Pandemic Survival Guide

Swine Influenza

Swine Influenza

SWINE INFLUENZA frightening you? CONCERNED about the health implications? Coughs and Sneezes Spread Diseases! Stop The Swine Flu from Spreading. Follow the advice to keep your family and friends safe from this virus and not become another victim. These simple cost free guidelines will help you to protect yourself from the swine flu.

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Pandemic Survival

This eBook shows you what it takes to survive the next pandemic. There is no doubt that in the future, the world will be hit with a huge pandemic, either from natural causes or from a terrorist attack. As you look through history, you will be hard-pressed to find any pandemic in history that has killed less than 1 million people. You do not want you or your family to be among those millions. And with the help of the information in this eBook, you have a way to survive the global pandemic that will come. Wishing it won't happen doesn't do anything Preparing for it gives you the tools to survive AND thrive. This book contains the two-pronged approach of John Hartman's years of research in figuring out how pandemics work and living through a dangerous flu outbreak. This gives you the methods to both avoid getting a virus in the first place, and how to strengthen your immune system should you come down with a virus. You don't have to lay down and die. You can fight the next pandemic.

Pandemic Survival Summary

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Author: John Hartman
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And another thing the coming pandemic

Truth is that we can no better predict when an avian flu pandemic will start than we can predict when and where lightning will strike. We know what conditions are necessary, and what things can increase the risk of a strike, but would be hard pressed to give any details. So what's the deal Today's panic is over a new influenza strain H5N1, aka 'avian flu'. At first, this was only found in wild birds, but it started to infect poultry in the markets where birds are kept crammed in cages. As of fall 2005, only about 120 people, who were in direct contact with infected birds, had been infected. About half of them died. Person to person transmission of the virus is only suspected in a few cases where people caught it while caring for a family member. Due to the high lethality to humans and birds, hundreds of millions of poultry throughout Asia have been killed in an attempt to control the spread of the virus. This will not stop the virus from spreading,...

Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Powder in the Organophosphate Compound Poisoning Mouse as a Model of SARS

Swine Poisoning

In 2002, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in Guangdong Province, China, and 800 of8000 infected people became the victims of the SARS coronavirus infection. There are very few effective antibiotics or chemicals for the treatment of this virus infection, and patients have to wait over 10 days for the production of virus-specific antibody to recover from virus-caused infections. My co-worker, Dr Lu Changlong of the China Medical University, found a novel biological function in garlic powder, which was effective in detoxifying organoph-osphate compound poisoning in mice used as a SARS model. This alternative SARS model shows close similarity on pathohistological findings in lung to those of the SARS-infected human. After a week's administration of 1 garlic powder solution, the organophosphate solution was given orally to mice to develop the SARS mimicking disease. The curative effect induced by the garlic powder was more than that expected and 75 of the...

Diagnoses in Psychiatric Disorders

Some research suggests that a viral infection of the mother during the second trimester of pregnancy may cause schizophrenia. Higher rates of schizophrenia were found in offspring of mothers who were in their second trimester of pregnancy during the influenza epidemic in 1957 in Finland, but not during the epidemics of 1918 or 1957 in Scotland.6

CA Sannerud JV Brady and RR Griffiths introduction

Although MDA and MDMA were recently brought under legal regulation by scheduling under the Controlled Substances Act, other derivatives of these compounds can be synthesized easily, and these new designer drugs have begun to be used recreationally. Evaluation of these substituted phenyl-ethylamine compounds for abuse liability should require an assessment of the reinforcing effects of the drugs and a comparison to structurally similar compounds, to determine relative potency and structure-activity relationships (SARs). This chapter will summarize previously published drug self-administration research with a variety of substituted amphetamine compounds, comparing the self-administration of stimulant hallucinogenic analogs of MDA to standard anorectic phenylethylamine compounds in baboons.

Richard A Glennon introduction

In drug discrimination studies, groups of rats were trained to discriminate either the stimulant phenalkylamine (+)amphetamine (AMPH) or the hallucinogenic phenalkylamine 1 (DOM) from saline. Other structurally related training drugs that have been used include the iodo and bromo analogs of DOM, i.e., DOI and R (-)DOB, as well as methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxymetham-phetamine (MDMA). Such investigations, coupled with the results of radioligand binding studies, have permitted the classification of a number of phenalkylamines (Glennon et al. 1983 Glennon 1986 Young and Glennon 1986) and have allowed proposal of a mechanism of action for the hallucinogenic phenalkylamines (Glennon et al. 1986a). The present review describes in detail some of the SARs that have been formulated on the basis of drug discrimination studies. This discussion of results is not meant to be comprehensive. Because species of animal, schedule of reinforcement, presession injection intervals,...

