Opiates

A number of studies have shown the presence of opiates in oral fluid (67,73-75). The major opiates studied were codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, 6-acetylmorphine and oxycodone. Jones et al. (30) described a GC-MS method for simultaneous measurement of these opiates in hair and oral fluid. When performing opiate assay, keto-opiates (hydrocodone, hydromorphone and oxycodone) pose special problems as they form multiple derivatives that interfere in analysis of other opiates and are difficult to quantitate. Oximization with hydroxylamine or methoxamine is used to overcome this problem (76). Singh et al. (77) used sodium bisulfite followed by solid-phase extraction to eliminate interference by keto-opiates in the analysis of opiates. Methadone which is extensively used in maintenance therapy of heroin addicts can also be detected in oral fluid.

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