Natural Cure for Multiple Sclerosis

Reverse MS Now

Heres just a few things youll learn about how to get back into health. and conquer Multiple Sclerosis. Those not-so innocent yet everyday substances that are currently attacking your body, perpetuating and aggravating your Multiple Sclerosis. What to do and what Not to do to overcome your Multiple Sclerosis effectively and permanently. How to create the energy you need to be able to work full time and feel confident you will be able to take care of your loved ones. How the pharmaceutical and food industry are conspiring to poison you and make you sick (Hint: American medical system is now the leading cause of death in the US). Read more...

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Symptomatic Relief in Multiple Sclerosis and Spinal Cord Injury

Spasticity is a central feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI). It consists of a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex as one component of the upper motor syndrome (Young 1994). Existing drug therapy is far from satisfactory in terms of efficacy and unwanted effects (Panegyres 1992). Tremor, ataxia and lower urinary tract symptoms are frequently troublesome in MS. Both neuropathic and nociceptive pain (dealt with in Sect. 2.3) are also common in MS and SCI, and dozens of very painful muscle spasms can occur each day. Small wonder that there is also a high incidence of anxiety and depression in these conditions. An important trial funded by the UK Medical Research Council (CAMS study) has explored the effects of synthetic THC (Marinol) and a cannabis extract (Can-nador) given orally on spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (Zajicek et al....

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is characterized by the destruction of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS). Curcumin inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis, by blocking IL-12 signaling in T cells, suggesting that it would be effective in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Natarajan and Bright investigated the effect of curcumin on the pathogenesis of CNS demyelination in EAE 74 . In vivo treatment of SJL J mice with curcumin significantly reduced the duration and clinical severity of active immunization and adoptive transfer in EAE 74 . Curcumin inhibited EAE in association with a decrease in IL-12 production from macrophage microglial cells and differentiation of neural antigen-specific Th1 cells. In vitro treatment of activated T cells with curcumin inhibited IL-12-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2, tyrosine kinase 2, and STAT3 and STAT4 transcription factors. Inhibition of the Janus kinase-STAT...

Advances in Medical Cannabis Research

To develop novel cannabinoid medicines, supports an ongoing breeding project to develop high-yielding Cannabis cultivars of known cannabinoid profile. The aims of this research are to create varieties that produce only one of the four major cannabinoid compounds (e.g., THC, CBD, CBC, CBG, or their propyl homologs) as well as selected varieties with consistently uniform mixed cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles. These uniform profiles allow for the formulation of nonsmoked medicinal products, which can meet the strict quality standards of international regulatory authorities. A sublingual spray application of plant-derived THC and CBD began clinical trials for relief of multiple sclerosis-associated symptomology in 1999. These clinical trials have gone on to include patients with neuropathic pain and cancer pain.

Human clinical studies

Recently, Mikuriya (1999) reported on interviews of 1800 patients who used marijuana for various medical conditions. Of these patients, he reported that 41 experienced analgesia following traumatic inflammation induced pain, autoimmune disorder-induced pain and ideopathic pain. Similarly, Consroe et al. (1997) found self-reported reductions in pain in patients with multiple sclerosis. Consroe et al. (1998) found similar self-reported pain reduction in patients with spinal cord injury. Schnelle et al. (1999) used an anonymous standardized survey of the medical use of cannabis and cannabis products of patients in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Data from 128 170 patients were usable. Of these, 5.4 used cannabis for back pain and 3.6 for headache. Table 2.2 lists human studies of cannabinoid effects on pain.

Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act FIFRA 1972

Orphan Drug Act(1983 amended 1984) - There are about 5000 diseases and conditions each of which affect relatively small populations(< 200,000) of our citizens for example, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, narcolepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), leprosy, blepharospasm, adrenoleucodystrophy, AIDS, and inherited metabolic disorders such as PKU. Because of the expense of drug development and small potential market there was little financial incentive for pharmaceutical companies to develop drugs for the treatment of these conditions. This act provided incentives to develop and market orphan drugs by entitling a producer to

Medical Marijuana A Brief History

Not since prohibition began in 1937 has there been such a large body of knowledge. Millions now know that medical marijuana provides safe, effective relief for a wide array of ailments, from chronic pain and migraines to glaucoma, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and the debilitating effects of chemotherapy and AIDS.

General Information

Cannabis is one of the oldest and most widely used drugs in the world. In different Western countries the possible therapeutic use of cannabinoids as antiemetics in patients with cancer or in patients with multiple sclerosis has become an issue, because of the prohibition of cannabis, and has polarized opinion about the seriousness of its adverse effects (1,2).