Classical Nonclassical CB Pharmacophores

Prior to the discovery of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, CB SARs were developed by those who hypothesized that at least some of the effects produced by CBs may be receptor mediated. The early SAR that emerged has been reviewed comprehensively by Razdan (1986) and by Makriyannis and Rapaka 1990). These reviews consider both classical and non-classical CB compounds. Because there is struc-tural conformational similarity between the classical and non-classical CBs (Lagu et al. 1995 Reggio et al. 1993 Xie et al. 1994,1996,1998), unified pharmacophores developed for these two classes have agreed with one another and have led to a consensus pharmacophore that involves the existence of the following at the CBi receptor

Methylenedioxysubstituted phenalkylamines

Not only does it produce both types of effects, but it seems to conflict with some of the above-mentioned SARs. For example, aromatic-substituted phenalkylamines such as the 3-methoxy and 4-methoxy derivatives MMA and PMA arc only weak AMPH-like agents, and the 3.4-dimethoxy analog 3,4-DMA (which is structurally very similar to 3,4-MDA) does not produce AMPH-like effects. The 3-OH, 4-OMe, and the 3-OMe 4-OH analogs of amphetamine are also inactive. Thus, it is surprising that 3,4-MDA possesses AMPH-like character. Likewise, neither MMA, PMA, nor 3,4-DMA produce DOM-like effects yet 3,4-MDA does. 2-Methoxy 4,5-MDA (MMDA-2) and 2,4,5-TMA share a common substitution pattern interestingly, these agents are essentially equipotent in producing DOM-like stimulus effects. Table 3 displays selected results.

General adverse effects

A nationwide surveillance system covering illness after flu immunization in the USA in 1976-77 among over 48 million persons immunized in 1976 with A New Jersey 76 influenza vaccine (swine flu vaccine) resulted in a total of 4733 reports of illness, including reports of 223 deaths (12). Since most of the deaths occurred within 48 hours of immunization, the figures for deaths per 100 000 vaccinees (by diagnosis) were compared with the expected death rate (by the same diagnosis) per 100 000 population for a 2-day period. In general, the crude expected death rate was much higher than the death rate among vaccinees. Other than Guillain-Barre syndrome and rare cases of anaphylaxis, no serious illnesses seemed to be causally associated with flu immunization. However, widespread under-reporting of illness and death in the passive phase of this surveillance system impaired the validity of the study. Allergic skin reactions were reported at a rate of 0.3 per 100000 vaccinees and severe...

Drug Administration Drug dosage regimens

Current recommendations for the use of influenza vaccine in adults are based on a single injection. This may not be valid in case of a new pandemic caused by an antigenic shift of the influenza virus. Currently, the only group for whom a second dose is recommended comprises children who have never been immunized. However, when two-dose regimens in adults have been studied, the second dose of vaccine has not been associated with higher rates of reactions than the first. People who have a stronger local reaction after a first injection are more likely to have another such reaction after a second injection (31).

Human papilloma virus vaccine

In 1997, an avian influenza A Hongkong 97 (H5N1) virus emerged as a pandemic threat. A non-pathogenic variant, influenza A duck Singapore 97 (H5N3) was identified as a leading vaccine candidate, but the non-adjuvanted antibody response was poor however, the addition of the adjuvant MF59 (oil-in-water suspension) boosted the antibody responses to protective levels. In 65 volunteers who received either

Ethnomedicines and Drug Discovery

Although about 40 of modern pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used against viruses. In contrast, traditional healers have long used phytomed-icines to prevent or cure infectious conditions. Clinical microbiologists are interested in antimicrobial plant extracts because (i) the effective lifespan of any antibiotic is limited (ii) increasing public awareness of overprescription and misuse of antibiotics (iii) public preferences for natural products in treating and preventing medical problems and (iv) viral diseases remain intractable to most orthodox antibiotics. Another factor is the rapid rate of species extinction 8 leading to irretrievable loss of structurally diverse and potentially useful phytochemicals 4 . In addition, the rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and the reemergence of many diseases have spurred intensive investigation into phytomedicines, especially for people who have little...

Viruses The Acellular Parasite of Cellular Hosts

Viruses are ultramicroscopic, acellular, metabolically inert nucleoprotein particles containing bundles of gene strands of either RNA or DNA, with or without a lipid-containing envelope 10 . Unlike free-living bacteria, viruses are obligate intracellu-lar parasites. They utilize the host cell machinery to propagate new viruses and can cause ailments as benign as a common wart, as irritating as a cold, or as deadly as the bloody African fever. The viruses that cause Lassa and Ebola fever and AIDS spread easily, kill swiftly, and have no cure or vaccine. Viruses have numerous invasion strategies and each strain has its own unique configuration of surface molecules 10, 11 , enabling them to enter into host cells by precisely fitting their surface molecules with the molecules of target cell. The genetic variation, variety of transmission, efficient replication and the ability to persist within the host are the major evolutionary advantages of viruses. As a consequence viruses have adapted...

