested three of those were known to be alkaloidal from earlier reports Marrubium vulgare 15 Nepeta catara

Other positives included Acrocephalus sp. 1 4 , Aeolanthus pur-vifolius, An semeles indica 2 3 , Hall la africana 2 2 , Cedronella sp., Conradina canescens, Dysophylla Pogostemon cruciata, Elsholtzia staunton ta, ndostemon tereticaulis 1 2 , Hedeoma pu-legeoides, Hoslundia o'pposita 3 4 , llyptis subtiiis, 11. uliginosa, II verticillata, boza Temulenta brevispicata 1 2 , l. riparia 1 3 , Lasiocorys Lencas capensis 1 2 , Leonotis leonuros 2 2 , L. leonitis, ,. meliert, L. nepet nejo i a 3 8 , L...

Ginkgo A Cea E

A single species, Ginkgo biloba, is the only one surviving since Jurassic times. Oncc worldwide, the genus is now confined to temple gardens in China except where introduced elsewhere. It contains a quinoline carboxylic acid derivative and has beer recorded as alkaloidal. Two of seven samples gave positive tests ir this study. GLOBULARIA CEA E 10 genera 250 species This Old World, primarily Mediterranean, family has no known economic importance, nor is it known for the presence of alkaloids. It...

Xanthophylla Ceae

This monogeneric family is Indo-Malaysian. Alkaloids arc not known nor were they found in three samples of Xanthophyllum papuanum. The family is found from Australia to New Guinea and New Caledonia. Alkaloids are not known. Lomandra banksii and L. diffusa were negative. There are a few temperate species in this family but it is otherwise confined to tropical and warm areas. Two spccies ofXyris arc used as aquarium plants. The chemistry of this small family is not well known alkaloids have not...

Portulacaceae

A few edible species arc found in this family, which inhabits warm to tropical areas others are used as ornamentals. Alkaloids are known in but two genera of the family, including Portulaca oler ceo, which gave one positive result in live samples tested in this study. Other positives included Lewisia rediviva 1 2 , Montia perfoliala 1 2 , Portulaca foliosa, P. pilosa 1 2 , Talinum panicuiatum 1 2 . Species of several other genera were negative Anacampseros subnuta, A. telephiastrum, A. us tal...

Hernia Myrtifolia

The Alkaloids. 26 1985 241, Academic I'rcss, Inc. Orlando, FL. The family is abundantly represented in the American tropics but has wide distribution elsewhere, including some species in temperate zones. In addition to use as ornamentals, one genus, Lawsonia, lias heen the source of the dye henna since ancient times. Little of the chemistry of the Lythraceae was known prior to the 1960s beyond reports of the qualitative presence of alkaloids in a few genera. With the recognition...

Aristo Lochia Ceae

This is essentially a tropical family but some representatives occur in the temperate zone. Nitrophenanthrenes and their reduced amino counterparts as well as quarternary aporphines are characteristic. Some species have been used as medicin is. Positive tests for alkaloids were obtained with lie following species previously known to be alkaloidal Aristolochia elegans, A. gigantea, A. la gala. In addition, an unidentified Aristolochia sp. was found lo be positive 1 3 . Negative results were...

D

DAPlimPHYLLACEAE 1 genus 10 species Daphniphyllum is distributed through eastern Asia from China south through Malaysia to tropical Australia. Some species arc used as ornamentals the Ainu of Japan use the leaves of one species as tobacco. . The genus contains alkaloids, according to earlier reports. Of seven species, including 14 samples tested here, three were positive D. graciley D. membranaceum, and the previously known D. calycinum. Four species were negative D. glabrescens, D. glau- gt...

Ericaceae

The family is cosmopolitan with the exception of deserts. It contains many of our familiar ornamentals rhododendron, azalea, etc. , fruits blueberries, cranberries, and relatives , briar, and wintergreen. A few genera have been reported to give positive alkaloid tests and some of the isolated compounds have been studied. Considering the size of the family, few alkaloids have been described. Two hundred and sixty-one samples were tested, representing 203 species, with the following positive...

A tropical family with a few subtropical representatives the Meliaeeae yield lumber including mahogany and some

Alkaloids have been reported in several genera but no particular type appears to be characteristic. In the study reported here, two species reported earlier to contain alkaloids were found positive Entandophragma caudatum 4 5 and Melio azadirach 6 23 . Other positive species included the following Aglaia goebeliana, Atnoora rohituka, Azadirachla indica 2 3 , Cipadessa fruticosa, Dysoxylum binectariferum, D. rujian, Ekebergia capensis 1 2 , E. meyeri, E. pterophylla, Guat ea rusbyi 1 3 , G....

Centipida Podha

This is a family of aquatics of the tropical and warm temperate areas. They are often used in aquaria. Earlier literature has the genera in the Nymphaceae but Cronquist gives them separate family status. Alkaloids arc not known Brasehia schreberi and Cabomba euro-liniana tested negative. The Cactaceae are indigenous to the New World. They are economically important as ornamentals the fruits of Opuntia are used as food the peyote Lophophora williamsii is a well-known hallucinogen. Several genera...

Bromeliaceae 46 genera 2110 species

The brorncliads are native . to tropical and warm America. Perhaps we are most familiar with them as a source of pineapple, Spanish moss, and ma y ornamentals. Some species are sources of fiber. A positive lest for alkaloids had been reported for the pineapple, Ananas comosus. Tests on 45 samples including 41 species in ten other genera failed to give a positive result. These species were negative Aechnica hracleata, A. disticantha, A. ornala, Ananas salivas, Biltbergia macwlepsis, Bmmelia...

Pimelea Serpyllifolia Medicinal

Some genera species have been reported to give positive tests for alkaloids, but the family is not known for these constituents. In this survey of 84 samples including 1A species, the following gave positive tests Arthrosolen Gnidia polycephalus, Daphne mezer-eum previously known , D. reiusa, Lachnaea densiflora, Lagetta linleoria, Lasiosiphon Gnidia sp., Passerina vulgaris, Pimelea cnllina, Struthiola dodecandra, S. leptantha, S. myrsinites. The following were negative Arthrosolen...

Alstroemeriaceae 4 genera 200 species

This small group of Central and South American plants has been considered by sonic taxonomists as a family in its own right. Others have placed it as a division of the Amaryllidaceae. Mabberley, who follows Cronquist's system of classification, now lists even the Amaryllidaceae as a subdivision of the Liliaeeae. The chemistry of these taxa is sufficiently different to argue for their separate family status, which will be maintained here. No alkaloids are known nor were they detected in 15...

Alkaloids With References

Cassels, Alkaloids Academic Press JJ 1989 pp. 1-76. Cave, A., M. Lebcouf, and P. G. Waterman, Alkaloids Chemical and Biological l'n s,H Hvrs MIW5 pp. 133-270. hong, S. and Xic, N., Zhongguo Yaoke Daxue Xuebo 19 1988 p. 156 Chcm. Abs. 109 986l3u . APOCYNACEAE 215 genera 2, 00 species This family is almost cosmopolitan but chiefly tropical with some representatives in the temperate zones. It is noted for many ornamentals, some specics that yield rubber Funlumia,...