Protection against infection

In contrast to the body of data indicating that cannabinoids exacerbate host resistance to infection, it has been reported that cannabinoids have the potential to exert protective effects for select pathological conditions. Gallily et al. (1997) indicated that Dexanabinol (HU-211), a synthetic non-psychotropic cannabinoid, improved neurological outcomes in rodent models of brain trauma, ischemia, and meningitis. HU-211 was shown to suppress TNFa production and to rescue mice and rats from endotoxic shock after lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli 055 B5) injection. Bass et al. (1996) tested the efficacy of HU-211 in combination with antimicrobial therapy in reducing brain damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Streptococcus pneumonia-infected rats were treated with saline, ceftriaxone (100mg kg), or with a combination of ceftriaxone (100mg kg) and HU-211 (5mg kg intravenously). Brain edema and blood-brain barrier impairment were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced for...

Concluding Remarks

In this chapter, we have reviewed the recent advances on cannabinoid-dopamine interactions, emphasizing those processes in which dopamine has been proposed as a key neurotransmitter, such as basal ganglia functionality, corticolimbic processes, and neuroendocrine regulation. We have explored the mechanisms underlying these interactions, which represent ways for plant-derived cannabinoids to interfere with these processes. In most of the cases, we have concluded that dopaminergic neurons do not contain CB1 receptors, with some exceptions, but these receptors are located on neurons present in regions innervated by dopaminergic neurons, which allows relevant bidirectional interactions. Lastly, we have reviewed those diseases characterized by either deficiency or overactivity of dopamine transmission and where cannabinoids might be of therapeutic potential possibly through actions that facilitate, among others, a normalization of dopamine transmission. These diseases included basal...

Second Generation Effects

Data on outcomes in pregnancy after treatment with interferon beta-1a in patients with multiple sclerosis have been obtained from clinical trials (78). Of 29 pregnancies that occurred during or shortly after treatment withdrawal, 13 resulted in normal outcomes, two in premature births, one in fetal death, six in induced abortions, and seven in spontaneous abortions. In 188 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis assigned to receive interferon beta-1a 30 micrograms intramuscularly once a week or interferon beta-1b 44 micrograms subcutaneously three times a week, only injection site reactions and neutralizing antibodies to interferon beta were significantly more frequent in the interferon beta-1b group (80). These differences were probably related to the subcutaneous route of administration of interferon beta-1b. In contrast, there were significant differences in favor of interferon beta-1b for clinical outcomes after 2 years of treatment. In a comparison of two regimens of...

Physiology and Pharmacology

6.2.4 Causes of Erectile Dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction can result from neurological, vascular, hormonal, or psychological factors, or from a combination of two or more of these factors. Neurological causes include spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or any other condition that impedes the transmission of the neural signal generated by psychogenic stimulation. Vascular causes include arterial insufficiency, which results in low arterial pressure delivered to the penis, and venous insufficiency, in which excessive venous outflow occurs because of inadequate compression of the subtunical venules. Erectile dysfunction of hormonal origin results from inadequate androgenic stimulation of the sexual center in the anterior hypothalamus, which lowers libido and hence erection quality. In psychogenic erectile dysfunction, sexually inhibiting psychological issues can impede

Appendix Q Model Bill

(2) a chronic or debilitating disease or medical condition or its treatment that produces one or more of the following cachexia or wasting syndrome severe or chronic pain severe nausea seizures, including but not limited to those characteristic of epilepsy or severe and persistent muscle spasms, including but not limited to those characteristic of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease agitation of Alzheimer's disease or

Mechanism of Action

In the case of insulin the effectors and second messenger are not known. It has been established that hormone deficiency effects can exist even in the presence of above-normal levels of hormone. The receptors appear to be resistant to the hormone. One likely reason for this is decreased receptor availability as well as lowered sensitivity by them. Several diseases are believed to involve the development of antibodies to membrane receptors, so they do not function normally toward their ligands. Among such autoimmune diseases are myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, and possibly schizophrenia.

See also Individual agents General Information

In some highly developed countries that have had great success in reducing dangerous infectious diseases through immunization, there are controversial discussions regarding the benefits to harm balance of immunization. Because the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases is reduced by increasing coverage with an efficacious vaccine, adverse events, both those caused by vaccines themselves (that is true adverse reactions) and those associated with immunization only by coincidence or as a result of faulty routines, become increasingly frequent. Not surprisingly, vaccine safety concerns have become increasingly prominent in successful immunization programs. Chronic illnesses recently claimed to be linked with immunizations include asthma, autism, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Given the current increasingly antivaccine'' environment that has developed in some countries, it is hard to imagine that the full potential of new vaccines will be harnessed. To avoid damage to current

