Osteoporosis Treatment at Home

The Truth About Osteoporosis

Discover Easy Strategies To Maintain Optimal Bone Health And Reverse Osteoporosis. Here is a quick preview of the valuable information youll have at your fingertips: Statistics can lead to false conclusions. Bone Quality or Quantity? Density or Strength? Find what matters! What happens to unabsorbed calcium? How do prescribed medications fit in the equation? What is the 4-R Program and can it help reverse osteoporosis? What part does protein play in bone health? What contribution does lifestyle make? Am I unknowingly my own worst enemy? What about inflammation and stress? How do they impact my bones?Does an acidic system affect the progress of osteoporosis? Who would suspect this sneaky culprit (in your tap water) as contributing to loss of bone health? Discover 4 easy steps for relieving stress. What part do hormones play in osteoporosis? How to encourage new bone growth. Find 7 steps to a workable exercise program. Look at the whole body. 12 steps to changing habits effortlessly.

The Truth About Osteoporosis Summary

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The Osteoporosis Reversing Breakthrough

eres just a few things youll learn about how to get back into health. and conquer Osteoporosis. Those not-so innocent yet everyday substances that are currently attacking your body, perpetuating and aggravating your Osteoporosis. What to do and what Not to do to overcome your Osteoporosis effectively and permanently. How to create the energy you need to be able to work full time and feel confident you will be able to take care of your loved ones. How the pharmaceutical and food industry are conspiring to poison you and make you sick (Hint: American medical system is now the leading cause of death in the US). Which food industries use advertising to encourage doctors to tell you that their food is good for you just like those cigarette ads in the 1950s! The single most effective fruits and vegetables in cleaning up excess acidic waste and how to cleanse your inner terrain completely from systemic acidosis. Why, what your Doctor has told you is wrong, and why many medications actually increase the side effects and complications of Osteoporosis (primarily by depleting vital vitamins, minerals and nutrients from your body). Which supplements every patient must take to stop the symptoms and boost your body's ability to reverse Osteoporosis. How to naturally reduce your cravings for toxic foods. Lifestyle and food choices to reverse your Osteoporosis fast, naturally, and for good. Why treating the symptoms of disease is like using an umbrella inside your house instead of fixing the roof. The most powerful creator of health (Hint: its not a food or vitamin!) The best way to simplify the task of making a health-conscious lifestyle adjustment. A miraculous scientific discovery that jump-starts your body to do its natural work, which is to heal itself and restore your Health.

The Osteoporosis Reversing Breakthrough Summary

Contents: EBook
Author: Matt Traverso
Official Website: www.eliminate-osteoporosis.com
Price: $47.00

Biphosphonates and other osteoporosis drugs

Alendronate acid, clodronic acid, etidronic acid, ibandronic acid, pamidronic acid, risedronic acid, tiludronic acid and zoledronic acid arc among the osteolysis inhibitors. They are used for Morbus Paget, postmenopausal osteoporosis, and other osteolytic processes. There are no systematic studies on their use during pregnancy. Animal experiments suggest a possible placental transfer and effect on fetal skeletal development (Omoy 1998). Recommendation. Biphosphonates and the other osteoporosis drugs are not indicated during pregnancy. Accidental acute use of individual doses in the first trimester does not justify either interruption of the pregnancy or additional diagnostic procedures.

Endocrine and Sexual Effects

All standard antipsychotic drugs elevate serum prolactin levels by blocking the tonic inhibitory actions of dopamine on lactotrophic cells in the pituitary. Among second-generation antipsychotics, risperidone and amisulpride can produce dose-dependent hyperprolactinemia to a greater extent than firstgeneration antipsychotics, whereas clozapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, and quetiapine do not cause a sustained elevation of prolactin above normal levels. Aripiprazole, being a partial DA agonist, produces no elevation of prolactin and even suppresses prolactin levels slightly. Hyperprolactinemia in women can lead to menstrual disturbances, including anovu-latory cycles and infertility, menses with abnormal luteal phases, or frank amenorrhea and hypoestrogenemia. Women have also reported decreased libido and anorgasmia, and there are reports of increased long-term risk of osteoporosis although this is controversial. Antipsychotic-induced gyneco-mastia has been reported in 3 of women and 6...

