Accelerated Muscular Development Programs
Particularly when androgens anabolics are misused to promote extreme muscular development, there is a risk of cardiomegaly and ultimate cardiac failure. Androgen-induced hypertension may be due to a hypertensive shift in the pressure-natriuresis relation, either by an increase in proximal tubular reabsorption or by activation of the renin-angiotensin system (15). This effect is not related to higher doses or longer treatment and can develop after a few months but can also be delayed for many years.
The claimed body-building effect of the so-called anabolic compounds reflects their ability to promote muscular development, even beyond physiological limits, and this can bring with it cardiovascular complications. Surreptitious misuse by athletes remains a recurrent problem in professional sport (50) apart from the cardiovascular risks, one observes numerous physiological changes, including effects on plasma levels of enzymes, minerals and vitamins and reduced concentrations of HDL cholesterol (51).
Despite these early warning signs of the potential dangers of GHB, several nutritional supplement companies started promoting GHB in the 1980s as a way for bodybuilders to stimulate the production of growth hormones, enhance muscle mass, and reduce body fat. However, scientific studies have yet to prove that GHB can indeed increase muscle mass or assist in weight loss. GHB could easily be found in bulk quantities in many health food stores during this time and was also promoted as a way to ease anxiety and depression because of its potent sedative properties.
The depolarizing-type muscle relaxant suxamethonium is bound with acetylcholine receptors of the neuromuscler junctions to produce continuous depolarization, resulting in temporary muscle contraction followed by muscle flaccidness. The non-depolarizing type muscle relaxants, such as tubocurarine, pancuronium and vecuronium, are also bound with acetylcholine receptors of the neuromuscler junctions competitively with acetylcholine to inhibit depolarization, resulting in muscle flaccidness. All of the above muscle relaxants act on the diaphragmatic muscle to suppress respiration only in their therapeutic doses, the spontaneous respiration stops resulting in danger of life without any artificial respiration. Suxamethonium is usually administered in the dose of 0.8-1.0 mg kg to gain muscle flaccidness in about 1 min the muscle activities recovers after several minutes. Pancuronium is administered in the dose of 0.08-0.1 mg kg to produce muscle flaccidness in 1-2 min, which continues for...
Although the substance is banned from sports, some bodybuilders and other athletes use it. A rat study found augmented muscle protein among animals receiving the drug. Researchers have noted that chickens gain more weight when getting methandriol. Other researchers, however, found no weight alteration after giving the drug to mares daily for 18 months. The compound has been tested as a treatment for excessive menstrual bleeding, but results left investigators rather unimpressed. Drawbacks. Methandriol can masculinize women's body signs and behavior, though to a lesser degree than many drugs of this type. Indeed, when tested on horses, no change was seen in mares' conduct. Nonetheless, women's voices can deepen, and facial hair can appear effects that may be permanent. Among bodybuilders there is a claim that the drug feminizes men's body signs and behavior. Boys and girls receiving the drug may undergo premature sexual maturity and stop growing in height. Reduced fertility may...
Volunteers who took methyltestosterone in an experiment showed slight changes in thinking ability, and 2 of the 20 subjects had man-iclike episodes that might be attributable to the drug. A report noted that someone receiving the drug experienced visual and auditory hallucinations, and a case report indicated that methyltestosterone and methandrostenolone were likely causes of psychotic incidents experienced by two bodybuilders. A human experiment attempted to document the drug's psychological effects but was unable to correlate behavioral changes with volunteers' usage of the substance. The substance is suspected of causing liver damage, sometimes resulting in jaundice, lesions, tumors, or other conditions. The compound may cause fluid retention, which can be risky for persons with kidney, liver, or
It has already been argued that the 1960 Rome Olympics bore witness to a clash of cultures. In the broader history of anti-doping and the Olympics however we can also see that certain sports are more problematic than others. In the 1950s and 1960s the power sports such as weightlifting and the throwing events were the ones seen as rife with doping problems. This is because steroids function primarily to build strength and muscle. When the USA and USSR made these sports into literal battles of physical prowess - 'the big arms race' - it was unlikely either side would stop their athletes using steroids. Under the auspices of the IOC however sport was supposed to reflect de Coubertin's romantic idealism, and the explicit use of drugs was not part of that vision. The clash of cultures was again evident. This all served to create a problem of recreational bodybuilding and steroids. Evidence shows a large scale use among amateur athletes, the black market operating through gyms, and...