Mitoxantrone And Related Quinones

Mitoxantrone is active in breast cancer, acute promyelocitic or myelogenous leukemias, and androgen-independent prostate cancer. Although early reports seemed to indicate that its cardiotoxicity was lower than that of the anthracy-clines,56 this claim has been subsequently challenged.57 Mitoxantrone has been recently approved for treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS).58 The rationale for this application stems from the fact that MS is considered to be an autoimmune disease where a heightened immune action results in the destruction of the myelin of the central nervous system, causing nerve impulses to be slowed or halted and leading to the symptoms of MS. Since chemotherapeutic

Concluding Remarks And Future Directions

Sickness associated with cancer chemotherapy and to counter the loss of appetite and wasting syndrome in AIDS (Iversen, 2000). There is, however, scientific evidence for the potential therapeutic use of cannabinoids for the treatment of psychomotor disorders, including spasticity, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, disk prolapse, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and its pain relief properties are no longer a matter of speculation. It is only a matter of time before new medications for the pharmacological manipulation of the link between endocannabinoid and other neurotransmitter systems will be developed as targets for the numerous indications of marijuana and endocannabinoid ligands. In the absence of clinical data on the abuse liability of endocannabinoids, the preclinical data indicate that as with marijuana, the endocannabinoids may have minimal abuse liability in humans. The safety profile of THC, the active ingredient of cannabis, is good. It has low toxicity in...

Use Of Endocannabinoidbased Substances In Animal Models Of Disorders

Multiple Sclerosis The first example of a possibly successful use of such inhibitors in a disease was reported by Baker and co-workers (2001) in the case of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE) in mice. This is a disorder that very much resembles multiple sclerosis in its signs and development. Mice with CREAE undergo relapses of spasticity of the limbs and tremors, alternating with phases of absence of these signs. Spasticity and tremors in these mice can be alleviated by cannabinoid receptor agonists and worsened by antagonists (Baker et al., 2000), which suggests the existence of a tone of endocannabinoids that alleviate these signs. Indeed, the brains and, particularly, spinal cords of CREAE mice contain elevated levels of endocannabinoids only during the spasticity phase of the disorder, and these compounds, as with THC and other agonists, inhibit spasticity (Baker et al., 2001). The existence of an antispasticity tone of the endocannabinoids and

Neuromuscular function

Paradoxical contracture is most often associated with myo-tonia dystrophica and myotonia congenita. A myotonic reaction has also been reported in a patient with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (60). Suxamethonium is therefore contra-indicated in these conditions, even though normal responses are sometimes seen. Contracture has also been reported as a result of denervation in Pancoast's syndrome and after plexus injuries and, rarely, in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or multiple sclerosis (61-63).

The development of Sativex a natural cannabisbased medicine

Capitate Stalked Trichomes

GW entered into its pivotal phase III clinical trials programme in March 2001. The initial phase III studies involved patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), neuropathic pain and cancer pain. The results of the first four phase III studies were reported in November 2002, and six of the trials have now been completed, yielding positive results, and a further three are due to report in 2005.

Respiratory effects of inhaled cannabis vapor andor smoke

Cannabis Respiratory Effect

MS Multiple Sclerosis is characterized by increasing neuropathic pain and degenerative loss of muscle control in two forms involuntary movements (spasms) and the inability to move (ataxia). Cannabis helps improve movement affected by each of these, while reducing or stopping the pain and related depression.

Organs and Systems Nervous system

One was a known case of pre-existent multiple sclerosis but the other had no history of neurological diseases. Both had HLA haplotype DR2 and B7, which are associated with multiple sclerosis. A causal link between immunization and demyelination cannot be established from these two case reports, but the time interval would fit a proposed immunological mechanism. In addition, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, received reports on four cases of chronic demyelinating disease.'' Several other reports describe related conditions or other forms of neurological disorder. Multiple sclerosis Eight cases of nervous system diseases suspected to be either recurrent disseminated encephalitis or multiple sclerosis after hepatitis B immunization have been reported (21). Symptoms started in four cases at 4-14 days after vaccination, and in the other four cases 42-70 days after vaccination. There was a family history of multiple sclerosis in two patients, one of whom had had...

Cannabinoids and Immunomodulation

The immunomodulatory effects of THC have been tested in a laboratory model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Placebo-treated animals died, whereas THC-treated animals survived and had no or minimal signs (97) and notably reduced inflammatory response. These results were reproduced with various THC-like drugs, and anecdotal reports from multiple sclerosis patients that marijuana would decrease spasticity and symptoms of the disease indicated a possible use of Cannabis in the management of this debilitating demyelinating disorder (for a review, see ref. 98). However, these effects required high doses of cannabinoids, which may not be tolerated in humans or certainly have central effects. Recently, Killestein et al. (99) concluded a clinical trial with smaller oral doses of THC and measured signs of pro-inflammatory actions in multiple sclerosis patients, which may cause actual worsening of the symptoms. More knowledge of CB2 pharmacology and the...