General Information

The development of bisphosphonates for clinical purposes began with the discovery that inorganic pyrophosphate is present in blood and urine and inhibits the precipitation of calcium and phosphate (1). Derivatives of pyrophosphate had been widely used for industrial purposes, because they inhibit the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Their principal use was as antiscaling additives in washing powders, water, and oil brines, to prevent deposition of calcium carbonate scale. It was then found that pyrophosphate binds strongly to calcium phosphate, prevents both the formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate crystals, and inhibits calcification in vitro. The bisphosphonates are used to treat bone diseases characterized by increased osteoclastic bone resorption (2). Long-term administration of low doses of oral bis-phosphonates is considered to be valuable in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (3,4).

Comparative studies

In 72 postmenopausal women (mean age 65 years) with established osteoporosis who took elemental calcium 1.0g day and vitamin D 400 U day, etidronate and hormones were compared (15). The Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) group (n 18) took cyclical estrogen and progesterone the etidronate group (n 17) took intermittent cyclical etidronate and the combined therapy group (n 19) took both HRT and etidronate. Three patients in the HRT group and two patients in the combined therapy group withdrew owing to estrogen-related adverse effects. One patient each from the control group and the etidronate group withdrew because of inability to tolerate the medications. Two patients each from the control and combined therapy groups, and one from the etidronate group withdrew owing to other medical problems. There was one death due to myocardial infarction in the etidronate group, and one patient in the control group was lost to follow-up. Six patients complained of nausea after etidronate, but...

USA Availability Prescription and nonprescription drug also in food Pregnancy Category C

Caffeine has been suspected of promoting osteoporosis, a disease causing loss of bone density in older women studies controlling other factors (such as cigarettes and drugs promoting calcium loss) found that caffeine had no tendency to reduce bone density, but one study published in 2000 and tracking almost 35,000 postmenopausal women found a slight correlation of caffeine usage to broken bones a correlation implying loss of density. Coffee drinking is associated with loss of density. In contrast, examination of over 1,200 older women in England showed that tea drinkers were less likely to have osteoporosis, leading investigators to wonder if something in tea, other than caffeine, affects bone density.

General adverse effects

The two major risks of long-term glucocorticoid therapy are adrenal suppression and Cushingoid changes. During prolonged treatment with anti-inflammatory doses, glucose intolerance, osteoporosis, acne vulgaris, and a greater or lesser degree of mineralocorticoid-induced changes can occur. In children, growth can be retarded, and adults who take high doses can have mental changes. There may be a risk of gastroduodenal ulceration, although this is much less certain than was once thought. Infections and abdominal crises can be masked. Some of these effects reflect the catabolic properties of the glucocorticoids, that is their ability to accelerate tissue breakdown and impair healing. Allergic reactions can occur.

Pregnancy Category X

In women the drug is used to fight breast cancer by interfering with hormones that encourage the disease. Research has found fluoxymesterone effective in reducing a cancer called myeloma and for counteracting anemia caused by myeloma. Mixed results have occurred when using the drug for correcting anemia associated with kidney failure. The substance has been a treatment for osteoporosis, a condition in which bones become susceptible to easy breakage, and for hereditary angioedema an affliction that may involve throat swelling that interferes with breathing.

Second Generation Effects Pregnancy

Another pregnancy-associated hazard of long-term heparin administration is maternal osteoporosis, as clearly illustrated by several reports of pregnant women who developed severe osteoporosis after having received heparin, in some cases complicated by multiple vertebral fractures (97,98). Long-term heparin therapy during pregnancy results in changes in calcium homeostasis, which may be dose-related in the therapeutic range of doses (99). The incidence of osteoporotic fractures was 2.2 (four (100). In another study, the incidence of osteopenia in 70 pregnant women on long-term heparin was 17 there was also a regression in the degree of osteopenia postpartum

Observational studies

In 104 women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis, continuous estrogen + progestogen therapy resulted in increases in bone mineral density of the femoral neck and a fall in systolic blood pressure the most common adverse effects were mastalgia (44 ) and vaginal bleeding (29 ) (2).

