2. Forensic Drug Testing
3. Commercially Available Products to Adulterate Urine Specimens
4. Mechanism of Action of Adulterants
5. Federal Guideline of Additional Testing to Detect Adulterants
6. Adulteration of Hair and Saliva Specimen for Drug Testing
Persons abusing drugs attempt to adulterate urine specimens in order to escape detection. Household chemicals such as bleach, table salt, laundry detergent, toilet bowl cleaner, vinegar, lemon juice and Visine eye drops are used for adulterating urine specimens. Most of these adulterants except Visine eye drops can be detected by routine specimen integrity tests (creatinine, pH, temperature and specific gravity). However, certain adulterants such as Klear, Whizzies, Urine Luck and Stealth cannot be detected by using routine specimen integrity testing. These adulterants can successfully mask drug testing if the concentrations of certain abused drugs are moderate. Several spot tests have been described in the literature to detect the presence of such adulterants in urine, and recently, urine dipsticks are commercially available (AdultaCheck 4, AdultaCheck 6, Intect 7 and MASK Ultrascreen) for detecting the presence of such adulterants along with creatinine, pH and specific gravity.
Key Words: Adulterants; drugs of abuse; nitrite; pyridinium chlorochromate.
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