Intraspinal injection

Glucocorticoids given intrathecally can cause a rise in cerebrospinal fluid protein and carry the risk of arachnoiditis (SED-8, 820). Chemical meningitis has been reported after two intrathecal injections of methylpredni-solone acetate (384) and after lumbar facet joint block (SEDA-17, 450). Intraspinal injections of hydrocortisone for multiple sclerosis apparently led in one case to a cauda equina syndrome, with subsequent ulceromutilating acropathy (SEDA-17, 450). Intra-discal injections of triamcinolone acetonide in a number of French cases led to disk or epidural calcification, sometimes symp-tomless (SEDA-17, 450).

Other features of the patient

Patients with dystrophia myotonica may be extremely sensitive to atracurium according to a case report (SEDA-10, 110) (44). Resistance to atracurium and higher than normal concentrations of acetylcholine receptors in muscle biopsies have been reported in a patient with multiple sclerosis (SEDA-13, 105) (45).

Cannabis for spasticity and neurological disorders Now we know why

One of the oldest and most dramatic indications for Cannabis is as a treatment to decrease spasticity associated with neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS). Until recently, basic science had not uncovered the precise biochemical mechanism underlying its efficacy. Thanks to research conducted in Britain, the scientific basis for Cannabis' use as an antispasmodic is now clear. Published in the March 2nd 2000 issue of the journal Nature is the article Cannabinoids Control Spasticity and Tremor in Multiple Sclerosis Model Scientific scrutiny is finally unlocking the secrets about how and why cannab-inoids work. Physiology of multiple sclerosis Multiple sclerosis is a disease that progressively destroys the body's nervous system. It has several different clinical pictures that roughly translate into the speed and severity of the neurological collapse. Symptoms can intermittently wax and wane or quickly progress to severe incapacitation and death. The underlying cause of MS is...

General adverse effects

The effects of oral cannabinoids (dronabinol or Cannabis sativa plant extract) in relieving pain and muscle spasticity have been studied in 16 patients with multiple sclerosis (mean age 46 years, mean duration of disease 15 years) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study (55). The initial dose was 2.5 mg bd, increasing to 5 mg bd after 2 weeks if the dose was well tolerated. The plant extract was more likely to cause adverse events five patients had increased spasticity and one rated an adverse event of acute psychosis as severe. All physical measures were in the reference ranges. There were no significant differences in any measure of efficacy score that would indicate a therapeutic benefit of cannabinoids. This study is the largest and longest of its kind, but the authors acknowledged some possible shortcomings. The route of administration could affect subjective ratings, since the gastrointestinal tract is a much slower and more inefficient route than the lungs....

Implication For The Medical Use Of Marijuana

The use of cannabis for both recreational and medicinal purposes dates back for thousands of years. In recent times, there has been increased attention that marijuana should be legalized for medicinal use in AIDS, cancer, obesity, multiple sclerosis, and other medical conditions where patients might benefit from the pharmacological effects of cannabis. Synthetic cannabinoids such as dronabinol, marinol, and nabilone already have an established use as antiemetics in nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. The reported beneficial effects in cancer and AIDS patients might be reflected in improved weight gain, owing to the well-documented antiemetic and appetite-stimulating effects of cannabinoids. This might be a major advantage for cancer patients undergoing rigorous chemotherapy or for advanced AIDS patients. Interestingly, although cannabis is widely used as a recreational drug in humans, only a few studies have revealed an appetite stimulant potential of cannabinoids...

Regulation of Endocannabinoid Levels Under Pathological Conditions

- In mice with chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE, a model of multiple sclerosis), in the spinal cord (Baker et al. 2001) The possible function of this up-regulated signalling, as suggested by pharmacological studies, is presumably to counteract neuronal hyperactivity and local inflammation, and hence damage, or, in the case of multiple sclerosis, to inhibit tremor and spasticity (Baker et al. 2000). However, the progressive nature of some disorders appears to result in a permanent, as opposed to transient, hyper-activation of the endocannabinoid system. This phenomenon appears to even contribute to the development of symptoms typical of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, i.e. inhibition of motor activity and loss of memory, respectively, which in fact can be antagonized by CB1 blockers (Di Marzo et al. 2000b Mazzola et al. 2003). Furthermore, these effects may result, in some cases, in a compensatory down-regulation of CB1 receptor expression...

