Treatment for Methamphetamine Dependence

Drug Addiction Report

Drug Addiction Report

You're going to discover so many things on addiction with little effort Not only will you discover the thrill of breaking free from your addiction, but you'll also learn extra bonus tips to actually help other people This new breakthrough book is a guide, really. A guide as a result of years of searching, studying, and scouring hundreds of websites, stores, and magazines.

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Withdrawal from Harmful Drugs at Home

How to safely detox at home especially from drugs like methadone, benzodiazepines, alcohol, suboxone, oxycontin, cocaine, crack, heroin, crystal meth, pain killers. How to prepare your body before withdrawal and dramatically lower withdrawal symptoms. The dangers of withdrawing from methadone, benzodiazepines, alcohol, crack, cocaine and opiates, and how to avoid them. What to expect when going through withdrawal. (mentioned throughout the video) How to make withdrawal easier and safer. The best way to overcome sleeplessness when withdrawing. How to alleviate depression when withdrawing. What factors could cause you to have more severe withdrawal symptoms and what step to take to address them before attempting withdrawal. Whether you can die from methadone withdrawal. The difference between withdraw, detox and rehab. What to look for when comparing detox centers.

Withdrawal from Harmful Drugs at Home Overview

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Segmental analysis of methamphetamine in hair and nails obtained from a habitual abuser at autopsy by mass spectrometry

Methamphetamine * Cited from reference 9 methamphetamine could not be detected from any body fluid or organ. * Cited from reference 9 methamphetamine could not be detected from any body fluid or organ. first to detect opiate from hair of a heroin abuser by radioimmunoassays in 1979. Thereafter, many kinds of drugs were reported to accumulate in hair. Nowadays, hair analysis is recognized to be a useful tool for detection of drugs use or abuse. It is possible to detect drug use history of several months by making segmental analysis of hair, when it is sufficiently long 8 . For example, the authors et al. 9 could detect repeated abuse of methamphetamine until the time 3-5 days before his death by segmental analysis of both hair and nails obtained at autopsy (> Table 2.1) in this case, methamphetamine could not be detected from blood, urine and organs. On the basis of extensive data of hair analysis, the cutoff values when measured by GC MS were presumed to be 1.0 pg 10 mg hair for...

Rates Of Teen Drug Abuse

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, a national survey of teen drug behaviors completed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2007, showed that within 30 days preceding the survey, almost 30 percent of students rode in a car with a driver who had consumed alcohol and over 10 percent had driven a car while under the influence of alcohol. The survey also reported that 22.3 percent of students had been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property within the last 12 months. Among the students surveyed, 2 percent had injected an illegal drug, just under 4 percent had used anabolic steroids (drugs used the increase strength and muscle mass), 7.2 percent had used cocaine (a highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the coca plant), 4.4 percent had used methamphetamines (drugs that stimulate the nervous system), and roughly 13 percent had used inhalants (sniffed glue, breathed aerosols, or inhaled paints). These statistics reveal that peer...

Long Term Effects Drug withdrawal

Although it has been suggested that worsening of seizures after withdrawal of non-benzodiazepine anticon-vulsants may reflect loss of efficacy rather than an abstinence phenomenon (143), rapid drug withdrawal can still result in dangerous loss of seizure control and status epilepticus. Psychiatric pathology can also occur after rapid drug withdrawal. Of 32 patients withdrawn from all anticon-vulsants before a drug trial, 12 developed moderate to severe psychopathology (especially anxiety and depression) and 9 dropped out because of psychiatric symptoms (144). These findings reinforce ethical concerns about some trial designs involving withdrawal of pre-existing therapy.

Human Liver Cocaine Carboxylesterases

The stimulant effects of cocaine are relatively short lived, as evidenced by the increase in heart rate that peaks at about 60 minutes after cocaine administration and declines thereafter (Farre et al. 1993). This duration of effect is largely due to the rapid hydrolysis of cocaine to two major deesterified metabolites that appear in serum and urine, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester (figure 1). Neither of these deesterified metabolites is active as a stimulant when administered peripherally, even at high doses (Spealman et al. 1989 Misra et al. 1975). The rapid distribution half-life of cocaine from an intravenous (IV) dose is about 10 minutes and the elimination half-life of cocaine is 50 to 80 minutes (Jeffcoat et al. 1989). Hence, the duration of the stimulant action of cocaine is limited by its rate of hydrolysis to inactive metabolites. The time course for toxic effects of cocaine also appears to be dependent on drug metabolism. For example, almost one-third of the...

Characterization Of A Human Liver Cocaine Benzoyl Ester Hydrolase

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cocaine to ecgonine methyl ester and benzoate was purified from human autopsy liver by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The enzyme was purified approximately 8,700-fold and about 150 micrograms (g) of enzyme were obtained from 70 grams (g) of human liver. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of cocaine to ecgonine methyl ester and benzoate and the hydrolysis of methylumbelliferylacetate to methylumbelliferone. The Michaelis constant (KM) for cocaine was 0.7 millimolars (mM) and the turnover number (kcat) was 7.6 min-1. The enzyme was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, diazinon, and eserine. The enzyme is a monomer of approximately 60 kilodalton (kDa) subunit mass. It has an isoelectric point (pI) of approximately 4.9 and is a glycoprotein. The physiological levels of cocaine can reach a maximum of about 0.3 micromolar (M) in serum immediately after cocaine administration (Jeffcoat et al. 1989). These levels...

Characterization Of A Human Liver Cocaine Methyl Ester Hydrolase

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the methyl ester of cocaine (figure 1) was purified to homogeneity by ionexchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography and gel filtration (Brzezinski et al. 1994). Approximately 3 milligrams (mg) of enzyme were purified from 70 g of human liver obtained at autopsy. The purified carboxylesterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of cocaine to benzoylecgonine and methanol and the hydrolysis of methylumbelliferyl acetate to methylumbelliferone and acetate. The enzyme is a trimer of approximately 59 kDa subunits. It has a pI value of 5.8 and it is a glycoprotein. Fourteen different tryptic and S. aureus V8 peptides were purified by high performance liquid chroma-tography (HPLC) and their amino acid sequences were determined. After searching the amino acid and translated DNA sequences deposited in GenBank, two identical matches were found that correspond to nonspecific carboxylesterase cDNAs from human liver and lung (Long et al. 1991 Riddles et al....

Effects Of Ethanol On The Distribution Of Cocaine And Metabolites

Cocaine metabolism and disposition following acute ethanol administration were studied in the rat to determine if the in vitro effects of ethanol on cocaine methyl esterase and ethyl transferase activities had significance in vivo (Zachman et al. 1993). The rat was used as it possesses both ethyl transferase and methyl esterase activities, is frequently employed for behavioral and toxicity studies of cocaine, and the size provides sufficient tissue for analytical work. This study was designed to address three questions. First, do significant concentrations of cocaethylene form and accumulate in tissues with controlled coadministrations of cocaine and alcohol Second, does ethanol administration significantly diminish the hydrolysis of cocaine to benzoylecgonine and methanol, as occurs in vitro when cocaine and ethanol are coincubated with purified human liver carboxylesterase (Brzezinski et al. 1994 Dean et al. 1991) Third, does ethanol inhibition of cocaine methyl ester hydrolysis...

Stepping Stones Gateways and the Prevention of Drug Problems

Literature relating marijuana consumption to the use of harder drugs, and discusses the prevention of drug problems. urge for more and different drugs, something similar to the way eating salt makes people thirsty. Data do not support these ideas. Marijuana and hard drugs do share some biological effects. For example, THC, the opiates, and cocaine alter the dopamine system in comparable ways (Koob & Le Moal, 1997). The cannabinoids, however, have their own receptor that does not react directly to drugs like heroin and cocaine.