Genetically Selected Systems of Malaria Resistance

The genetic and molecular basis of barriers to malaria infection and transmission in different mosquito species remains largely unexplored. This subject could now be profitably examined with new genomic tools, and in this regard the Ae. aegypti genome sequence will be a useful complement to the An. gambiae sequence. One does not have to look far (at least from humans) to find a recent example of pathogen host range restriction. Chimpanzees can be infected with HIV, but unlike humans rarely progress to AIDS-like disease (Balla-Jhagjhoorsingh et al. 2003 Davis et al. 1998 Novembre et al. 1997). It was proposed that greatly reduced variation observed in the MHC class I gene of chimpanzees is the product of a selective sweep caused by a widespread ancient infection by an HIV relative, and that modern populations of chimpanzees are descended from survivors of that pandemic (de Groot et al. 2002). Other primates avoid disease by blocking HIV replication early after cell invasion, by action...

Computers as Drug Design Aids

When this era came to an end, most of the easy stuff' had been done. Then, what became known as rational drug design made its debut on the drug scene. Theories of drug action mechanisms began to apply ideas and facts from tangential disciplines such as physical organic, and biochemistry. Their tools changed armchair SARs to quantitative SARs. Physics lent medicinal chemists some of its tools, which had magnificent applications by allowing us to see our small molecules. Among these tools were spectroscopies with first names such as IR, NMR, ESR, and MS. As those began to improve in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and speed chemists must have begun to feel somewhat like astronomers peering further and further into the molecular and atomic universe. A quantum leap for medicinal chemistry was the introduction of X-ray crystallography. At first a cumbersome tool whose results were mathematically burdensome to evaluate, it had helped to resolve some pesky structural problems as far back...

Structureactivity relationships among phenylethylamine compounds

A comparison between the chemical structures of substituted phenylethylamine compounds and their potency in producing behavioral effects reveals an inverse relationship between the size of the substituent and central activity (Braun et al. 1980). Similarly, reports of SARs among phenylethylamine compounds have suggested that the size of the ring substitution in general may decrease potency of the phenylethylamines for maintenance of self-injection behavior. Research with a series of N-ethyl-aminates substituted at the meta position of the phenyl ring has demonstrated that the potency of these compounds, either to increase locomotor behavior in mice (Tessel et al. 1975) or to maintain self-injection behavior in rhesus monkeys (Tessel and Woods 1975 Tessel and Woods 1978). was inversely related to the size of the meta-substituted constituent. These findings indicate that the failure of fenfluramine to maintain self-injection behavior is attributable to its meta-trifluromethyl group.

Quantitative Aspects of Drug Action An Overview

Pioneered by chemists such as Hammett (1940). These scientists elucidated the SARs of the electronic and steric effects of various substituents on the equilibria of organic reactions, and how they affected the reaction centers on a quantitative basis. Even conceptually separating the inductive and resonance effects was partially successful.

Endogenous Cannabinoid Structure Activity Relationships

Cannabinoid structure-activity requirements (SAR) literature has primarily focusec oBiffeptor affinities of fatty acid ethanolamides, such as AEA and its analogs. Recently, however, Sugiura has begun to develop an SAR for2-AG and its analogs based on a functional ass&ymilSfeation (Sugiura et al., 1999 Sugiura and V feku, 2000). Because of their difference in basis, each of these SARs will be presented separately here.

Controlled substance analogs designer drugs

One application of SARs is to make predictions concerning new agents. Assuming that the new agents are producing one of the above-mentioned effects, it should be possible to make approximate predictions of both activity and potency. Over the past decade, several new agents have appeared, and their activities and or potencies have been consistent with these SARs. Some of these agents have been mentioned. Also encountered were some agents that do not fit the foregoing SAR it is probably worthwhile considering these agents in depth. For example, PMMA, the N-monomethyl analog of PMA, should produce AMPH-like effects with a potency several times that of PMA itself. In fact, PMMA produces neither AMPH-like nor DOM-like effects. The animals' behavior, however, was disrupted at very low doses (

Present and Future

Currently, the field of cannabinoid research is at a very exciting phase. Understanding of the structural-activity relationships (SARs) of cannabinergic ligands has led to the development of highly selective and potent agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists that in turn have assisted in the biochemical and pharmacological characterization of the cannabinoid receptors. These potent and selective compounds are now playing a major role in unraveling the physiological functions of the endocannabinoid system and the signaling mechanisms associated with it. Furthermore, some of these ligands are being evaluated for their potential therapeutic usefulness. In parallel with the above work, the binding motifs of the different classes of cannabinergic ligands are being elucidated with the help of receptor mutants and suitably designed high-affinity covalent binding probes.