Cannabinoids and anxiety

Consroe et al. 15 found that anxiety was reduced in 85 of patients with multiple sclerosis in a self-report questionnaire. In another self-report study 16 patients with spinal cord injuries reported similar reductions in anxiety. 15 Consroe P, Musty RE, Tillery W, Pertwee R (1997) Perceived effects of cannabis smoking in patients with multiple sclerosis. European Neurology 38 44-48

Summary and Implications

Increased understanding of the organisation of endocannabinoid signalling has raised hopes that therapeutic agents without the unwanted side-effects of cannabis could be developed. Natural and synthetic cannabinoids produce a range of pharmacological effects with potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of pain, migraine, muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, nausea and vomiting, and stimulation of appetite. Unfortunately, the CB1 receptor is widely distributed throughout the brain and accounts for almost all of the effects of cannabis, including non-therapeutic effects on memory, cognition and motor

Surveillance of adverse events following immunization

Currently, in many highly developed countries in which the incidences of dangerous infectious diseases have been markedly reduced through immunization, there are controversial discussions about the balance of benefits and harms in immunization. Vaccine adverse events, both those caused by vaccines (that is true adverse reactions) and those associated with immunization only by coincidence, become more visible than the natural disease. Not surprisingly, vaccine safety concerns have become increasingly prominent in such successful immunization programs. Vaccines have been spuriously linked by various researchers to asthma, autism, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, permanent brain damage, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Modern communication is providing even more penetrating ways of communicating messages on the subject through the World Wide Web. The result is a formidable challenge to immunization service providers. Neil Halsey, head of the Institute for...

Syndromes of Psychosis and Their Treatment

Psychotic symptoms can be a secondary phenomenon originating in another disorder. Thyroid conditions, epilepsy, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, and syphilis can cause psychotic symptoms. It is important to exclude these causes before treatment. Steroids, stimulants, amphetamines, cocaine, hallucinogens, marijuana, and PCP can also cause psychotic symptoms. It is essential to stop taking any drug that may be causing psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms can also occur in bipolar disorder, depression, dementia, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

Brief History Of The Compassionate

Randall was encouraged to be thankful, but silent, about his treatment. Instead, he chose a different path (Randall and O'Leary 1998, p. 134), Having won, why go mum There were souls to save. Better to trust my fellow citizens and shout in to the darkness than rely on a devious Government dedicated to a fraudulent prohibition. He chose to make it his mission to seek approval of clinical cannabis for other patients. He developed protocols for glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, and AIDS that he shared with prospective medical marijuana candidates. Randall proved to be a tireless and persistent researcher, ferreting out hidden facts useful to his cause. Through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), he discovered in 1978 that the government's cost of cannabis cultivation and production was 90 cents per ounce (28 g), with 2 3 of this cost attributable to security measures. Thus, the actual cost of production approximated 1 cent per gram (US 0.01 g). Multiple Sclerosis

Bipolar Disorder Syndromes and Their Treatment

Biological Causes of Mood Variations Possible causes of mania include multiple sclerosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperthyroidism. These are invariably diagnosed long before you have manic symptoms. Steroids, stimulants, and antidepressants can cause a full-blown manic episode. Cocaine and speed cause manic symptoms during periods of intoxication.

Human studies

Consroe et al. (1997) found that anxiety was reduced in 85 of patients, using cannabis, with multiple sclerosis in a self-report questionnaire. In another self-report study (Consroe et al., 1998) patients with spinal cord injuries, who used cannabis, reported similar reductions in anxiety.

Depression

In a study of normal subjects, Musty (1988) found a positive correlation on the depression scale of the MMPI with feelings of euphoria after smoking marijuana, while there was no correlation between anxiety (Hysteria Scale) and somatic concerns (Hypochondriasis Scale) with feeling euphoric, suggesting an antidepressive effect from marijuana use. Schnelle, Grotenhermen, Reif et al. (1999), in a survey of 128 patients in Germany, 12 reported marijuana use for relief of depression. Consroe et al. (1997) found that depression was reduced in patients with multiple sclerosis (who smoked cannabis) using a self-report questionnaire. In another self-report study (Consroe et al., 1998) of patients with spinal cord injuries similar reductions in depression were reported. In cancer patients, Regelson (1976) found THC relieved depression in advanced cancer patients. Finally, Warner and colleagues (1994) found reported relief from depression, in a survey of 79 mental patients. At present, there are...

Am2233

Scientists at the University of Connecticut have synthesized and studied a series of aminoalkylindoles as selective CB2 agonists. The compounds are stated to be useful for the treatment of pain, glaucoma, multiple sclerosis and other diseases and disorders. Compound AM-1241 has a high affinity for the CB2 receptor in a mouse spleen preparation (Ki 3.4 0.5 nM), with good selectivity versus the CB1 receptor in a rat brain preparation (Ki 280 41 nM). This compound has recently been found to inhibit neuropathic pain in rodents 93 .