Alcohol Effect On Noxidative Metabolism Of Cocaine

In humans, N-demethylation of cocaine to norcocaine is catalyzed by a cytochrome P-450 enzyme either directly or following oxidation of cocaine to cocaine N-oxide by a flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing mono-oxygenase (figure 1, 4) (Kloss et al. 1983). The N-demethylation of benzoylecgonine to benzoylnorecgonine was demonstrated in the rat following administration of radiolabeled benzoylecgonine (figure 1, 5)(Misra et al. 1975). In animals pretreated with ethanol, metabolism of cocaine to norcocaine and benzoylnorecgonine increased, as reflected by higher tissue AUCs, as compared with those receiving water. Ethanol pretreatment also resulted in measurable levels of norcocaethylene in liver and lung. These observations are consistent with the increased hepatotoxicity (presumably due to enhanced N-oxidative metabolism) observed when mice were exposed to cocaine or cocaethylene and the esterase inhibitor diazinon (Roberts et al. 1992 Thompson et al. 1979). This shift toward...

Alcohol Effects On Cocaine Disposition

Ethanol pretreatment had variable effects on AUC curves for cocaine from tissue to tissue. Ethanol increased the AUC for cocaine in liver and decreased the AUC for cocaine in serum and the heart. Ethanol pretreatment had little or no effect on the AUCs for cocaine in brain, lung, kidney, and spleen. While lower tissue benzoylecgonine AUCs support the notion that alcohol inhibits cocaine methyl esterase activity, variable effects of ethanol on cocaine AUCs suggest that the effects of ethanol are not fully explained by inhibition of methyl esterase activity and simultaneous initiation of ethyl transferase activity. The increased AUC for liver and decreased AUC for serum might be explained by increased hepatic extraction of cocaine when coadministered with ethanol. It is not clear how this might occur, but ethanol-mediated vasodilation could increase hepatic blood flow (Orrego et al. 1988 Shaw et al. 1977), which is typically limited by the vasoconstricting effects of cocaine (Garhart et...

Long Term Effects Drug abuse

Recreational use and abuse of codeine cough syrup is becoming more frequent. In a literature search of scientific journals and news media, complemented with in-depth interviews of 12 professionals working in the law enforcement or treatment aspects of drug abuse and 25 adults who reported using codeine syrup in the 30 days before their interview, the information provided useful insights into the different types of cough formulations, the reported reasons for their use, and the various types of administration (12). The effects of cough syrup, including their adverse effects, were reported. The most frequently mentioned negative effects included taste disturbance, prolonged sedation beyond the desired effect, loss of co-ordination, lethargy, constipation, and urinary retention. This qualitative study cannot be described as authoritative or representative, because of its limited nature, involving as it did only a small number of individuals living in the Houston area.

Cocaine use trends among young people

Similar to cannabis, cocaine use among young people continued to decrease in the USA and Canada. In the last decade, annual prevalence of cocaine use among lO1 1 and grade high school students fell in the USA by 40 and 30 . School surveys in Ontario, Canada, showed a decline in the annual prevalence of cocaine use of around 35 between 2003 and 2007. Comparable data on annual prevalence of cocaine among high school students in South America show a mixed picture. A strong increase can be observed in Argentina (from 1 in 2001 to 2.7 in 2007) while a stabilization can be seen in Chile where the prevalence rate fluctuated around 4 between 2001 and 2007. The downward trend in cocaine use among students in North America has started to spread to Europe. In Spain, the largest cocaine market in Europe, the annual prevalence of cocaine fell from a peak of 7.2 among secondary school students in 2004 to 4.1 in 2006, the lowest rate since the late 1990s.17 In about 13 European countries18 the use...

Drug abusers as perpetrators of crime

The physical and psychological effects of drugs and alcohol contribute in a variety of ways to the likelihood of criminal activity. Some drugs, such as alcohol, cocaine (a highly addictive stimulant), and amphetamines (a group of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system) have been shown to increase aggressive tendencies. These and a wide range of other drugs including marijuana (a drug made from hemp that is smoked for its euphoric effect), heroin (a powerful painkiller that is highly addictive), and various prescription drugs can also impair the user's judgment and reduce inhibitions. Under the influence of drugs or alcohol, a person may be much more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviors (such as criminal activity) behaviors that he or she would probably avoid when sober. In addition, someone who is dependent on a drug or addicted to it may steal to support his or her drug habit.

The Properties of Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine can either exist as a left-handed molecule named -methamphetamine or a right-handed molecule called d-methamphetamine. The left and right meth molecules are mirror images of one another. Mirror images represent one same molecule but with different arrangements in space. Such arrangements may not be superimposed. One's right and left hands are an example of mirror images. A helpful way to remember their meanings is as the drug or egal forms of methamphetamine. The d- form of meth has a strong stimulant effect on the brain its effects on the brain are about three to four times more potent than those from the - form.2, 9 Due to differences in potency, -methamphetamine provides medicinal benefits without any of the addictive potential contained in the illegal d-methamphetamine. The - form of methamphet-amine is used in some cold medicines, such as Vicks Inhaler, an over-the-counter nasal decongestant. However, to avoid confusion with the illegal version of meth, the...

CoCAiNe And Crack CoCAiNE

In recent years cocaine and crack cocaine have been among the drugs subjected to the most scientific research regarding their effects on development. The dramatic increase in the use of crack since the 1980s has prompted much of the interest in the developmental effects of cocaine use. One by-product of the so-called crack epidemic was an intense interest in developmental difficulties exhibited by infants whose mothers used crack during pregnancy. In the 1990s, both the popular and scientific press ran a variety of stories about the problem of crack babies. While later research called into question some of the initial conclusions about the health effects of prenatal exposure to crack, it is clear that both crack and powder cocaine have profound negative effects on development.

Proposing a New National Policy for Methamphetamine

Similar to the widespread anxiety about the rise in and dangers of crack cocaine use in the 1980s and '90s, methamphetamine is a source of growing concern for many communities. DPA's new national report on methamphetamine policy, A Four-Pillars Approach to Methamphetamine Policies for Effective Drug Prevention, Treatment, Policing and Harm Reduction, released in March 2008, advances a strategy that embodies the best principles of harm reduction applied to this specific area of drug misuse and enforcement. The report evaluates current state and federal methamphetamine policies, recommends major reforms and is the first in the U.S. to lay out a four pillars approach - the Swiss national model -to addressing methamphetamine abuse. Already in use in countries including Australia, Canada and Germany, this approach has resulted in dramatic reductions in street drug use, overdose deaths and HIV AIDS and hepatitis infection rates. The DPA report was featured at a well-attended forum for...

Reasons for Drug Abuse

Usually, teenagers don't simply open up the medicine cabinet and take a few pills on a whim. There are underlying reasons behind why they start abusing any type of drug, including over-the-counter medications. The high intensity of the lives of many of today's teenagers is one of the causes of drug abuse. Teens cite stress as one of the major reasons for their drug use drugs offer them a chance to escape from the daily stress they experience due to school, friends, or family.

Da Transporter And Cocaine Dependence 521 Regulation of the Dopamine Transporter DAT by Cocaine

The addictive liability of cocaine and other DA-enhancing psychostimulants may be related to compensatory adaptation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) to chronic elevations of intra-synaptic DA. The DAT is a protein on neuronal membranes that is involved in synaptic transmission by transporting DA from the extracellular space to the neuron.12 There is a wealth of evidence suggesting that cocaine mediates its powerful reinforcement by binding to recognition sites on the DAT. Interestingly, mice lacking the DAT (DAT-KO) still self-administer cocaine13 and show cocaine-induced conditioned place preference,14 indicating that cocaine exerts strong reinforcing effects via alternative neurotransmitter systems. Persistent inhibition of DA reuptake by cocaine has been shown to alter the number of cocaine recognition sites associated with the DAT. Chronic treatment of rats with intermittent doses of cocaine resulted in a two- to fivefold increase in the apparent density of 3H cocaine and 3H...