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

The glucocorticoids are administered with caution to patients with renal or hepatic disease, hypothyroidism, ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, convulsive disorders, or diabetes. The glucocorticoids

Miscellaneous Compounds

Efforts continue to define the usefulness and unwanted effects of tibolone, with its unusual mixed spectrum of estrogenic, progestogenic, and androgenic effects. There is a widespread view that it could be preferable to other compounds in countering osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, particularly regarding adverse effects (114r). In an Italian study of 200 women taking different forms of HRT, estradiol with medroxyprogesterone acetate was compared with continuous tibolone 2.5 mg day (115Cr). Mastodynia sufficient to require withdrawal was less common with tibolone (4 vs. 13 ), as was irregular bleeding (19 vs 42 ), but there was modest weight gain 23 of users reported a gain of at least 2 kg because of which half of them suspended treatment. Only half of the original women were still taking treatment in each group 2 years after the start of therapy. 62. Albertazzi P, Purdie DW. Oestrogen and selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) current roles in the prevention and...

Organs and Systems Cardiovascular

There have been conflicting reports on the incidence and severity of symptoms such as hot flushes (also known as hot flashes) during long-term treatment with raloxifene for the prevention of osteoporosis. In fact the difference between raloxifene and placebo does not seem to be very great. In a review of three identical randomized trials in which raloxifene 60 mg was given for long periods to healthy postmenopausal women of various ages it was concluded that after 30 months the cumulative incidence of hot flushes was 21 for placebo and 28 for raloxifene, but the difference in frequency was confined to the first 6 months of therapy (16). There was no difference between placebo and raloxifene in the maximum severity of symptoms or the rate of early discontinuation, while the period during which hot flushes continued was only a little shorter in the raloxifene group. In a US study in more than 1100 postmenopausal women who took raloxifene 30-150 mg day the only significant adverse effect...

Evaluating Alternative Remedies

It's important to know that a remedy can be therapeutic at one dose but cause problems if the dose is too high. Just because it's natural doesn't mean that you can't take too much. For example, in small doses, vitamin A is essential for proper metabolic function, especially aiding vision, but large doses can cause yellowing of the skin. Large doses of vitamin B6 can cause clumsy hands and feet and numbness around the mouth. The high doses of vitamin C used by some people in the mistaken belief that it wards off colds can interfere with the absorption of vitamin B12, increase estrogen levels, and increase the possibility of kidney stones. Calcium supplements can help osteoporosis, but too much may cause kidney stones and induce a zinc deficiency. Zinc is touted to help sexual functioning, but an excess can cause ulcers, anemia, and inflammation of the pancreas.

Therapeutic studies

There are currently no trial-based recommendations for the treatment of idiopathic osteoporosis in men. The effects of intermittent low-dose fluoride combined with continuous calcium supplementation on bone mass and future fracture events have been evaluated in 64 men with idiopathic osteoporosis (4). They were randomized to intermittent treatment with monofluorophosphate plus calcium or calcium supplementation alone for 3 years. Seven of the patients given fluoride had leg pain. In most cases the pain, which was generally confined to the ankle, disappeared during the fluoride-free month. In a few cases, the fluoride-free month had to be prolonged to 7 or 8 weeks before the symptoms subsided. During fluoride therapy, two patients had mild epigastric symptoms and one had diarrhea, but these appeared to be related to calcium seven of the patients who were given calcium alone complained of epigastric discomfort and two had diarrhea. All the adverse events were mild to moderate and...

