Psychological Disorders Anxiety Depression Bipolar Disorder Schizophrenia Alcohol Dependence

5.1. Anxiety

In a review, Musty (28) concluded that for CB1 antagonists, it seems that the preponderance of the data suggest that these compounds are anxiolytic. Agonists, on the other hand, seem to have biphasic effects: low doses seem to be anxiolytic, high doses anxiogenic. In addition, it seems that the context is important. Further research is needed to sort out the differences among various studies, but it is clear that both antagonists and agonists on the CB1 receptor have anxiolytic properties. Standardization of testing procedures across laboratories might be helpful, the problem being that

Fig. 1. Progress on preclinical and clinical trails of cannabinoid products by GW Pharmaceuticals.

there are many variables that have not been explored with behavioral methods used to test for anxiolytic properties. Because it is widely known that activation and inactiva-tion of CB1 receptors has a multitude of modulatory effects on neurotransmitter systems, it would be advantageous for researchers to examine what changes in neurotransmitter activity occur in conjunction with the pharmacological effects conserved in the types of studies. There seems to be quite a convergence between animal research and human research, strongly suggesting that CBD is a true anxiolytic. Given the fact that this drug has no psychoactivity in terms of intoxication and is very safe, it seems important to pursue the potential of CBD with vigor, with further behavioral pharmacological studies, mechanistic studies employing neuropharmacological methods, and clinical studies.

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