The spread of steroids into other sports seems to have happened in the first years of the 1960s by which time there were types on the market. Users could turn to various testosterone derivates including Halotestin (fluoxymesterone), Adroyd (oxymetholone), Durabolin (nandrolone phenpropionate) and stanozolol (Winstrol) (Fruehan and Frawley, 1963 Lenehan 2003 65). Bob Hoffman knew by then what the drugs could do, having experimented with them himself for six weeks in the aftermath of the 1960 Rome Games. He admitted that steroids had 'increased my strength. In five days I could curl and press more and I gained weight' (cited in Fair 1993 9). Although he did not admit this at the time, he clearly had more confidence in the effectiveness of steroids. It would take until 1967 before he went public with this information in his own Strength and Health magazine (Hoffman 1967). In between times, Zeigler continued to develop a range of strategies for strength training, mixing the new technique...
Anabolic Anabolism, the constructive process by which living cells convert simple substances into living tissue. Anabolic steroid Any of a group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone that promote muscle and bone growth. Used therapeutically to treat chronic debilitating diseases, anabolic steroids have also been used by bodybuilders and athletes seeking increased muscle mass and enhanced strength and stamina. Such use is banned by the International Olympic Committee and other governing bodies in sports, and in 1988 a federal law made it illegal to distribute anabolic steroids for nontherapeutic uses. Abuse of anabolic steroids may lead to increased aggressiveness, irritability, and other disruptive behavioral effects, including symptoms characteristic of drug addiction long term effects are not known. See Steroids. Anabolic-androgenic steroids See Steroids.
The question of who first used steroids for sporting competition has yet to be conclusively answered. Anecdotal evidence, to be treated with some caution, suggests that bodybuilders in California indulged in the aftermath of de Kruif's book (Yesalis et al. 1993). This might make sense given other circumstantial details such as the first known scientific experiment linking steroids and sport. In 1944 a group of American researchers treated six men with methyltestosterone (supplied by Schering under the name Oreton-M) for 3-6 week periods to test their physical responses (Simonsen et al. 1944). The result was 'enhancement of central nervous system reflex time, back strength muscle enhancement, and increases in dynamic and static work performance' (Taylor 1991 14). These conclusions were published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology. We cannot say for certain if research led to athletes' consumption, but the information was available at the time for those looking for enhancement...
As with researchers in the USA, physiologists set the context by developing studies on enhancing performance capacities. L. Pikhala (1930) showed that regular training lowered the heart rate required to work at a fixed level. By showing the effects of variations of rest, activity and intensity he 'articulated the essential components of progressive resistance training for athletic development' (Beamish and Ritchie 2005 418). This research was complemented by E. H. Christensen (1931) who studied the relationship between fitness, workload and the improvement of maximum oxygen carrying capacity (VO2 MAX) as well as the impact of varying resistance and intensity. By the early 1930s there were dedicated journals publishing a range of experimental findings on sport and exercise science.
The central factor in explaining this discrepancy was recognised in 1982 by William Taylor, a weight training medical doctor from the United States who would campaign for two decades against steroids in sport. His starting point was to show that the anecdotal evidence from users was indeed correct steroids the studies involving the untrained subjects were not able to delineate the gains in muscle mass and strength from learning to lift weights and the effects of anabolic steroids the athletic subjects were unable to benefit from anabolic steroid use over and above the training effect of the study design itself. On the other hand, if the athletic subject was already weight-trained and then the anabolic steroids were used, the effects of the steroids were seen. The studies with previously weight-trained subjects showed that anabolic steroids enhanced muscle mass and strength over and above the effects of weight training alone.
For some years now it has been known that certain athletes in the power events have taken these body building drugs in enormous doses in combination with very heavy weight training programmes and high protein diets. The results are in the records books for all to see. He was aware of the uncertainties around efficacy and side effects that had held back some users. As a result, he was concerned that 'controlled clinical trials indicate that these drugs are effective for the sportsman's purpose', and that 'it now seems very likely that in lower doses anabolic steroids are, at least in the short run, safe'. Later in the same year, the British Association of National Coaches conference brought steroid use to the attention of the Sports Council, then chaired by Dr Roger Bannister. Speaking at the conference, the British Olympic weightlifting coach, John Lear, offered a startling portrayal of the situation taking of drugs by athletes is a highly organised affair in which doctors are...