Purslane

Effects Rich in antioxidants, including glutathione and vitamins A, C, and E. It also contains high levels of Omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium and potassium, along with calcium, folate, and lithium, all of which may help relieve depression. Purslane has been used to treat asthma, angina, bursitis, cardiac arrhythmia, chronic fatigue syndrome, gingivitis, headache, high blood pressure, intermittent claudication, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, shingles, skin problems, tendinitis, wrinkles, and yeast infections. It may also help prevent cataracts and heart disease. It has been used by herbalists as a tonic for the kidneys, bladder, and urinary tract.

Pregnancy Category D

Clonazepam is considered one of the more powerful benzodiazepine class drugs. Primary medical uses are against some kinds of convulsions, particularly in certain kinds of epilepsy, and against panic attacks. For persons suffering from panic attacks, measurements indicate the drug improves both quality of life and work productivity. The drug is also used as an antidepres-sant and to treat anxiety, catatonia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, the manic phase of manic-depressive behavior, and social phobia in general. A two-year follow-up study of persons receiving brief clonazepam treatment for social phobia found their improvement to be sustained after dosage stopped, and at the two-year mark they were doing better than a control group that had received a placebo. Clonazepam is sometimes preferred over alprazolam in treating anxiety because that condition seems less likely to reappear between doses of clonazepam than between doses of alprazolam. Clonazepam can be substituted for...

Memory

The effects of prednisone on memory have been assessed (SEDA-21, 413) (75). Glucocorticoid-treated patients performed worse than controls in tests of explicit memory. Pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone (2.5 g over 5 days, 5 g over 7 days, or 10 g over 5 days) caused impaired memory in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, but this effect is reversible, according to the results of an Italian study (76). Compared with ten control patients, there was marked selective impairment of explicit memory in 14 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone. However, this memory impairment completely resolved 60 days after methylprednisolone treatment.

Patient D

Medical History This 45-year-old female carries a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The patient was interviewed by telephone (EBR) in lieu of the possibility of contemporaneous examination. The patient feels her first problem may have occurred at age 18 when her vision sequentially went completely black for two months with slow improvement over a subsequent four months. A possible attribution to oral contraception was hypothesized. She was subsequently evaluated at a quartenary referral center and diagnosed as having retro-bulbar neuritis. She was prescribed nicotinic acid. On re-evaluation in 1983, no active disease was noted. On May 29, 1986, best corrected vision was 20 30 OD, 20 25 OS. By May 19, 1988, values fell to 20 200 OD, and 20 70 OS. The patient was formally diagnosed as having MS April 1 of that year with associated bilateral optic neuropathy. She had had symptoms for perhaps 6 months with blurring in both eyes and leg spasms that interfered with walking. The patient...

Growing Acceptance

Soon, legions of American researchers had positive indications using cannabis, anorexia, tumors and epilepsy, as well as for a general use antibiotic. Cumulative findings showed evidence of favorable results occurring in cases of Parkinson's disease, anorexia, multiple sclerosis and muscular dystrophy plus thousands of anecdotal stories all merited further clinical study.

Muscle Relaxants

Skeletal muscle relaxants may be used for relief of spasticity in neuromuscular diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, as well as for spinal cord injury and stroke. They may also be used for pain relief in minor strain injuries and control of the muscle symptoms of tetanus. Dantrolene (Dantrium) has been used to prevent or treat malignant hyperther-mia in surgery.

Conclusions

The complex pharmacology of cannabinoids, whether exogenous or endogenous, exists only in its infancy. From the discovery of specific cannabinoid receptors and other targets to that of endogenous ligands and a biochemical pathway of synthesis, degradation and reuptake, the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids is only emerging. Central actions on motor regulatory pathway may give rise to drugs useful in dyskinesias such as Huntington's or Parkinson's disease. Central effects on glutamate release may yield medications aimed at decreasing the pathological consequences of strokes. The analgesic effects of cannabinoids already see some application in neuropathic pain (104). Could an antagonist help in increasing memory in Alzheimer's disease patients Already, central effects such as appetite stimulation and antiemetic properties are clinically used. Peripheral effects on the cardiovascular system could help in the development of novel antihypertensive medications. The peripheral...

Spastic Conditions

A discussion of the efficacy of cannabis in the relief of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis appears in Section 2.3. This should not be viewed in isolation, as it is possible that the underlying neuropharmacology and thus approach to treatment of a range of disorders, may be similar.