Conclusion

The drug discrimination paradigm is a powerful tool for studying centrally acting agents of the phenalkylamine type. It has been used to classify a large number of agents as being either AMPH-like or DOM-like, and it allows for the formulation of SARs. Though not discussed here, drug discrimination studies have proven invaluable in understanding the mechanisms of action of many of these agents (Glennon et al. 1986a Young and Glennon 1986 Glennon 1988). The SAR can also be used to predict the activity (AMPH-like or DOM-like) and potency of novel agents. Two significant exceptions to established SARs have been encountered PMMA and the MDA analogs. Findings with PMMA were wholly unexpected. MDA analogs probably represent a special case because no methylenedioxy analogs were included in the data set used to formulate the initial SARs, it may not be wholly valid to attempt extrapolation to these types of agents. Nevertheless, there are instances where the SARs correctly predict the...

U5niiiiriiiri

To help put all this in perspective, consider the Spanish Flu of 1918 and 1919. This flu, also know as A(H1N1), was highly pathogenic and is also suspected to have originated from an avian source. This was the worst flu pandemic in recorded history so far, infecting 20-40 of the worldwide population and resulting in an estimated 20-50 million deaths (3). The mortality rate for this pandemic was between 2-20 with the world average at approximately 5 . Although the death toll form the HIV AIDS virus over the last 30 years has been tremendous, the H1N1 virus only took 30 weeks to kill the same number of people (4). Currently, H5N1 does not transfer easily from human-to-human. However, if H5N1 were to become easily transmissible human-to-human and were to maintain its current highly pathogenic nature, pandemic on a level not seen since the Black Plague could occur.

Choices choices

Several viruses that cause disease are easy to produce in the lab in large quantities. However, they are often more delicate than bacteria, and thus can be harder to weaponize. People have been deliberately infected with HIV in a few biocrimes, and others like Marburg virus (hemmorragic fever), Ebola, influenza and of course smallpox are potential bioterror agents. Also, unlike bacterial diseases, there are few cures for many viral diseases. They are nasty with a capital N. Before we consider the anthrax letters, we should look at a few other cases where terrorist groups have tried to use biological agents to get a sense of what we might expect in the future. In 1994 and 1995, the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo dispersed sarin nerve gas in a series of chemical attacks including a coordinated release in the Tokyo subway system. Altogether, 12 people were killed in the subway attacks and close to 4,000 people were injured. Also, seven people had been killed in a previous sarin attack by...

Alkaloids

Cepharanthine (Fig. 15.15), a biscoclaurine alkaloid isolated from a Chinese folklore plant Stephania cepharantha, inhibited HIV-1 replication by inhibiting kappa B, a potent inducer of HIV-1 gene expression 104 and displayed potent activity against SARS coronavirus, HSV-1, and coxsackie B3 (Table 15.1) along with antitumor and immunomodulating activity 111 . As cepharanthine had strong activity against both RNA and DNA viruses it may be a source of potential lead compounds for developing new antivirals.

Drug Resistance

It is probably a relatively recent recognition that one of the great factors in shaping human history has been infectious disease. Almost whole populations may have disappeared from the map. Bubonic plague killed one-third of Europe's population in the fourteenth century. The first documented pandemic was in the early sixth century. It began in northeast Africa (Egypt and Ethiopia) and spread through Europe. It lasted 60 years and is estimated to have killed 100 million people. Smaller epidemics continued up to the end of the nineteenth century.

From 1000 to 1500

During this period, the use of hops (dried leaves of the hop plant used to give beer its distinctive bitter taste), which enhanced both the flavor and durability of beer, was introduced. In Italy and France, wine became even more popular, both in the diet and in commerce. Distillation had been known to the Arabs since about 800, but among Europeans, a small group of clergy, physicians, and alchemists monopolized that technology until about 1200, producing spirits as beverages for a limited luxury market and for broader use as a medicine. Gradual overpopulation was halted by the Black Death (a pandemic of bubonic plague), and schisms in the Catholic Church resulted in unrest and political struggles later in this period.

Safety first

It is reserved for agents that pose a high risk of life-threatening disease or aerosol-transmitted lab infections. It requires people working with them to shower in and out of the lab, a separate building, and full body suits with positive air pressure. Agents like Ebola virus are on this list. These are the agents for which if you get infected, you are pretty screwed. Influenza is another good example. It has been categorized as a BSL-2 pathogen for years. It is generally not a dangerous virus to work with in the lab because standard laboratory practices prevent researchers from getting infected. Researchers working with influenza also generally get immunized regularly. However, pandemic strains of influenza are stored in research labs and can be quite dangerous. Recently, the CDC upped the ante and now recommends that people working with pandemic influenza strains work in a BSL-3 facility. This is just a recommendation, as there is no law that says that you must...