Opium thebaicum Opium

Ortopsique Diazepam. Ortrin Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Pentobarbital sodium. Ortedrine Amfetamine. Ortenal Drug containing more than one substance under international control Amfetamine sulfate and Phenobarbital. Orzolon Methaqualone hydrochloride. Osley Colloquial term for LSD. Osmond, Humphrey American psychiatrist and one of the most enthusiastic proponent for the use of LSD in psychiatric treatment in the 1950s. He also coined the word psychedelic. Osomiate Artemisia mexicana. Ospalivina Morphine. Ossazepam Oxazepam. Ossicodone Oxycodone. Ossidndrocodeinona Oxycodone. Ossimorfone Oxymorphone. Osteoporosis Disorder in which the normal replenishment of old bone tissue is disrupted, as it usually is throughout life, resulting in weakened bones and increased risk of fracture. It is most common in women after menopause, although it can also occur in younger women and men. It is aggravated by a variety of...

Diethylstilbestrol stilbestrol

Musculoskeletal Despite the evidence that estrogens can be of value in countering osteoporosis, some studies have suggested that women who use them are more likely to have back pain than those who do not the possible causal link has remained unclear, and continues so despite recent confirmation of the phenomenon.

Hyperthyroidism and thyrostatics

Mediated through the repression of genes encoding inflammatory mediators. However, inhibition of other transcription factors may account for the deleterious effects of glucocorticoids, such as adrenal suppression and osteoporosis (Roumestan 2004). In contrast with these genomic effects, some actions of corticosteroids can be immediate and mediated by membrane-bound receptors (Christ 1999). Pharmacokinetic parameters such as the elimination half-life, and pharmacodynamic parameters like the concentration producing the half-maximal effect, determine the duration and intensity of glucocorticoids' effects.

Cumulative index of special reviews Annuals 1625

Bone, 16.447,22.182, 25.195 contact allergy, 21.158 effective dose and therapeutic ratio, 23.175 inhaled, systemic availability, 24.185 musculoskeletal adverse effects, 21.417 osteoporosis and osteonecrosis, 19.377, 20.374 preterm infants, 17.445 Cosmetics bone, total parenteral nutrition, 22.378 bone dysplasia, deferoxamine, 23.241 bone mineral density, corticosteroids, 25.195 osteoporosis and osteonecrosis, corticosteroids, 16.447, 19.377, 20.374, 21.417, 22,182 Sexual function

Prospects for Herbal Medicine

Mineral Ocorticosteroid Functioning

India has been identified as one of the top 12 megadiversity centers of the world with an immensely rich medicinal and aromatic plant population occurring in diverse ecosystems. These medicinal plants are used both for primary health care and for treating chronic diseases such as AIDS, cancer, hepatitic disorders, heart disease, and age-related diseases such as memory loss, osteoporosis, and diabetic wounds etc. (Table 3.3). In the Indian coded system (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Amchi), Ayurveda currently utilizes as many as 1000 single drugs and over 8000 compound formulations of recognized merit 21 . Similarly 600-700 plants are utilized by other systems such as Unani, Siddha, and Amchi.

Vitamin Uptake and Metabolism

Rickets in infants and children and osteomalacia, and possibly osteoporosis, in adults is caused by a deficiency of D vitamins. Today most deficiencies are caused by a lack of sunlight or restricted diet. The lack of sunlight may be caused by living in northern latitudes. The latter also can be affected by the amount of skin pigmentation (21 -23). A strict vegetarian diet lacking cholecalciferol-fortified dairy products or fatty fish, particularly in children, may also result in rachitic lesions in the bone (24,251.Mechanistically,rickets and osteomalacia are similar and are characterized by bone softening. Normal bone growth and maintenance require that the osteoblast cells lay calcium hydroxyapatite onto a cartilage matrix. A deficiency of D vitamins results in a lack of mixed calcium salt available to the osteoblast cells. In infants and children, the cartilage continues to grow. Cartilage, being soft, cannot support the child's weight, leading to the typical bowlegs seen in a...