Spirituality

The drawbacks of these insomnia drugs led a woman with multiple sclerosis to smoke marijuana before bed. She reported successful, restful sleep as a result (Grinspoon & Bakalar, 1997). Although THC causes many of marijuana's effects, cannabidiol appears to have the biggest impact on sleep. A sample of 15 insomniacs who received cannabidiol improved their sleep dramatically (Carlini & Cunha, 1981). Despite these encouraging data for cannabidiol, some of the best treatments for insomnia require changing behaviors rather than taking drugs. These interventions include multiple steps. People with sleep problems often benefit from retiring at the same time each night, avoiding stimulants like caffeine,

Alzheimers Disease

ROS generation is partially dependent upon processes requiring intracellular iron, including the Fenton reaction. Dysregulation of cellular iron homeostasis, including uptake, distribution, transport, and storage, is a causal factor in the patho-genesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and multiple sclerosis 12 . In the former, increased levels of iron and the transferrin receptor are found in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, which may induce P-amyloid deposition as well as regulate APP mRNA posttranscriptionally, via iron regulatory proteins (IRP), or its translation, via an iron-responsive element. Several iron-chelating compounds are neuropro-tective however, some are toxic and others do not easily penetrate the brain. EGCG is a highly effective iron chelator - but is nontoxic and readily enters the brain 12 . It reduces levels of holo-APP in mouse hippocampus and P-amyloid in neuroblastoma cells 12 . Iron chelation by...

Actions And Uses

Corticotropin is used for diagnostic testing of adreno-cortical function. This drug may also be used for the management of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, non-suppurative thyroiditis, and hypercalcemia associated with cancer. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drug when conventional glucocorti-coid therapy has not been effective (see Display 50-1).

Drug studies

Lidocaine has been used to treat some of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis in 30 patients with painful tonic seizures, attacks of neuralgia, paroxysmal itching, and Lhermitte's sign (8). Lidocaine was given by intravenous infusion for 5.5 hours in a maintenance dose of 2.0-2.8 mg kg hour after a loading dose, and the mean steady-state concentration was 2.4 mg ml. Lidocaine almost completely abolished the paroxysmal symptoms and markedly alleviated the persistent symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Adverse effects were not specifically mentioned, but in one case, when the plasma concentration of lidocaine rose above 3.5 mg ml, weakness of the left leg became marked and was associated with an extensor plantar response this disappeared when the lidocaine was replaced by saline single-blind, but subsequently the positive symptoms recurred.

Interferon beta

Sensory systems Retinal complications of interferon alfa in chronic viral hepatitis patients are well known, but few cases have been described with interferon beta. Bilateral retinopa-thy with similar features to those observed with interferon alfa has been reported in a 40-year-old woman treated with interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis (37A). Intravascular papillary endothelial hyper-plasia with multiple lesions on both hands has been attributed to interferon beta-1b in a 50-year-old man with multiple sclerosis (39A). A 39-year-old man developed acute generalized myalgia and weakness in all four limbs 3 months after starting interferon beta-1a (22 Hg three times a week) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Serum creatine kinase activity peaked at about 95 times the upper limit of the reference range. Infectious and metabolic causes were ruled out and there was no argument in favor of an underlying metabolic muscle disorder. He recovered fully after interferon beta...

Movement Disorders

Multiple sclerosis (CAMS study) multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. Nov 8 362(9395) 1517-26. 101. Baker D et al (2000). Cannabinoids control spasticity and tremor in a multiple sclerosis model. Nature. Mar 2 404(6773) 84-7. 108. Meinck HM et al (1989). Effect of Cannabinoids on Spasticity and Ataxia in Multiple Sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, 236 120-22 . 116. Pryce G et al (2003). Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis. Brain. Oct. 126(Pt 10) 2191-202. Epub 2003 Jul 22.

Noninfective uses

In an experimental model of multiple sclerosis, repeated high doses of antigen (myelin basic protein) deleted both the clinical and pathological manifestations of the disease. The effects of Varicella vaccine on 50 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis have therefore been studied (3). The patients were immunized with Varicella vaccine and followed for 1 year. All were seropositive for Varicella before immunization and all had rises in Varicella antibodies after being given the vaccine. There was improvement in 14 patients, 4 became worse, and 29 were unchanged. Four patients developed mild chickenpox after immunization. No other untoward adverse effects occurred.

Pemoline

Pemoline has eliminated drowsiness felt by persons taking antihistamines. The drug has been proposed for workplace usage to reduce fatigue but has not been tested extensively for that purpose. Tests have found that the drug improves ability to perform arithmetic when users are tired. In a different but more robust experiment, members of the U.S. Navy Special Warfare group stayed awake 64 hours around the clock while using pemoline. Though their performance appeared to decline as the experiment continued, they not only did better than participants who used placebos, but they also did better than persons using methylphenidate. In England, Royal Air Force experimenters concluded that pemoline can help keenness and capabilities during long shifts of duty. A Russian report endorses the drug's usefulness for urgent increase of functioning but notes that persons using pemoline cannot maintain initial ability if body temperature rises and oxygen supply declines, nor does the drug help persons...

