Common Organic Arsenic Species

arsenobetaine, AsB arsenocholine, AsC

Fig. 3. Arsenic species. Names and chemical structures for common arsenic species and metabolites found in human urine.

Cadmium is also deposited in the liver and renal cortex and may interfere with zinc and copper binding to the metallothionein, leading to renal dysfunction and proteinuria.

Whole blood and urine are the most commonly used specimens for the investigation of cadmium exposure. Cadmium resides primarily in the erythrocytes and is excreted slowly in the urine, with an elimination half-life as long as 10 years. Urinary and whole blood cadmium is concentrations are higher in smokers and also increase with age (5,37,39).

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