Reproductive system

Two doses of transdermal estrogen, 50 and 100 micrograms day, have been compared with placebo in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women over 24 months (31). Bone mineral density in the lumbar spine was only marginally better with the higher dose the slightly better effect was largely offset by a higher incidence of breast pain, reported by 8 of women on placebo, by 6 of those who took 50 micrograms day, and by 17 of women who took 100 micrograms day.

Case 1 Opioid Drugs for PainIs the Solution Worse Than the Problem

Jones is an eighty-four-year-old nursing home patient with metastatic breast cancer complicated by osteoporosis that has resulted in several vertebral compression fractures. During the times she is lucid, Mrs. Jones says she suffers from severe pain. The pain service recommends changing her medications from ibuprofen alone to ibuprofen plus morphine, an opioid typically used in such a setting.

Outlook Src As A Target For Other Indications More Selective And Dual Src Inhibitors

The application of Src inhibitors for inhibition of benign bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis remains questionable. High safety requirements for this indication and unacceptable side effects of the compounds examined seem to preclude further development of current compounds.

The skeleton stone bones and stoned heads

In vertebrates, bone mass is maintained constant between the end of linear skeletal growth, when the peak bone mass is established, and gonadal failure, when accelerated bone loss begins. The bone mass is preserved by a continuous destruction formation process termed bone remodeling 1 . This destruction formation cycle occurs at the same time in multiple foci that in humans encompass approximately 5 of trabecular, endosteal, and Haversian system surfaces. A cycle consists initially of a relatively rapid (i.e. a few weeks) resorption of pre-existing bone by a bone-specific, bone marrow hematopoietic cell type, the osteoclast, derived from the monocyte macrophage lineage 2 . It is then followed by a slower (i.e. a few months) step of de novo bone formation by another bone-specific cell type, the osteoblast 3 , which belongs to the stromal cell lineage of bone marrow 4 . Although different foci present different phases of the cycle, the overall net effect is that of a balance between...

Role of Estrogen in Tumor Growth

Estrogen has effects on the growth and function of reproductive tissues and also preserves bone mineral density, thus reducing the risk of osteoporosis and protecting the cardiovascular system by reducing cholesterol levels. Estrogens act as promoters, rather than initiators, of breast tumor development and can also facilitate tumor invasiveness by stimulating the production of proteases, which can degrade the extracellular matrix.

Anticholinergic Drugs

Harris M, Hauser S, Nguyen TV, Kelly PJ, Rodda C, Morton J, Freezer N, Strauss BJG, Eisman JA, Walker JL. Bone mineral density in prepuber-tal asthmatics receiving corticosteroid treatment. J Paediatr Child Health 2001 37 67-71. A. Inhaled corticosteroids reduce bone mineral density in early postmenopausal but not premenopausal asthmatic women. J Bone Miner Res 2001 16 782-7. 23. Sivri A, C pl L. Effect of the long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids on bone mineral density in asthmatic women. Respirology 2001 6 131-4. 26. Tattersfield AE, Town GI, Johnell O, Picado C, Aubier M, Braillon P, Karlstr m R. Bone mineral density in subjects with mild asthma randomised to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids or non-corticosteroid treatment for two years. Thorax 2001 56 272-8.

Carlos Garcia Echeverria PhD

The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a noncatalytic module of approx 100 amino acids that is mainly involved in directing interactions with cellular substrates (1,2). The SH2 domain recognizes short phosphotyrosine-containing sequences in which specificity is conveyed by the residues immediately C-terminal to the phosphotyrosine amino acid (3-5). The specific association of an SH2 domain with a phosphotyrosine-containing sequence of another protein precipitates a cascade of intracellular protein-protein interactions that result in signal propagation (1,6,7). Antagonists of critical SH2-binding events can be reasonably result in the inactivation of undesirable signal transduction networks and can represent a targeted treatment of a broad range of human diseases (e.g., cancer, osteoporosis, disorders of the immune and cardiovascular systems) (8). The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase pp60c-src contains a myristoylated -terminal domain, a catalytic kinase region, an SH2 domain, an SH3, and a...