Marijuana

When the federal government's drug scheduling system was adopted in the 1970s, marijuana was classified as Schedule I, certifying it as having no medical value. Like many other substances, over the years marijuana had been used for medical purposes that became obsolete as better treatments were discovered. Then, by accident, a glaucoma sufferer discovered that his condition improved when he smoked marijuana, and subsequent scientific tests confirmed that the natural product had a hitherto unknown ability to relieve that devastating eye disease that can cause blindness. Marijuana's long-known antinausea and appetite enhancement qualities also became publicized as a help to patients undergoing the rigors of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and cancer treatments. As researchers began discovering other potential therapeutic actions of marijuana (including treatment of pain, multiple sclerosis, muscle spasticity, ulcerative colitis, and hiccups), medical use became a controversial...

Antiviral Drugs

Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses. Viruses cause more diseases than any other group of parasites. They can cause blindness, deafness, paralysis, mental retardation, various birth defects, and in at least a few plants and animals, cancer. Of all the most well-known viral diseases, the ones that should be stated are measles, mumps, smallpox, chicken pox, influenza, poliomyelitis, and yellow fever. There is suspicion that viruses are the cause of multiple sclerosis, Hodgkin's disease, Down's syndrome, and possibly even schizophrenia. However, along with the significant progress made in the area of treating bacterial infections, the development of chemotherapy of viral diseases has been relatively modest. There is only a small selection of attainable drugs for treating a very limited number of viral infections.

How do I apply

A medical condition or treatment for a medical condition that produces, for a specific patient, one or more of the following cachexia severe pain severe nausea seizures, including but not limited to spasms caused by multiple sclerosis or (a)ny other medical condition or treatment for a medical condition adopted by the division by rule or approved by the division pursuant to a petition submitted pursuant to Section 14 of this Act. (ORS475.302) 1 Second, the patient must be under the care of a physician, (MD or DO) licensed to practice medicine in Oregon.

N 168 r 0919

Clinical trials are evaluating the efficacy of THC, cannabidiol, and other cannab-inoids in the treatment of nausea after cancer chemotherapy, appetite loss, multiple sclerosis, and neuropathic pain (16). A common clinical question might be How will monitoring plasma cannabinoid concentrations aid clinical management of these patients As with any new pharmaceutical preparation, it is necessary to study the drug's pharmacokinetics to more clearly understand required doses, frequency of dosing, contributions of metabolites to effects or toxicity, elimination profiles, and metabolism and excretion in different populations, including newborns, children, ethnic groups, diseased individuals, and the elderly. For example, one must determine the median effective dose, ED50, for these populations to assist clinicians who must prescribe doses that will be efficacious but avoid toxicity.

Deyo And Musty 2003

M., DasGupta, R., Dalton, C., Wiseman, O. J., Berkley, K. J., and Fowler, C. J. (2004) An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis. Mult. Scler. 10, 425-433. 25. Zajicek, J., Fox, P., Sanders, H., et al. (2003) Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study) multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 362,17-26. 26. Svendsen, K. B., Jensen, T. S., Bach, F. W., Svendsen, K. B., Jensen, T. S., and Bach, F. W. (2004) Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial. BMJ 329, 253. 31. Consroe, P., Musty, R. E., Tillery, W., and Pertwee, R. (1997) Perceived effects of cannabis smoking in patients with multiple sclerosis. Eur. Neurol. 38, 44-48.

Ginkgo biloba L

With administration to both AD and healthy subjects 283-292 . Although these trials have indicated that G. biloba can modestly improve cognitive ability, some of the data need to be interpreted with caution since some results were based on self-assessment questionnaires rather than more objective methods of analysis. G. biloba extract is also being investigated for any role it may have in the prevention of AD 293 . In another randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 120 mg G. biloba extract was administered twice daily to assess if it could improve cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis patients. Although this extract was not found to significantly improve cognition in this study, it was suggested to influence some cognitive processes such as mental flexibility 294 .

Appendices

Alaska Measure 8 protects patients diagnosed with cachexia cancer chronic pain epilepsy and other disorders characterized by seizures glaucoma HIV or AIDS multiple sclerosis and other disorders characterized by muscle spasticity and nausea. Other conditions subject to approval by the Department of Health and Social Services. Patients (or caregivers) may possess no more than one ounce of usable cannabis and cultivate no more than six plants, no more than three mature. Senate Bill 94 mandates that all patients must enroll the confidential state-run registry and possess a valid ID card or they cannot argue affirmative defense of medical necessity. Arizona Prop. 200 attempted to allow doctors to prescribe schedule I controlled drugs. However, federal law forbids physicians from prescribing cannabis, so this statute offers no legal benefits whatsoever. Colorado Amendment 20 protects patients with cachexia cancer chronic pain chronic nervous system disorders epilepsy and other disorders...

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