Discovery of endogenous dlis

Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside, and after the discovery of endorphins, the endogenous equivalent of opiates, there was a hypothesis for the presence of an endogenous equivalent of cardiac glycosides. It was further hypothesized that anti-digoxin antibody may be able to detect the presence of DLIS in body fluids. Gruber et al. (4) first demonstrated the presence of endogenous DLIS in 1980, in volume-expanded dogs. Then Craver and Valdes reported an unexpected increase in serum digoxin concentration in a renal failure patient who was taking digoxin. Apparent serum digoxin level was still present after discontinuation of digoxin therapy (5). Balzan et al. (6) also confirmed the presence of DLIS in human plasma and urine. DLIS were found in various human body fluids and tissues including cord blood, placenta, amniotic fluid, bile meconium, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva (7,8). DLIS cross-react with anti-digoxin antibodies as well as inhibit Na, K-ATPase.

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