Rate of Interaction of Cocaine with the DAT and Cocaine Reinforcement

An alternative neurochemical hypothesis for the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine at the DAT is related to the rate of entry of cocaine into the brain, coupled with its ability to rapidly bind to the DAT, inhibit DA uptake, and enhance dopaminergic neurotransmission.3 This hypothesis is based on the knowledge that other drugs known to block DA uptake, such as mazindol, GBR 12909, and methylphenidate, are not as reinforcing as cocaine33 and exhibit a slower rate of entry into the brain and a slower onset of action.34 Furthermore, GBR 12909, methylphenidate, bupropion, and mazindol displace the in vivo binding of the radiolabeled cocaine congener 3H WIN 35,428 at a considerably slower rate than cocaine.35 In humans, methylphenidate demonstrates a lower abuse liability as compared to cocaine, but enters the CNS with a rate similar to cocaine. An in vivo study determined that the potency of methylphenidate vs. cocaine at the DAT is similar and thus unlikely to underlie the differences in...

Da Receptors And Cocaine Dependence

The rewarding effects of dopamine are mediated by five DA receptor subtypes distinguished by their unique molecular and pharmacological properties and distinct anatomical locations. Repeated and prolonged elevations in synaptic dopamine levels that result from the binge use of cocaine may result in alterations in the affinity, number, or coupling state of the DA receptors. At present, the relative contribution of each of the DA receptor subtypes to the rewarding effects of cocaine is not clear. Dopamine agonists that interact with receptors belonging to both the D1 and D2 receptor families function as positive reinforcers, while both D1-like and D2-like receptor antagonists decrease the reward value of psychostimulants.68,69 Stimulation of Dj or D2 receptors in the ventral tegmental area enhances the rewarding effect for brain stimulation.70 These findings suggest that compensatory changes in DA receptor number or signaling may contribute to the development of cocaine dependence.

Cocaine Induced D1 Receptor Adaptations

The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated, in part, by the D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens and the central nucleus of the amygdala.71 In preclinical animal studies, administration of the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 prevents reinstatement to cocaine-induced conditioned place preference,72 reduces reinstatement to cocaine-seeking behavior,73 and SCH 23390 when administered in combination with cocaine prevents the development of cocaine sensitization.74,75 While cocaine self-administration is increased in the presence of D1 receptor antagonists,68,76-79 which is likely a compensatory response, it has recently been demonstrated that, under some schedules of reinforcement, low doses of benzazepine D1 receptor antagonists block cocaine self-administration.80 Additionally, a variety of D1 receptor agonists (SKF 82958, SKF 81297, SKF 83959) and an antagonist (ecopipam) reduced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in nonhuman primates.81 Further, SCH 23390 reversed the attenuating...

Cocaine Induced Adaptations in D2 Receptors

The actions of cocaine on D2 receptors have been shown to be essential to the development of cocaine dependence. The D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol inhibits the development of behavioral sensitization to cocaine.74 Sensitization is believed to play an important role in drug craving and the reinstatement of compulsive drug-taking behavior 93,94 thus, altered regulation of D2 receptors may contribute to the reinforcing potential of cocaine. D2 mRNA levels were not altered in the striatum of human cocaine abusers83 or rats treated with cocaine.95,96 D2 receptor mRNA levels were decreased in the olfactory tubercle of rats treated with a single injection of cocaine,95 whereas D2 receptor mRNA levels were transiently elevated in rats treated chronically with cocaine.84 A transient increase in the binding of 3H raclopride in the olfactory tubercle and rostral nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen was observed after binge administration of cocaine97 and elevations in 3H spiperone and 125I...

Cocaine Induced Adaptations in D3 Receptors

Cocaine-induced adaptations at the D3 receptor may mediate some of the reinforcing effects of cocaine. D3 receptor-preferring agonists, although not self-administered by drug-naive monkeys, are self-administered by monkeys previously trained to self-administer cocaine.100 D3 receptor-preferring agonists substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and produce place preference in rats and monkeys indicating that the D3 receptor may mediate some of the subjective effects of cocaine.101103 These studies suggest that adaptations in the affinity, density, or molecular expression of the D3 receptor induced by chronic cocaine use may underlie, in part, the development of cocaine dependence. The D3 receptor-preferring agonist 3H -(+)-7-OH-DPAT has been used in quantitative in vitro autoradiography studies to assess the status of D3 receptors in human cocaine overdose (CO) victims104 (Figure 5.1). Binding of 3H -(+)-7-OH-DPAT was elevated one- to threefold in the nucleus...

DA Receptors as Targets for Cocaine Pharmacotherapies

The search for pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence has focused on drugs that target the DA receptors. Cocaine's reinforcing properties result from its ability to prolong the action of dopamine at the DA receptors in brain reward regions.3 From this perspective it has been suggested that DA antagonists may block cocaine use by preventing the interaction of dopamine with its receptors, and therefore block reinforcement. In animal self-administration studies, both D1 receptor (SCH 2339068,76) and D2 receptor antagonists (pimozide,117,118 sulpiride,118 chlorpromazine,119 spiperone,76 metoclopramide,118 pherphenazine120) increase cocaine self-administration by decreasing the reinforcing potential of cocaine. However, recent studies have shown that low doses of benza-zepine D1 receptor antagonists attenuate cocaine self-administration under certain schedules of reinforcement.80 These findings suggest that certain doses of D1 receptor antagonists may be efficacious for the treatment of...

Regulation of Kappa Opioid Receptors by Cocaine

At present, the functional significance and relevance of each of the K-opioid receptor subtypes in the CNS and their role in modulating the brain reward pathways with chronic substance abuse are not well understood. An adaptive increase in the density of K-opioid receptors in guinea pig brain after chronic cocaine treatments was detected using the K1-selective radioligand 3H U69,593.150 Furthermore, elevations in 125I Tyr1-D-Pro10-dynorphin A binding to K-opioid receptors were observed within the dorsal and motor sectors of the striatum of human cocaine abusers.26 Dynorphin A demonstrates higher affinity to the K1-opioid receptor subtype as compared to the K2-opioid receptor subtype therefore, it may be suggested on the basis of occupancy that the elevated binding of 125I Tyr1-D-Pro10-dynorphin A observed in these studies may be due to recognition of the K1-opioid receptor subtype.147 151 152 These findings combined with animal behavioral studies (e.g., cocaine place preference and...

Methamphetamine Versus Cocaine

Meth and cocaine share similar stimulating effects because they provoke excessive dopamine to collect in the brain. However, meth stays in the body longer than cocaine. This results in a longer lasting high for meth, but means that meth has more time to damage neurons in the brain as well.7, 11 Methamphetamine Cocaine Figure 4.2 Methamphetamine users experience higher levels of dopamine in their brains, but when methamphetamine use is stopped, they often experience a decrease below normal levels. Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory

Kappa Opioid Receptor Drugs as Cocaine Pharmacotherapies

There is considerable evidence supporting a critical role for K-opioid receptors in the development of cocaine dependence. Co-administration of K-opioid agonists with cocaine inhibits cocaine self-administration,163 cocaine-induced place preference,162 and the development of sensitization to the rewarding effects of cocaine.93,94,164 In rats, U-69593, a K-opioid receptor agonist, reduced cocaine self-administration and cocaine seeking behavior165 and the reinstatement to cocaine self-administration.166 Further, daily administration of the mixed K-opioid antagonist and partial -opioid agonist buprenorphine reduces cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys167 and prevents the reinstatement of cocaine-reinforced responding in rats.168 K-Opioid agonist drugs such as bremazocine also reduce cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.169,170 These potent anti-cocaine effects exhibited by K-opioid receptor agents in preclinical animal studies suggest that K-opioid receptors may be a...

Mdma Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

Due to its increasingly widespread usage among teenagers, MDMA (Ecstasy) is viewed as one of the most pressing drug problems in the United States today. Labeled the hug drug, this synthesized substance has also led some researchers to categorize it as an enactogen for the increased feelings of empathy, openness, love, and connectedness it inspires in its users (who also report a decrease in fear, defensiveness, and aggression). It makes sense, then, that the word enactogen is derived from the Latin roots en (within), gen (to produce), and tactus (touch).