The advantages of breastfeeding versus the risks of maternal medication

There are many advantages to breastfeeding for the mother herself. The process facilitates the rapid recovery postpartum, with a reduccd loss of blood and the prompt involution of the uterus to its pre-pregnant state (Labbok 2001). Further breastfeeding prevents post-partal depression (Groer 2005), and reduces the long-term risk of obesity and osteoporosis for the nursing mother. Studies of specific diseases show that there is a reduced risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer for women who breastfeed (Lawrence 2005, Collaborative Group 2002). Finally, the special relationship between mother and

Oncea Week Drugs

Soon many drugs will be available for once-a-week, or even twice-a-month, administration. The doses are designed to replace daily doses of drugs. One of the first is alendronate (Fosamax), a drug used to treat osteoporosis (see Chapter 21). In 2001, the FDA approved two new strengths for this drug to be given once a week 70-mg and 35-mg tablets. The 70-mg tablet is used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis, and the 35-mg tablet for prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal osteoporosis. In clinical trials the once-a-week dosing showed no greater adverse reactions than the once-daily regimen. Once-a-week dosing may prove beneficial for those experiencing mild adverse reactions in that the reactions would be experienced once a week, rather than every day.

Alcohol

As with many other drugs, moderate recreational use can be pleasurable while causing little harm. In contrast, excessive use can not only have psychological effects harmful to family and social functioning but also injure the stomach, liver, kidneys, heart, and brain. Rat experiments have demonstrated damage to the pancreas, damage that is boosted by cigarette smoke. A study found that men with spinal osteoporosis, a disease increasing the likelihood of broken bones, drink more alcohol than persons without the dis

Pamidronate

Inhibition of mature osteoclast function, promotion of osteoclast apoptosis, and interference with osteoblast-mediated osteoclast activation. In patients with osteoporosis, pamidronate increased bone mineral density by 6.8 over 2.2 years (11). The frequently observed adverse effects with pamidronate therapy were gastrointestinal gastritis due to either a local reaction when a high concentration of the drug stays in the mucus or by chelation with calcium ions (12).

Boldenone

Boldenone has had experimental use to explore whether it is beneficial in the treatment of persons suffering from osteoporosis. This disease not only makes bones fragile, but it also causes pain and loss of appetite. Patients in the study reported feeling better, but scientific measurements failed to confirm improvement. Melick, R.A., and C.W. Baird. Effect of Parenabol on Patients with Osteoporosis. Medical Journal of Australia 2 (1970) 960-62.

Relative potencies

Over many years, a great deal of research has been devoted to producing better glucocorticoids for therapeutic use. Those endeavors have succeeded only in part from the start the mineralocorticoid effects were sufficiently minor to be nonproblematic the fact that successive synthetic glucocorticoids had an increasing potency in terms of weight was not of direct therapeutic significance and the most hoped-for aim, that of dissociating wanted from unwanted glucocorticoid effects has not been achieved (1). Most untoward effects, such as those due to the catabolic and gluconeogenic activities of the glucocorticoid family, probably cannot be dissociated entirely from the anti-inflammatory activity (2) it is possible that myopathy and muscle wasting are actually more common when triamcinolone or dexametha-sone are used, but this may merely reflect overdosage of these potent drugs. However, some progress in achieving a dissociation of effects has been made. Beclomethasone does have a...

Anorexia Nervosa

Females experience menstrual irregularities and the absence of menstrual cycles. The abnormal dietary intake can result in calcium deficiencies that may lead to brittle bones with fractures and severe osteoporosis. One consequence of vomiting is tooth destruction from stomach acid. Tears in the esophagus and stomach are possible and potentially fatal. Excessive laxative use can damage the bowels so that laxatives are needed to stimulate a bowel movement. Severe dietary restriction can lead to dehydration, heart irregularities, and even death.

