Peyote and Mescaline

Salviathe Next New Hallucinogen

Another recent legal battle has begun over a hallucinogenic plant called Salvia divinorum, which translated from Latin means sage of the seers. Salvia (also known by such nicknames as Sally D, Magic Mint, Ska Maria Pastora, Shepherdess's Herb, and yerba de Maria) is a plant (part of the sage family of plants) that grows in the Sierra Mazatec region of Mexico. Like peyote, salvia has been cultivated and used by shamans ( medicine men, or tribal healers) for centuries, and its widespread use...

Other Cacti And Plants That Contain The Psychedelic Chemical Mescaline

The peyote cactus is not the only plant that contains mescaline. There are actually numerous plants (mostly cacti) that contain this chemical. Some examples of other mescaline-containing plants include Lophophora diffusa, Trichocereus pachanoi (also called the San Pedro cactus ), and Trichocereus peruvianus (also called the Peruvian Torch ). Even though Lophora diffusa and Trichocereus cacti contain mescaline, they don't necessarily produce the same psychedelic effects as peyote. This is...

History of Peyote and Mescaline Use Ancient and Modern

Peyote Art

ANCIENT HISTORY OF PEYOTE AND MESCALINE USE Only sparse details are known about the use of peyote and mescaline prior to the beginning of written history. Since peyote is grown mostly in what is now Mexico and the southwestern United States, it is believed that it was used primarily by local inhabitants of these regions for thousands of years before being introduced to people who lived elsewhere. Archaeological evidence suggests that the peyote cactus has been around for at least 10,000 years....

The Use Of Peyote In Psychotherapy

The ability of peyote and its active ingredient mescaline to produce profound psychological effects reducing conflicts a person may have within himself or with others, increasing the expression of emotions, producing a deeper understanding of life's meaning has prompted many psychologists to ponder the potential benefits of using the drug as an aid in psychotherapy. Up until the 1970s, there were various published reports that peyote and mescaline helped patients identify, understand, and...

How Hallucinogens Work In The Brain

Serotonin Receptor Agonist Mescaline

In the brain, neurons (nerve cells) carry electrical signals along wire-like nerve fibers called axons. At the end of each axon is a mushroom-shaped nerve ending called a synaptic terminal. Figure 1.3 Data from the year 2001 showing the percentage of youths ages 12-17 who have tried a hallucinogen in their lifetime. Source SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002 and 2003 Axons can range from less than one millimeter to up to several centimeters in length....

Peyotes Effects And The Symptoms Of Schizophrenia

Humphry Osmond

In the middle of the twentieth century, two physicians, Dr. Humphrey Osmond and John Smythies, recognized the similarities between the psychedelic effects of mescaline and the psychotic symptoms of the psychological disorder schizophrenia.4 They noted that both mescaline and schizophrenia produce distortions of sensory perception, dissociated and random patterns of thinking, depersonalization, paranoia, hallucinations, and, at times, agitation and violence. Osmond and Smythies proposed that...

Medicinal Uses of Peyote

So far, we have discussed peyote and mescaline mostly in the context of their ability to produce intense psychedelic hallucinations. A vast majority of Native American peyote users, however, strongly believe that the peyote cactus and other mescaline-containing plants also have tremendous healing powers that can cure the ills of both the mind and the body. Many Native American cultures view illnesses as having supernatural causes (such as evil spirits), and believe that communication with...

Trends In Hallucinogen

While the popularity of hallucinogens such as LSD and PCP exploded in the 1960s and 1970s, soon after their discovery, their use has been remarkably stable over the past several decades (see Figure 1.2). The use of DMT as a hallucinogen is a relatively recent occurrence, so there is little data on how many people use it on a regular basis. In the years 2000 and 2001, however, there was a dramatic spike in the number of people using a substance called 3,4-methylenedioxymetham-phetamine (MDMA),...

What are Peyote and Mescaline

Desert Castles Jordan

Dry whiskey, divine cactus, divine herb, medicine of God, flesh of God, devil's root, diabolical root, Indian dope, dumpling cactus, turnip cactus, cactus pudding, white mule, moon, P, challote, the bad seed, tuna de tierra (Spanish for earth cactus). These are some of the nicknames given to the peyote cactus (scientific name Lophophora williamsii), a spineless cactus plant that grows in desert regions of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The peyote cactus is often...

Mescaline Lsd And Psilocybin Birds Of A Feather

Difference Between Lsd And Mushrooms

Three of the most common hallucinogenic drugs used today are mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin. Some people insist that these three drugs produce the same psychological effects, and even some experienced users cannot tell the effects of each drug apart. Others, however, believe that the effects produced by psilocybin, LSD, or mescaline are unique. Several key pharmacological differences between these drugs are outlined in the table below the cerebral cortex. This region, which constitutes the bulk...

Visit To Hell

Jenny was just 19 when she tried peyote while traveling in Europe with some of her college friends. They bought a bag of peyote buttons from someone on the street and decided to take the drug in the safety of their hotel room. The three of them dimmed the lights and sat in a circle on the floor. Two of Jenny's friends, Kelly and Amanda, got very sick and vomited after eating just two buttons, and decided not to continue. Jenny did not get so sick and within a few hours of eating eight peyote...