Serotonin Transporter And Cocaine Dependence

Cocaine binds with high affinity to the serotonin (5-HT) transporter and inhibits 5-HT uptake.2,179 Serotonergic neurons project from the dorsal raphe to the ventral tegmental area where they modulate mesolimbic DA neurotransmission. Inhibition of 5-HT uptake in the dorsal raphe nucleus by cocaine decreases the firing of the raphe neurons by feedback activation of the 5-HT1A autoreceptors,180-182 an effect that is blocked by pretreatment with a 5-HT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine.181 With chronic cocaine treatment, these mechanisms become sensitized probably as a result of a compensatory upregulation of 3H imipramine binding to the 5-HT transporter in the dorsal raphe, frontal cortex, medial, and sulcal prefrontal cortex of cocaine-treated rats.182 These studies suggest that adaptations in the serotonergic neurotransmission may contribute in part to the expression of cocaine-induced behaviors. While an enhancement of serotonin neurotransmission is believed to be inhibitory...

The 5HT Transporter as a Target for Cocaine Pharmacotherapy

The effects of cocaine may be antagonized by 5-HT-mediated inhibition of mesolimbic DA neurotransmission.188 Thus, increased 5-HT neurotransmission that results from blocking presynaptic 5-HT uptake may decrease cocaine administration. In keeping, preclinical animal studies have demonstrated that enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission by administration of the selective 5-HT uptake inhibitors citalopram and fluoxetine attenuates the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in monkeys.189 Furthermore, fluoxetine inhibits cocaine self-administration190 and reduces the breakpoints on a progressive ration schedule reinforced by cocaine.191 Conversely, depletion of 5-HT enhances cocaine self-administration.192 Several 5-HT reuptake inhibitors have been evaluated for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Fluoxetine significantly decreased subjective ratings of cocaine's positive mood effects on several visual analog measures and attenuated the mydriatic effect of cocaine in human...

Glutamate Receptors And Cocaine Dependence

There is increasing evidence supporting a role for glutamate receptors including the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and AMPA receptors in the neural and behavioral changes resulting from chronic cocaine administration.7 Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter found mainly in cortical and limbic neurons, which project to the nucleus accumbens. Preclinical studies with the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 have linked excitatory glutamatergic synapses with the development of cocaine sensitization, a cardinal feature of cocaine dependence. Simultaneous administration of low doses of MK-801 prevented the development of sensitization to the stereotypic and locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine.200-205 Alternatively, when MK-801 was administered prior to cocaine, the stimulating effects of cocaine were enhanced.206 The competitive NMDA antagonist CPP partially prevented the development of cocaine sensitization.204 MK-801 decreased the incidence of seizures and...

Glutamate Receptors as Targets for Cocaine Pharmacotherapies

Since NMDA receptors mediate the development of sensitization to cocaine's reinforcing effects, they may serve as a target for cocaine pharmacotherapies.214 However, while both competitive and noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists block the development of cocaine sensitiza-tion, they appear to be ineffective once sensitization has developed. NMDA receptor antagonists do not alter the acute stimulant effects of cocaine.7200 Acute pretreatment with MK-801 caused a loss of discriminative responding however, it did not block cocaine self-administration.214 Furthermore, many drugs that act at the NMDA receptors produce phencyclidine-like behavioral effects.203 Together, these preclinical studies do not offer significant support for NMDA receptor antagonists as cocaine pharmacotherapies. However, AMPA receptor antagonists do not appear to produce phencyclidine-like behavioral effects, and they block cocaine-induced locomotor stimulation. While additional preclinical studies are...

Gaba Receptors And Cocaine Dependence

The GABAergic system in concert with the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems is involved in cocaine addiction. Dopamine and glutamate terminals synapse on GABA spiny cells in the brain reward area of the nucleus accumbens215 and there are GABA projections to the nucleus accumbens.216 There are many similarities in the projections of dopamine and GABA suggesting that GABA may modulate the effects of cocaine within the dopaminergic system. For example, treatment with the dopamine agonist pramipexole was associated with increased GABA levels in the prefrontal cortex of cocaine dependent subject after 8 weeks of treatment.217 Additionally, acute cocaine use increased dopamine together with increased GABA transmission in the prefrontal cortex,218 while repeated cocaine use decreased dopamine D2 receptor and GABAb receptor function.219 These changes could ultimately result in lower GABA levels in cocaine-dependent individuals, and, therefore, medications that increase GABA levels may be...

The State of Drug Abuse

Abuse of drugs is a critical problem in the United States and the rest of the world. Common drugs of abuse (DOA) include cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamine, phencyclidine, and benzodiazepines. Recreational use of cocaine dates back to the Incas in South America 5000 yr ago. In the 1980s, cocaine was a popular DOA. Currently, in the United States, cocaine use is responsible for more emergency-room visits than any other drug. An estimated 25 million people between the ages of 26 and 34 yr have used cocaine at least once (1). For centuries, marijuana has also been widely used as a recreational drug. This drug is very popular among young adults. A-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal active ingredient of Cannabis sativa, a hemp plant. Hashish, the resin extract from the tops of the flowering plants, may have a THC concentration of over 10 . Amphetamine, another popular DOA, was first synthesized in 1887 and was introduced into the United States in tablet forms in 1937 for the...

GABA Receptors as Targets for Cocaine Pharmacotherapies

Preclinical and clinical studies have examined the effects of GABA agents on cocaine-seeking behaviors. In animals, gamma-vinyl gamma-aminobutyric acid (GVG), a GABA agonist, reduced cocaine self-administration,220 and a combination of muscimol, a GABAA agonist, and baclofen, a GABAb agonist, blocked the reinstatement of cocaine221 and decreased cocaine self-administra-tion.222,223 In humans, the GABA agonists topiramate,224 tiagabine,199 and baclofen225 decreased cocaine use. Baclofen has also been shown to reduce limbic activation in response to cocaine craving.225 The use of GABAb agonists as treatments has been slowed by the adverse side effects including sedation and motor impairment. Recently, positive allosteric modulators at the GABAb receptor have been developed, which do not have intrinsic activity but interact with already present GABA to enhance its effect.226 Further research is necessary to determine whether GABA receptor agonists, positive allosteric GABA modulators, or...

Families communities and drug abuse

Drug abuse is the nonmedical use of a substance taken to affect one's mental processes, satisfy a dependence (the compulsive use of a drug despite harmful psychological, physical, or social consequences), or attempt suicide. Families affect drug use by the kind of messages they send about its acceptability as well as by how they react to drug abuse by family members. The surrounding community also plays a role. It may either reinforce the messages communicated within the family, or challenge and question those messages. Dealing with neighborhood influences that may lead teens to use drugs or alcohol is one of the most important challenges faced by parents today.

Drug abuse and families

Family attitudes, actions, and interactions have a profound influence on a teen's behavior. That influence may be positive or negative, and it can start even before birth. A 2005 study conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) found that nearly 4 percent of pregnant women had used at least one illegal drug. According to NIDA, marijuana and cocaine were the drugs most often used during pregnancy. In following up the study, researchers learned that children who had been exposed to drugs while in the womb were at greater risk for various behavior problems, including difficulty delaying gratification, handling frustration, and dealing with stress. A 1998 study by Linda Mayes of the Yale University Child Study Center found that the negative effects of cocaine use during pregnancy still affected children years later. At two years of age, children exposed to prenatal cocaine use showed more impulsive behavior and...