Heparins

Low molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are increasingly preferred to unfractioned heparin (UH) for thromboprophylaxis, as well as for the treatment of VTE, and in the pregnant patient. They arc heparin fragments produced by chemical or enzymatic depolymeriza-tion, and their molecular weight ranges from 4000-6000 daltons. They specifically inhibit factor Xa. Their advantage lies in a longer half-life (injecting once a day), their better bioavailability (85 ), and their association with a lower incidcncc of osteoporosis, allergy, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which may cause thrombotic events. There is evidence that LMWH. just like UH, do not cross the placenta. Based upon safety data, UH was previously considered to be the anticoagulant drug of choice during pregnancy for most indications. Maternal disadvantages include the risk of HIT, allergy, and osteoporosis. Long-term heparin therapy ( 1 month) may be associated with increased bone loss, particularly during pregnancy,...

Magnesium

Effects Magnesium provides energy aids in the metabolism of calcium and vitamin C enhances the immune system plays a key role in the chemical reactions of some 325 essential enzymes plays a role in the manufacture of DNA and RNA coding in cells and contributes to the formation and growth of cell membranes, nerves, muscles, and the heart. It protects against anxiety, calcium buildup in neurons (a common condition found in those with Alzheimer's), depression, diabetes, fatigue, insomnia (when combined with calcium), kidney stones and gallstones, poor memory, migraines, osteoporosis, heart disease, high blood pressure, tooth decay, the toxic effects of the heart drug digitalis, and in women the tension of PMS and postmenopausal bone loss. Most people may not get enough, and athletes should be especially aware of their intake, as exercise depletes the body of this nutrient. In combination with vitamins C and E and choline, it may prevent some of the side effects of vitamin A and D...

Estrogens

Estrogen is most commonly used in combination with progesterones as contraceptives or as hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. The estrogens are used to relieve moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms of menopause (flushing, sweating), female hypo-gonadism, atrophic vaginitis (orally and intravaginally), osteoporosis in women past menopause, palliative treatment for advanced prostatic carcinoma, and in selected cases of inoperable breast carcinoma. The estradiol transdermal system is used as estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, female hypogonadism, after removal of the ovaries in premenopausal women (female castration), primary ovarian failure, and in the prevention of osteoporosis. Estrogen is given IM or intravenously (IV) to treat uterine bleeding caused by hormonal imbalance. When estrogen is used to treat menopausal symptoms in a woman with an intact uterus, concurrent use of progestin is recommended...

Aluminum Al

Excess aluminum is deposited in the bone, where it replaces calcium, and also in the brain. It is not surprising that symptoms associated with aluminum toxicity include speech impairment, seizures, dementia, visual and auditory hallucinations, osteopenia, depression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) production, and anemia. The so-called Dialysis Encephalopathy Syndrome, described in the 1970s, is potentially fatal, but is not common today. Potentially toxic aluminum exposure can also occur through total parenteral nutrition or in occupational settings. Pulmonary aluminosis (Shaver's disease), not common today, is precipitated by chronic inhalation of aluminum dust and fumes. Although aluminum has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, the relationship of aluminum with this disease remains controversial and unproven (5,33).

Fluoride

Whether a fluoride supplement during pregnancy of about 1 mg day in tablet form (equivalent to about 2mg sodium fluoride), or ingested via fluoridated drinking water (about 1 mg l), actually reduces the incidence of caries in the baby is somewhat controversial. However, such fluoride prophylaxis does not appear to harm the fetus. Earlier suspicions regarding the possible toxic effect of regular fluoride on reproduction - for example, an increased rate of Down syndrome -is biologically implausible. Even high fluoride doses as a result of environmentally contaminated drinking water (above 10mg l) do not apparently cause any increase in birth defects. Prenatally induced fluorosis of the teeth and bones in the second half of pregnancy is theoretically possible, and has been described in individual cases after extreme continuous exposure, but would nol be expected after (as has occasionally happened) accidental intake of an osteoporosis preparation containing about 25 mg of fluoride....