Other sports were far from immune from such problems. In 1970 testing began at the World Weightlifting Championships when they were held in Columbus, Ohio. The result was that nine of the top 12 were disqualified when urine tests showed they had taken amphetamines. International weightlifter Ken Patera admitted using them, called the testing ridiculous, and said they had been taking them routinely for years.
Case 11 Is Ignorance a Defense The Case of the Olympic Swimmerand the Rower the Thief and the Cyclist
Consider the case of Brian, a junior elite swimmer who hopes to one day compete in the Olympics. His coach recommended the use of a dietary supplement because it was advertised to enhance the loss of body fat and facilitate the development of lean muscle, thinking that it would help Brian's swimming form. The coach was not worried that it would contain banned anabolic steroids, since they had recently become controlled by the 2004 Amendment to the Controlled Substance Act and presumably had been taken out of all dietary supplements. However, while participating in a swim meet, Brian tested positive for dehydroepiandros-terone (DHEA), a substance on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of banned anabolic steroids.
Effects Chromium assists in the breakdown and distribution of proteins and carbohydrates in the body. It is also essential for the production of an enzyme-like substance called Glucose Tolerance Factor or GTF (chromium combined with nicotinic acid and amino acids), which aids in the making and proper utilization of insulin this insulin, in turn, takes carbohydrates from the blood and gets them to the brain cells, which use them for energy. It is believed that sufficient amounts keep the blood sugar on a consistent level, preventing mood swings, depression, and adultonset diabetes, and providing energy throughout the day. Chromium picolinate is a scientifically developed form which appears to be more efficient than regular chromium it may also have a mild muscle-building effect on people with a regular exercise program. Chromium picolinate, as well as chromium polynicotinate and chromium chloride, can inhibit sugar-induced high blood pressure. The picolinate and polynicotinate forms...
GHB is currently extremely popular in the dance club and rave scene. It is also popular among the gay community as well as with exotic dancers and strippers. It is primarily used for its ability to produce euphoria, intoxication, and enhanced sexual feelings. Others use it as a sleep aid or to enhance bodybuilding. Still others use it intentionally as a date rape drug. Abusers of other drugs, such as cocaine or methamphetamine, often take GHB to reduce the withdrawal
It is not clear if such anxieties had much impact on the athletes of the 1952 Olympic Games in Helsinki. Reports are contradictory on this question. The United States weightlifting coach, Bob Hoffman, accused the Soviets of using testosterone, 'I know they're taking the hormone stuff to increase their strength' (cited in Todd 1987 93). The Austrian sports medic and prominent anti-doping expert Ludwig Prokop (1975) found syringes in the locker room of speed skaters during the Winter Games of that year though it is unclear what was in them.
Lieutenant Colonel Fraser, the medical superintendent at the competitors' village, has confirmed that no action will be taken if it is proven that an athlete has broken international sports rules by taking steroids, and no names of those sinning will be revealed. This seems an extraordinary decision and Mr Wally Holland, manager of the English weightlifting team, said yesterday that he was flabbergasted that such infringements should ever be tolerated.
Seizures can occur following abuse of GHB and, when combined with methamphetamine, there appears to be an increased risk of seizure. Combining use with other drugs such as alcohol can result in nausea and difficulty breathing. GHB may also produce withdrawal effects, including insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating. Because of concern about Ro-hypnol, GHB, and other similarly abused sedative-hypnotics, the United States Congress passed the Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act of 1996 in October 1996. This legislation increased Federal penalties for use of any controlled substance to aid in sexual assault. GHB can be produced in clear liquid, white powder, tablet, and capsule forms, and it is often used in combination with alcohol. GHB has been increasingly involved in poisonings, overdoses, date rapes, and fatalities. The drug is used predominantly by adolescents and young adults, often when they attend nightclubs and raves. GHB is often manufactured in homes with recipes...
The heroes and villains are harder to separate in the history of doping science. Amphetamines were used as much by Allied forces in the Second World War as by their Axis enemies. Steroids were being experimented with in the USA by the 1930s and 1940s. Usage of steroids was not seen as problematic by Dr John Zeigler, the American weightlifting coach who helped develop the steroid Dianabol with the pharmaceutical company CIBA in the mid 1950s. Around the same time, the legendary 'hero' Roger Bannister who would help lead anti-doping in Britain in the 1970s experimented with extra oxygen inhalation for his mile runs. And throughout the post-war period those professional cyclists who used amphetamines and other drugs for their arduous races remained favourites with the fans who empathised with their need for artificial enhancements.