Neuropsychiatrie Consequences of Chronic Cocaine Abuse

Mortality data have indicated that deaths involving psychostimulant drugs stem not only from overdose, but also from drug-induced mental states that may lead to serious injuries.1 The arrival of inexpensive smokable crack cocaine has radically changed the nature of the epidemic and revealed the great addictive potential of cocaine. Cocaine, particularly smoked crack cocaine, is known to be one of the most widely abused psychoactive substances in the U.S. With the increased use of cocaine in its various forms over the past 15 years, researchers and clinicians have focused on the definition of cocaine dependence and withdrawal.2 Cocaine was not thought to be addictive prior to the 1980s, as neither chronic use nor its cessation resulted in the physiological tolerance or withdrawal observed in opiate dependence. The progression of occasional use to compulsive use,3 and the description of a cocaine abstinence syndrome,4 has led to the definition of diagnostic criteria for cocaine...

What Is Drug Addiction

Drug addiction is a compulsive craving for a drug. It has several components. One component is tolerance a need for ever-increasing quantities of a drug over time to maintain the same effects as when drug use first began. Since the body becomes tolerant to the effects of marijuana, users gradually feel less and less effect and therefore need to take greater amounts to achieve the same high. This phenomenon of tolerance can increase a person's dependence on drugs. Drug addiction is apparent when drug use is maintained despite significant physical and or psychological cost to the user, and perhaps to family and friends. Some experts expand the idea of addiction to include abuse, which they define as the use of any drug, illegal or legal, in circumstances that threaten a person's health or impair his or her social functioning and productivity. For example, a student who cannot concentrate in school because he or she is stoned is abusing marijuana, just as cigarette smokers who have...

Physical Dependence Manifested Psychologically The Story Of Cocaine

We can see the implications of the failure to understand the true nature of craving with the cocaine epidemic of the 1980s. One reason why this cocaine epidemic became so severe was that we did not understand then that the psychological symptoms of withdrawal are as much a result of biological changes as any of the other physical withdrawal symptoms, such as diarrhea. At the beginning of the 1970s, most people believed that to be addictive, a drug had to produce physical dependence, as measured by the bodily symptoms of withdrawal. The overt and robust physical withdrawal symptoms produced by drugs such as alcohol and heroin were the models people (including scientists and clinicians) had in mind when they described physical dependence. However, cocaine produces very few of these kinds of symptoms. But, like other addictive drugs, cocaine does produce intense craving. Still, the lack of clear physical symptoms associated with cocaine withdrawal led many people to conclude that it...

Cocaine Use and Related Toxicity in the United States

During recent years, cocaine has been most commonly ingested in the United States by smoking cocaine base (in chunk or crack form) (NIDA 1990). Smoking crack cocaine is preferred by abusers because the concentration of cocaine in venous blood peaks sooner after smoking crack (or after IV administration of cocaine) than by other routes of administration. Cocaine is generally not abused by the oral route of administration, but oral absorption is efficient and is a significant route of dosing as a cause of toxicity (Jones 1990). Thus, cocaine toxicity could be greater for children who have swallowed cocaine in mother's milk, for example. Cocaine is hydrolyzed by esterases of the blood, liver, and other organs (Benowitz 1992). The major (inactive) metabolite of cocaine is benzoylecgonine, but ecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester are also formed (Benowitz 1992) (figure 3). Hepatic metabolism of cocaine to norcocaine (pharmacologically active) accounts for only 2 to 6 percent of the total...

Cocaine Catalytic Antibodies

Typical antibody-catalyzed reaction rates are several hundredfold to 100,000-fold faster than the uncatalyzed reaction of the substrate. Several fundamental postulates have been proposed to explain the rate enhancements that nevertheless fall short of the enormous rate accelerations of enzymes. Is activity truly due solely to transition state stabilization by antibody-binding interactions Can additional binding interactions be built into the combining site or into the substrate molecule itself to increase the overall rate of the reaction Can new screening methods and immunological methods be developed to uncover novel catalysts with diverse activities Most important, can novel esterolytic catalysts be developed based on currently available catalytic antibody technology to efficiently hydrolyze and detoxicate cocaine The answer is unquestionably yes. In fact, cocaine is quite immunogenic a catalytic antibody was obtained that catalyzed the hydrolysis of cocaine, but the rate...

Images of Alcohol and Drug Addiction in the General Population Stigma Social Support and Change Optimism

The following (a) their beliefs in chances for self-change, (b) barriers to self-change (Zulewska-Sak, 2004, 2005 Zulewska-Sak & Dabrowska, 2005), and (c) how to promote self-change. Results demonstrate the sophistication of everyday perceptions concerning drug problems. Without using technical or scientific terms, most respondents appear to be competent barefoot drug policy makers (Klingemann, 2003, p. 14). As the preceding quotes from the SINR study illustrate nicely, lay theories on addiction are by no means simplistic. The representative survey confirms this by revealing that two-thirds of the population think the chances for self-change depend on the substance to which the person is addicted. This should not come as a surprise if one thinks about the diverging images of licit and illicit drugs in the public arena transmitted by the media. That is, when presented with a list of various addictive behaviors and asked to rate the chances of natural recovery, respondents are more...

The Fight Against OTC Drug Abuse

People are finally beginning to pay attention to OTC drug abuse in today's world. While there have been few commercials informing people of the problem, few if any brochures found in doctors' offices, and very little informational advertisements in magazines, that is slowly changing. Starting in 2003, the Partnership for a Drug-Free America and the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA) launched a program to spread knowledge of OTC drug abuse. Their aim was to educate parents about abuse, especially that of cough medicines. In May 2006, the Partnership and CHPA added a communications aspect to their plan. It involves separate Web sites for parents and teens a television, radio, magazine, and newspaper ad campaign and a pamphlet printed in both English and Spanish titled, A Parent's Guide to Preventing Teen Cough Medicine Abuse. Organizations like the Partnership for a Drug-Free America and CHPA are paving the way for a new chapter in OTC drug abuse. While OTC drug abuse has...

The Drug Abuse Control Laws

The drug abuse control laws had a dual task to reduce drug abuse and, at the same time, to preserve our ability to use even abused drugs in medicine when they are needed. Like the food and drug laws, Congress passed and amended the drug control laws throughout the 20th century. And, just as Congress established the FDA to oversee the food and drug laws, Congress established the Drug Enforcement Administration (DBA) to oversee the drug control laws. Other drugs, such as cocaine and morphine, which have great potential for abuse, but also clear medical uses, are in Schedule II. Their use is permitted in medicine, but is carefully restricted and monitored. As the perceived danger of abuse of medically useful drugs diminishes, they are placed in Schedule III, Schedule IV, or Schedule V, which means that even though these are drugs people might abuse, doctors can nonetheless prescribe them to patients for use in medicine.

Cocaine and Amphetamine Intoxication

The effects of cocaine, amphetamines, and similar stimulants The behavioral, psychologic, and physical effects of amphetamine are longer-lasting than those of cocaine, typically resolving within 24-48 h. Intoxication by cocaine and other stimulants may therefore cause serious physical effects neurologic and cardiac should always be assessed and a medical plan to manage emergencies (hypertension, arrhythmias, seizures) should be developed. The behavioral and psychologic effects of stimulant intoxication should, if possible, be managed in a reassuring and straightforward manner in a quiet environment. Lorazepam 2 mg is often successful if drug treatment is necessary. In fact, benzodiazepines are preferred even for more severe behavioral disturbances such as psychosis because antipsychotic agents may complicate management by their cardiovascular effects (such as tachycardia) or neurological complications (hyper-thermia, seizures). If behavior escalates despite treatment with a...

UCLA Drug Abuse Research Center

DARC, is a diverse US research organization that investigates psychosocial and epidemiol-ogical issues pertaining to drug use and conducts evaluations of interventions for drug dependence. The group's portfolio of studies has provided findings that have improved the understanding of the complex nature of drug use and dependence DARC findings have been useful in developing more effective strategies for dealing with drug-related problems through prevention, treatment, and criminal justice approaches. Ucuba Virola. Ucufe-ey Virola. Ucuuba preta Virola.