Methandrostenolone

Medical uses of methandrostenolone include promoting growth in small boys, although with the risk of accelerating increase in height for awhile and then stopping further increase permanently. The drug has also been used to bring on male puberty when that development is delayed. A research study found that the substance increases sexual desire in men while simultaneously reducing their fertility. The drug has been given to control hereditary angio-edema, a disease producing giant hives on the skin. A lung disease called silicosis has been treated with the drug, and so have burns, cancer, and a type of anemia. Using the substance against a brittle bone condition called osteoporosis has been tried, with mixed results. Protection against lead poisoning was noted in a rat experiment. Levels of triglycerides, which are associated with heart attack and stroke, declined in diabetic humans who received the drug.

Caffeine

Though it is readily absorbed into the bloodstream, researchers still do not understand its full effects upon the human body. Caffeine can lead to a condition in coffee drinkers called coffee intoxication, in which more than four or five cups a day results in irritability, muscle twitches, rambling speech and thought, and trouble sleeping. It can also worsen existing health problems, and may contribute to birth defects, bladder and colon cancer, kidney disease, osteoporosis, hypertension, abnormal heart rhythms, stomach ulcers, and heart disease, though more recent studies refute these findings. When combined with sugar, as in many cola drinks, it can be particularly addictive or habit-forming. It does not replenish a person's noradrenaline once it is used up, and either depletes or limits the absorption of many vitamins and minerals. Withdrawal symptoms can begin 12 to 36 hours after the last dose, and can include lethargy, irritability, severe throbbing headaches, anxiety,...

Oxandrolone

This drug is used to encourage return of adequate heaviness in persons who have lost too much weight from illness, injury, or medical therapy. Experiments with AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients measured substantial improvement in weight and strength. Oxandrolone may diminish pain from a bone disease called osteoporosis, although the drug has potential for worsening the underlying bone affliction. In rats and in humans the drug has hastened healing of wounds. Experimental therapy using oxan-drolone against Duchenne muscular dystrophy has been successful.

Travoprost

Sasaki N, Kusano E, Ando Y, Yano K, Tsuda E, Asano Y. Glucocorticoid decreases circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) possible mechanism for glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001 16 479-82. 8. Tattersfield AE, Town GI, Johnell O, Picado C, Aubier M, Braillon P, Karlstr m R. Bone mineral density in subjects with mild asthma randomised to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids or non-corticosteroid treatment for two years. Thorax 2001 56 272-8. 9. Harris M, Hauser S, Nguyen TV, Kelly PJ, Rodda C, Morton J, Freezer N, Strauss BJG, Eisman JA, Walker JL. Bone mineral density in prepuber-tal asthmatics receiving corticosteroid treatment. J Paediatr Child Health 2001 37 67-71. 12. Lane NE. An update on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2001 27 235-53. Block JA, Wing J, McIlwain HH, Westhovens R, Brown J, Melo-Gomes JA, Gruber BL, Yanover MJ, Leite MOR, Siminoski KG, Nevitt MC, Sharp JT, Malice MP, Dumortier T, Czachur M, Carofano W, Daifotis...

Doses

When thyroid therapy is used not only to replace deficiency but also to prevent the growth of remnants of a differentiated thyroid carcinoma, a suppressive dosage is used, aiming at T4 concentrations in the high reference range and an undetectable TSH concentration or at least one that is below the lower end of the reference range, as measured by two-sided assays. Such therapy is warranted because of its long-term safety, efficacy, and tolerance, but some additional therapy for osteoporosis prevention should be considered. As with all forms of long-term therapy, adherence to the prescribed dosage of levothyroxine is not always optimal, and an unwarranted fear of thyroid-induced osteoporosis can add to this lack of adherence. Inadequacy of thyroxine replacement therapy is not always easily recognized. Several patients were reported with clearly inadequate or excessive consumption of levothyroxine despite a correct prescription. All patients had depression, which could be an additional...