The image of the physical cultural strongman supported claims of European superiority and pointed to the complexity of bodily desires that fuelled capitalist consumerism. Physical culture discourse and iconography thus vividly evoke the body politics of industry and empire in their articulation of the possibility of actual physical transformation.
Effects The body converts it to spermine, found in semen, blood tissue, and brain cells. It is said to help fight cancer by boosting the immune system (more specifically, by stimulating the production of T-cells), protect the liver by detoxifying harmful substances, and increase the sperm count in men. Reduced levels have been found in people with senility and memory loss. Though it does seem to have a stimulating effect on human growth hormone when taken along with lysine, and thus may be of some benefit to bodybuilders, it apparently does not reduce fat to any significant extent.
Everywhere I look, I see men in positions of power and women trying desperately to be as powerful, but power is a sickness and it corrupts all that it touches. It is present everywhere in our society, and religion is no exception. Maybe it is something inherent in the nature of a man to want to be the controller of the universe, maybe it is because we are conditioned to be that way by our parents, and our leaders, and educators, maybe it is just because we have bigger muscles than women, who knows
Blood levels of a hormone called Cortisol. In the 1990s nalbuphine was popular among bodybuilders using anabolic steroids. These individuals mainly used nalbuphine to reduce pain caused by exercise regimens. Interviews with such users revealed that many were suffering unwanted physical and mental effects from nalbuphine and that many of these persons were abusing other drugs as well. A case report tells of illicit nalbuphine injection causing muscle damage the opposite of what bodybuilders seek.
Ephedrine can cause skin rash, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, hepatitis, rise in body temperature, jitteriness, insomnia, hyperactivity, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, seizures, kidney stones, visual and auditory hallucinations, and paranoid psychosis. Ephedrine can worsen muscle tics animal experimentation shows the drug causing brain damage that can lead to the tics seen in Parkinson's disease. During strong physical exertion, such as bodybuilding, ephedrine may increase danger of heart attack. Suspicion exists that persons who stop taking ephedrine may be more sensitive to it if they start using the drug again.
Some athletes use the compound with the hope it will improve their sports performance. A case report attributed rupture of the triceps tendon to a regimen of oxymetholone, nandrolone, and testosterone, although analysts have noted that a nonanabolic steroid called cortisone may have promoted the injury. Another case report told of a 20-year-old athlete developing persistent balance problems after taking oxymetholone and two other steroids investigators of that case felt that steroids were a likely cause, given their ability to promote brain damage (stroke) and mental difficulties (mood and thinking). A case report notes manic activity in a person using oxymetholone. Another case report notes an even-tempered person who became rageful and violent after beginning a regimen of oxymetholone. Researchers tested one group of athletes who were using that compound and other steroids, a second group composed of former users, and a third group that had never used these drugs....
The emergence of anabolic steroids in sport is usually traced to American and Soviet weightlifting coaches in the mid 1950s. John Zeigler claimed that the Soviets were using testosterone and so worked with an American pharmaceutical company to develop and market the steroid Dianabol (Zeigler 1984 Voy 1991). This was in the wider context of developments in medical hormone treatment and commercial health products (Hoberman 2005). While steroids were initially used by bodybuilders and weightlifters, by the late 1960s they were much more popular among other athletes looking to build muscle and stamina during training. Steroids helped the user train for longer and can be stopped before an event, whereas amphetamines were used for the 'extra kick' just before or during the event. For instance, cyclists would keep theirs for the harder sections of a race or for the finishing stretch (Voet 2001). Steroids were taking over from amphetamines as the drug of choice by the late 1960s. Not only was...
An addiction case report mentioned not only psychological craving for ox-androlone and other anabolic steroids but physical dependence as well. When the bodybuilder in question received a dose of a substance that provokes withdrawal symptoms in opiate addiction, he responded with classic opiate withdrawal signs. Cancer. Potential for causing cancer is unknown. A case report associates oxandrolone with development of colon cancer in a 27-year-old bodybuilder.
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The Bible of Body Building
Our lives have come a long way from the Stone Age, and we are quite thankful for the various technological advancements that have brought us so far. We still have a long way to go, but the place we are right now is quite commendable too.