Functional gene changes in drug abuse research

Evaluating the effects of drugs of abuse on gene expression profiles in the brain represents a novel strategy for investigating the underlying causes of drug addiction. This approach is supported in part by the observations that drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine and other psychostimulants induce expression of immediate early genes in specific brain regions (Hope et al., 1994 Chen et al., 1997). The ability of drugs to produce long-term changes in gene transcription represents a mechanism whereby cellular functions can remain substantially altered when drug taking ceases. Molecular changes within individual neurons following chronic drug administration or withdrawal have been studied with both differential display and subtractive hybridization approaches (Douglass et al., 1995 Walker and Sevarino, 1995 Couceyro etal., 1997 Ennulat and Cohen, 1997 Wang et al., 1997). However, only cDNA technology allows monitoring of the expression of literally thousands of genes simultaneously and...

Cocaine Self Administration

Extracellular dopamine has previously been measured during cocaine self-administration with both electrochemical (27) and microdialysis techniques (28). The preliminary data presented here were obtained by monitoring extracellular dopamine using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with much better temporal resolution (25-12,000+ times greater) than previous studies. Rats (n 3) were surgically implanted with indwelling jugular catheters. Following 1 wk of recovery, they were trained to self-administer cocaine over a 2-h behavioral session. Each active lever-press response (fixed-ratio 1 schedule with 20 s time out) resulted in a 0.33 mg of intravenous infusion of cocaine (6 s) paired with a tone houselight stimulus (20 s). Once stable self-administration behavior was seen for at least 3 consecutive days, voltammetry surgery was performed. Following recovery, rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine until stable behavior was reestablished (1-2 d). On the experimental day, a carbon fiber...

Medications for Cocaine Dependence

Given the high relapse rates with psychosocial treatment alone, there has been considerable interest in the development of pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence. Case reports and open pilot studies have suggested that a variety of agents may be effective but double-blind trials have provided disappointingly inconsistent results. Surveys have demonstrated that many addiction medicine specialists are using medicines to treat cocaine dependence despite the lack of evidence of a standard sufficient for FDA approval. The most widely prescribed medicines for cocaine dependence are antidepressants. Depression occurs frequently in cocaine addicts and it is possible that antidepressants may correct neurotransmitter deficiencies associated with cocaine use. The best evidence relates to desipramine but early reports of its effectiveness in preventing relapse were subsequently contradicted and its efficacy for more than 6-12 weeks was questioned. Typical desipramine doses are the same as for...

Drug Withdrawal Treatments

In contrast to contemporary concerns about the addictive potential of cannabis, the drug was used in the nineteenth century in the treatment of dependencies on various other substances including alcohol, cocaine, chloral hydrate and morphine. Anyone who discusses the problems of opiate withdrawal with a modern heroin addict is likely to be told of the beneficial effects of marijuana in allaying withdrawal symptoms, and this anecdotal evidence is given some scientific credibility by a number of studies in animals (Hine et al. 1975 Bhargava 1976 Chesher and Jackson 1985). In animal pain models THC inhibits the development of opioid tolerance and physical dependence (Chichewicz and Welch 2003). At the time of writing, the efficacy of a combination of THC and CBD (Sativex) in alleviating the opioid withdrawal syndrome is being explored in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. There are anecdotal reports that cannabis is useful in countering both the withdrawal symptoms (Labigalini et...

Methamphetamine And Adolf Hitler

Methamphetamine was widely used by soldiers in World War II because its potent stimulant effects kept them awake and alert for longer periods of time and increased their physical endurance. One infamous user of methamphetamine during wartime was one of the most evil men of the twentieth century Adolf Hitler. Hitler started receiving daily injections of methamphetamine from his personal physician Dr. T. Morrell in 1942, and it was reported he could not function without his daily doses. Hitler also took many other drugs (perhaps over two dozen), including Cola-Dalmann tablets that contained caffeine. Hitler also dispensed methamphetamine to his troops so they could fight for days on end without sleep or food and outlast the endurance of enemy troops. Hitler eventually developed hand tremors and problems controlling movement, which he would attempt to hide by covering one hand with the other, or by placing his hands in his pockets. These symptoms strongly resembled Parkinson's disease...

Prescription Medications Containing Amphetamine or Methamphetamine

Drug Enforcement Agency listed amphetamine and methamphetamine as Schedule II controlled substances. Clinical uses include treatment of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, narcolepsy, and obesity. Pharmaceutical methamphetamine is d-methamphetamine. Amphetamine, however, is available as d-amphetamine as well as a mixture of d- and -isomers. Medications containing d-amphetamine (Dexedrine , Destrostat ), racemic amphetamine (Adderall ), and d-methamphetamine (Deoxsyn ) are listed in Table 2. Illicit methamphetamine and amphetamine products consist mostly of the d-isomer but, depending on the starting materials used by clandestine laboratories, significant amounts of the -enantiomer may be present. All these products will give positive amphetamines results by immunoassay as well as analytical true positive results by the standard GC-MS confirmation tests. Enantiomeric analysis can distinguish between the two enantiomers and determine their relative percentages to aid in...

What Methamphetamine Looks Like And How It Is Taken

Forms Meth

Methamphetamine most often comes in the form of white or clear crystals, which give it its nickname ice or glass. Methamphetamine crystals can also be brown in color. These crystals are most often smoked with a pipe or snorted (Figure 2.1) and can easily be dissolved in water and injected intravenously. Methamphetamine crystals are also taken rectally. Meth powder and crystals often contain contaminants and impurities (including lead) from the chemical synthesis process that are often toxic. Approximately 50 milligrams (mg) of metham-phetamine will give the user a significant high, although the absolute content of meth in a given batch of powder or crystals varies, making it difficult to know the precise amount of the Figure 2.1 Methamphetamine can come in a crystallized form and be snorted with a pipe (shown here). Methamphetamine in this form is known as ice or glass. The drug is also found in pill or tablet form, but produces a less immediate high, because the drug does not...

Withdrawal from Opiates

Opiate withdrawal, by contrast with withdrawal from sedative-hypnotics, may be intensely uncomfortable but for most adults (with the important exceptions of adults with little reserve, such as those with advanced AIDS, and newborn infants) it is not usually life-threatening. Nevertheless, easing symptoms can be an important part of the process of engaging an individual in treatment for their opiate addiction and to facilitate other medical treatment. by any physician who has taken a brief training and certification. Although the use of schedule II drugs such as methadone for the treatment of opiate dependence is restricted to hospitals or specially licensed clinics (leading to a shortage of facilities where opiate-dependent individuals can receive appropriate treatment), the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 introduced less stringent regulations, allowing the use of narcotic drugs for the treatment of addiction in the office or any other health-care setting by any licensed...

False Positive Methamphetamine

In 1993, Hornbeck et al. (44) demonstrated that methamphetamine can be generated from high levels of pseudoephedrine or ephedrine in injection ports at a temperature of 300 C after derivatization with 4-CB, HFBA, and TPC. They investigated the effect of changing conditions and concluded that the most important conditions for this thermal conversion are the high injector temperature and high concentrations of pseudoephedrine or ephedrine. In their experiments, the highest amphetamine concentration obtained was less than 50ng mL. The heptafluorobutyryl derivative of ephedrine has also been shown to give methamphetamine peak interferences because of contaminants in the derivatizing reagent (45). Occurrence of false-positive results in the Federal Drug Testing Program because of generation of methamphetamine resulted in the implementation of a requirement that in order to report a positive methamphetamine the metabolite amphetamine must be present at a concentration of 200 ng mL or...

Substances Known to Metabolize to Methamphetamine and Amphetamine

Many medications and substances are known to metabolize to methamphetamine or amphetamine, thus giving analytical true positives (Table 2). If a patient is on one of these medications, the positive result is a clinical false positive. Enantiomeric analysis may be useful in verifying that the positive result was due to the use of a prescription drug. For example, selegiline, a drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's Substances known to contain d-methamphetamine Substances known to contain -methamphetamine Substances known to metabolize to methamphetamine (and amphetamine) disease, is metabolized to -methamphetamine (and -amphetamine) without any racem-ization during metabolism (7). Given the immunospecificity of most amphetamines immunoassay is mostly directed toward d-methamphetamine, and given the fact that -methamphetamine and -amphetamine concentrations derived from selegiline metabolism are relatively low, urine specimens of patients on selegiline most likely would not test...