Longterm Psychological Effects

Edward Munch

Repeated use of many psychoactive drugs is thought to cause damage to nerve cells in the brain, resulting in specific psychological or cognitive impairments for example, repeated use of ecstasy, marijuana, or LSD has been linked to memory loss, emotional problems, and impulsivity. Since Native Americans take peyote many times a year, and often begin taking peyote during childhood as part of religious ceremonies, it raises the question of whether long-term use of this substance leads to any...

Duration And Physical Effects Of Mescaline

Mescaline Psychedelic

Depending on the amount taken, mescaline's psychedelic effects can last up to 12 hours, and they usually don't start until a few hours after ingestion of the peyote buttons. This is because mescaline has to be absorbed through the lining of the stomach before it enters the bloodstream and then the brain. Other, more addictive drugs, such as cocaine or heroin, are smoked, snorted, or injected intravenously, allowing them to reach the bloodstream much more quickly . Factors such as the presence...

Introduction Of Peyote Into The United States

There is archaeological evidence that peyote was used by Native Americans as far back as 5000 B.C., in areas that are now in Texas near the Mexico-United States border. But, the introduction of peyote into the United States is credited to the Native American tribes of Mexico during the second half of the nineteenth century. It is believed that the tribes residing in the Gulf of Mexico and Rio Grande areas spread the use of peyote to the Kiowa, Comanche, and other Native American tribes that...

The Chemical Structure Of Mescaline

Lsd Compared Mescaline

Mescaline is the key hallucinogenic substance found in peyote and several other psychedelic plants, including the Trichocereus family of cacti. Mescaline belongs to a class of chemicals called phenethy-lamines. Ecstasy (MDMA) is another drug that belongs to this class. The chemical name of mescaline is 3,4,5-trimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine, and its chemical structure resembles that of other illegal drugs such as amphetamine as well as the brain's own neuro-transmitters epinephrine (adrenaline)...

Other Chemicals Found In Peyote

In addition to mescaline, the peyote button contains at least 55 other chemicals that are known to have active effects in the body. These chemicals can be classified as amino acids, alkaloids, or alkaloidal amines. It is thought that they contribute to the unique psychedelic effects that make the peyote experience different than one on pure mescaline. A complete list of these chemicals is given in Appendix 2. Examples of these chemicals include the following lophophorine, a toxic substance that...

Can Peyote Treat Alcoholism

Alcoholism affects all races and cultures, but it is particularly prevalent among Native American tribes. Some believe this to be a result of genetic factors others blame it on the introduction of alcohol to Native Americans by European settlers while still others blame it on the nature of Native American culture. Regardless of the cause, alcoholism is a serious health risk to any individual, as it can lead to liver problems and certain types of cancers, malnutrition, brain damage, and even...

The Neuropharmacology Of Mescaline

One of the principal neurotransmitters in the brain is the chemical serotonin, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine (abbreviated 5-HT). Serotonin has many functions in the brain, including the control of mood, pleasure, hunger, sex drive, and sensation and perception. Over the years, scientists have discovered more than a dozen receptors for serotonin in the brain (recall that a receptor is a protein located on the surface of a nerve cell that binds a specific neurotransmitter and tells the neuron...

Use Of Mescaline In Government Experiments

It has long been suspected, with some supporting evidence, that the governments of some countries of the world have experimented with hallucinogenic drugs on people. While many of these experiments involved LSD, there are some reports that mescaline was also used. In their book Acid Dreams, Martin Lee and Bruce Shalin recount some of the instances of human experimentation using mescaline and LSD. During World War II, for example, many prisoners of war were given hallucinogens in attempt by...

Treatments For Bad Trips

Although panic and fear reactions are more likely to occur after taking LSD, they also can be experienced with mescaline or psilocybin. Before bad experiences were better understood, they were actually considered to be part of the normal psychedelic experience. In the 1960s, people taken to the emergency room during a bad trip would often have their stomach emptied (or pumped ) to rid the gastrointestinal tract of any remaining unabsorbed drug. This was futile, because most, if not all, of the...

Timothy Leary

One of the most famous users and advocates of hallucinogens was a man named Timothy Leary. Leary was a clinical psychologist at Harvard University who happened upon an article published in Life magazine in 1957 describing the psychological and mind-altering effects of magic mushrooms. Leary was so intrigued by this article that he tried some of these mushrooms himself, and found it to be a life-altering experience. He felt as if hallucinogenic drugs were a good way to free one's psyche, learn...

Where Do Hallucinogens Act In The Brain

Partes Del Cerebro

The brain has numerous regions that are each specialized for particular functions. So the effect a particular drug has on a person's thinking or behavior may depend partly on which brain region it is acting in. A diagram of basic brain structures and their functions is presented below. Given that hallucinogens primarily affect perception, it is thought that they primarily act in regions of the brain such as the sensory cortex and visual cortex. They are also thought to act on a region of the...