Amphetamines

Amphetamine and methamphetamine exist in two optical isomeric forms (enantiomers) designated as d- (dextro) or l- (levo). In another nomenclature, the two enantiomers are designated as S(+)- and R(-)-, respectively. The d-isomer has much stronger central nervous system (CNS) stimulant effect and has high abuse potential; the l-isomer exerts its vasoconstrictive effect peripherally. For example, l-methamphetamine has much lower potency as a CNS stimulant than d—methamphetamine and is available as a nonprescription nasal inhalant (Vicks Inhaler®).

Clinical false-positive amphetamines result can come from one of the following causes.

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