Extemporaneous Preparations Containing Cocaine

There are no prescription medications that contain cocaine. Extemporaneous preparations containing cocaine, however, are used as local anesthetics in ENT surgery and in ophthalmological procedures. Patients who had had these ENT and ophthalmo-logical procedures tested positive for benzoylecgonine up to 2-3 days following the procedure (9,10). TAC (tetracaine, adrenalin, and cocaine) is a topical preparation used for surface anesthesia during various surgical procedures. It was used extensively on patients during skin suturing in the emergency department although the popularity of this preparation has waned in recent years. In one report, 78 of the patients who were exposed to TAC tested positive for benzoylecgonine the morning after and some continued to test positive 36 h after the use of TAC (11).

Cocaine Dependence Syndrome In

F14.2 Cocaine Dependence Syndrome A cluster of physiological, behavioural, and cognitive phenomena in which the use of cocaine takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours that once had greater value. A central descriptive characteristic of the dependence syndrome is the desire (often strong, sometimes overpowering) to take cocaine (which may or may not have been medically prescribed). There may be evidence that return to substance use after a period of abstinence leads to a more rapid reappearance of other features of the syndrome (a) a strong desire or sense of compulsion to take cocaine (b) difficulties in controlling cocaine-taking behaviour in terms of its onset, termination, or levels of use (c) a physiological withdrawal state when cocaine use has ceased or been reduced, as evidenced by the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cocaine or use of the same (or a closely related) substance with the intention of relieving or avoiding withdrawal...

Racemate de methamphetamine

Colloquial term for snorting cocaine. Rahat lakoum Turkish colloquial term fo confection containing hashish. Rahekta Colloquial term for being addicted. Rail Colloquial term for a line of cocaine. Railers Colloquial term for cocaine. Railroad weed Colloquial term for marijuana growing wild on railroad embankments. Rainbow Colloquial term for LSD. Rainbow roll Colloquial term for an assortment of van-colored barbiturates . Rainbows 1. Colloquial term for depressant. 2. Colloquial term for Tuinal - a 50 50 mixture of secobarbital (Seconal) and pento-barbital (Amytal) - blue and red colored cap

The Birth Of Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug, similar to cocaine, which is derived from the coca plant, but made entirely of human-made chemicals (synthetic). Some stimulants are used every day by many people others, like amphetamines, are available only with a doctor's prescription and some, like cocaine, have no legal use whatsoever. One everyday stimulant is caffeine, which exists naturally in coffee, chocolate, and many sodas. Whether natural or chemical, legal or illegal, stimulants speed up the nervous system. Stimulants in regular doses can make some people feel awake, alert, energetic, and not hungry. Too much stimulant can create unpleasant skin-crawling, jittery sensations for some, but euphoria for others. Methamphetamine is more powerful than cocaine or any natural stimulant. When taken in large amounts, it can cause violence, hallucinations, and psychosis. Typically methamphetamine is produced as a crystal-like powder, a larger chunk of crystal, or in tablets. It can be snorted,...

Cocaine Wholesale street prices and purity levels

Sources for 1990-06 Office of National Drug Control Policy, The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs 1981-2007. Washington, DC, July 2008 and UNODC calculations for 2007 and 2008 based on ONDCP, The Price and Purity of Cocaine (STRIDE data) the purity adjusted price according to the first publication amounted to US 122 per gram in 2007 at 64 purity according to STRIDE dataset (second source) street prices increased 24 , purity adjusted prices rose 72 over 2006-08 period, mainly due to falling purity levels (69 in 2006 51 in 2008). Sources for 1990-06 Office of National Drug Control Policy, The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs 1981-2007. Washington, DC, July 2008 and UNODC calculations for 2007 and 2008 based on ONDCP, The Price and Purity of Cocaine (STRIDE data) the purity adjusted price according to the first publication amounted to US 122 per gram in 2007 at 64 purity according to STRIDE dataset (second source) street prices increased 24 , purity adjusted prices rose 72 over 2006-08...

Prices for coca leaf cocaine and opium

Coca leaf, which in Colombia is sold as fresh leaf (not sun-dried as in Bolivia and Peru), and coca paste, which many farmers in Colombia produce on the farm, are traded in Colombian pesos. Cocaine at the wholesale level, however, is thought to be traded mainly in US dollars. Wholesale prices of cocaine in Colombian cities Colombia, annual wholesale prices of cocaine HCl (US kg and '000 COP kg), 1991-2008 Cocaine HCl ('000 COP kg) Cocaine HCl (US kg)

Structurereactivity Relationships For Cocaine Carboxylesterases

The human liver cocaine methyl and benzoyl carboxylesterases catalyze the hydrolysis of the acetyl group of 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate with specific activities of 6.8 and 140 mol (min B mg protein), respectively. With cocaine as substrate, however, the cocaine methyl and benzoyl estereases exhibit lower specific activities, but show absolute specificity for the methyl ester group and the benzoyl ester group, respectively. A high specificity for binding of cocaine derivatives to proteins or catalytic specificity for metabolic reactions is frequently observed. For example, Gatley reported that the benzoyl group of benzoylecgonine was not hydrolyzed by serum cholinesterase (Gatley 1991). Additionally, Gatley observed that serum cholinesterase exhibited about a 2,300fold higher relative activity with the unnatural (+) isomer of cocaine than the natural (-) isomer (Gatley 1991). The determination of structure-reactivity relationships of cocaine-metabolizing enzymes and binding proteins...

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ecstasy MDMA

The patterns and trends of substance use among college students have been evaluated over a 30-year period (11C). Alcohol use remained stable, but illicit drug use peaked in 1978 and fell sharply over the next 20 years. MDMA was the exception its use rose from 4.1 in 1989 to 10 in 1999. MDMA was the second most frequently tried illicit drug after marijuana.

Relevance of CYP2D6 to Drug Abuse

A number of drugs of abuse are known substrates (e.g., codeine, hydrocodone, p-methoxyamphetamine, amphetamine) or inhibitors (e.g., (-)-cocaine, pentazocine) of CYP2D6. For some of these drugs, the pharmacokinetic differences due to the polymorphism will be so profound that they are likely to exceed pharmacodynamic sources of variation in response. For other drugs (e.g., hydrocodone to hydromorphone, codeine to morphine, oxycodone to oxymorphone), CYP2D6 may not contribute importantly to the overall clearance of the drug, but may catalyze the formation of highly active metabolites. that results in EMs (90 percent) and PMs (10 percent) of some drugs of abuse is both an important risk factor and protective factor in drug abuse and toxicity from drugs of abuse. Certain inhibitors of CYP2D6 or the PM state itself result in unexpected toxicity from drugs of abuse (e.g., PMA) or may have utility in the treatment of drug dependence (e.g., preventing activation of a pro-drug such as codeine...

Catalytic antibodies for treatment of drug abuse

Another experimental approach for the treatment of drug abuse is the use of catalytic antibodies. The idea behind this treatment is to create an artificial, antibody-based enzyme that can convert the parent drug to an inactive metabolite. This catalytic antibody would then be administered in medical emergencies for overdose or perhaps administered on a chronic basis to persons trying to withdraw from addiction to the drug. In the field of drug abuse, the possibility of using cocaine catalytic antibodies as a therapeutic aid to the treatment of toxicity and addiction has generated the most clinical interest. Cocaine is a good prototypic ligand to study for this purpose because the drug is naturally metabolized by in vivo estearases, and catalytic monoclonal antibodies with esterase activity are among the few metabolic reactions that have been successfully mimicked. Landry and colleagues (1993) have generated a monoclonal antibody that can metabolize cocaine to ecgonine methyl ester and...

