In addition to effects of adulterants mentioned in Chapter 16, the effect of some chemicals on amphetamine immunoassays has been reported. Mefenamic acid, anonopiod analgesic, interferes with immunoassays measuring absorbance changes at 340 nm such as EMITĀ® assays, due to very high initial absorbance values (26). In Taiwan, alum was used to interfere with the analysis of methamphetamine, and its effects were studied by Liu and Chien (27). They determined that addition of alum to urine containing methamphetamine did cause false-negative or invalid results for selected immunoassays, apparently due to lowering of the pH below 4.0. In some instances, chemicals have unexpected effects on immunoassays. Tsai et al. (28) reported that high concentrations (1.0 M) of the adulterant nitrite actually increased the sensitivity for amphetamines with the ONLINEĀ® (Roche Diagnostics, Somerville, NJ) immunoassay.

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