School Performance And Drug Abuse

Academic Abuse

Relationship between academic and social performance in a school setting and drugs. Various studies have found that drug and alcohol use can have a negative impact on school attendance and performance. Drug use by peers and peer pressure are risk factors for teen drug abuse. Roughly 60 percent of high school teens report that drugs are used, kept, or sold at their schools. Students at these schools are three times more likely to smoke, drink, or use illegal drugs than students whose schools are substance-free. A wide body of scientific literature shows a strong relationship between drug abuse and academic performance. According to the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, teens that take drugs have a dropout rate five times greater than other students. Teens who abuse alcohol are four times more likely than other students to cut classes or skip school, and those who use marijuana are six times more likely to do so. These statistics are especially troubling because...

Neurochemical Pathology Of Cocaine Delirium

Neurochemistry Addiction

The mesolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic) system is an important pathway mediating reinforcement and addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants.22 Cocaine potentiates DAergic neurotransmission by binding to the DA transporter and blocking neurotransmitter uptake, leading to marked elevations in synaptic DA (for review, see Reference 23). Long-term cocaine abuse leads to neuroadaptive changes in the signaling proteins that regulate DA homeostasis. DA transporter binding site densities have been shown to be upregulated in vitro in the post-mortem brain of cocaine addicts,24-27 and in vivo in acutely abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals.28 A number of different studies point to a possibility of a defective interaction of cocaine with the DA transporter in the etiology of cocaine delirium. The effects of chronic, intermittent cocaine treatment paradigms on the labeling of the cocaine recognition sites on the DA transporter have been investigated in rat studies. Neuroadaptive changes...

The Long Term Health Effects of Methamphetamine

Health Effects Methamphetamine

The temporary physical and psychological effects from meth can turn into long-term, permanent effects that last a lifetime. For instance, meth dramatically affects a person's decision-making abilities. The temporary effect of increased libido leads meth users to engage in risky, unprotected sex. A recent study of 19,000 men in Los Angles showed that new HIV infections were three times higher among methamphetamine users than among nonusers.28 Also, HIV and other infectious diseases like hepatitis B and C are spread among injection drug users mainly by sharing syringes and needles. Multiple injections also scar the skin and the veins. Because of the eventual reversal of meth's effects, long-term meth-amphetamine use is associated with decreased sexual functioning and libido, at least in men.9, 11 Meth's effects on the brain can also affect social functioning. Many chronic meth users drop out of school or employment altogether. It is impossible to keep up with classes or hold down a job...

Illicit drug use at the global level

Cocaine The total number of people who used cocaine at least once in 2007 is estimated to range between 16 and 21 million. The largest market remains North America, followed by West and Central Europe and South America. Significant declines in cocaine use were reported in North America, notably from the USA, which in absolute numbers is still the world's largest cocaine market. Cocaine was used at least once in the past year by some 5.7 million people in the USA in 2007. Following strong increases in recent years, a number of surveys in West European countries showed the first signs of a stabilization, whereas cocaine use still appears to be increasing in South America. Some African countries, notably in Western and Southern Africa, appear to show rising levels of cocaine use, although data are sparse. UNODC estimates that between 16 and 51 million people aged 15-64 used amphetamines-group substances at least once in 2007 the number who used ecstasy-group drugs at least once is...

College On Problems Of Drug Dependence Cpdd

The College on Problems of Drug Dependence (Martin W. Adler, Ph.D., Executive Officer, CPDD, Department of Pharmacology, 3420 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140 http views. vcu.edu cpdd ) is the nation's oldest organization devoted to the problem of drug use and addiction. It is an incorporated, not-for-profit, scientific organization that acts independently of both the u.S. government and the pharmaceutical industry while fostering an exchange of knowledge and resources across the academic, medical, governmental, and business communities. The CPDD is known internationally as a World Health Organization Collaborating Center for research and training in the field of drug dependence. The CPDD also offers consulting services and, along with the National Institute on Drug Abuse, supports drug-dependence testing and research at several select U.S. universities. 3. to sponsor an annual scientific meeting in fields related to drug abuse and chemical dependence. The annual scientific...

Methamphetamine Amphetamines Treatment Admissions by Route of Administration 19922002

Figure 6.4 Smoking is an increasingly popular method for taking methamphetamine among users who wind up in the emergency room as a consequence of taking the drug. PREDICTIVE FACTORS WHY DO SOME TEENS CHOOSE TO USE METHAMPHETAMINE However, a process called generational forgetting can fuel drug awareness.19, 34 Researchers at Monitoring the Future assert that the speed (meth) kills slogans of the past are forgotten because the generations who took meth back in the 1960s have been replaced with a younger generation. This younger generation does not know about or remember the adverse effects of meth experienced in the 1960s. According to the MTF, this makes it important to continually pass along information about the potential dangers of methamphetamine from generation to generation. Their statistics suggest that each generation must learn anew to increase their awareness about the hazards of using these drugs. Communities, parents, schools, and lawmakers take this finding seriously, and...

Effects Of Drug Abuse

Drug abuse has profound effects not only on the user but also the user's family, friends, community, and workplace. Drug abuse is associated with a wide variety of negative consequences such as shattered families, gang activity, neighborhood decay, and crime. Law enforcement agencies spend billions of dollars per year combating drugs and drug-related crime, and thousands of people are sentenced to prison each year for drug offenses. Scientists have noted many adverse physical and psychological effects of drugs, which vary from one drug to another. For example, marijuana can cause problems with memory and learning, distorted perception, difficulty in thinking and problem solving, and loss of coordination. Long-term complications can include lung damage and suppression of the immune system. Other drugs can cause even more serious problems. Cocaine, amphetamines, and heroin can produce psychological symptoms including paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions and physical problems such as...

Development of Animal Models of Polydrug Abuse

It is well established that drug abuse increasingly involves the use of multiple agents (e.g., ethanol, cocaine, heroin, THC). As mentioned previously, the authors' laboratories have developed in vivo models for tolerance to and abstinence from morphine and 9-THC in B6C3F1 mice. This particular mouse strain has been used extensively by the National Toxicology Program, resulting in a sizable database of background toxicology and immunology data. In addition, a similar model for in vivo exposure to cocaine is in the preliminary stages of development. These models reveal that in vivo exposure to these drug types results in a significant suppression of a variety of immune effector and regulatory mechanisms this suppression is at least partially reversible with antagonists. These models will be used for determining the immuno-modulatory effect of polydrug exposure. In these studies, mice tolerant to morphine, THC, or cocaine will also receive various other drugs in combination. These...

Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Adam And Adam Ii

The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program was a data collection system that evolved from the landmark Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). DUF collected data from 1987 to 1997 in 23 cities across the United States. It was originally designed to collect interview and bioassay (urine) data from persons within 48 hours of arrest. In a brief interview the program collected information on each arrestee's drug use, including drug-use history and arrests. DUF was, however, a convenience sample of arrestees and consequently represented an unknown profile of persons arrested and an unknown segment of arrestees who use drugs. ADAM began as 23 former DUF sites and expanded to a total of 39 sites by 2003. Approximately 20,000 interviews were collected each year. Data continued to show that over half of all arrest-ees test positive for some illegal substance in their system at the time of arrest, predominantly marijuana. However, like DUF, ADAM...

Passive Exposure to Cocaine Smoke

Passive inhalation of cocaine smoke leading to a positive test for benzoylecgonine in adults has not been reported in the literature. Passive exposure to cocaine smoke can result in absorption of cocaine and excretion of a detectable amount of benzoylecgonine into the urine (16). In this study, all urine specimens collected from six individuals following passive exposure to 100 or 200 mg of vaporized cocaine tested negative for benzoylecgonine using the standard 300 ng ml cutoff. Peak benzoylecgonine concentrations ranged from 22 to 123 ng ml, and the amount of inhaled cocaine was calculated to be 0.25 mg. In a parallel study, 1 mg of cocaine delivered intravenously to the same study subjects produced cocaine-positive urine specimens. It was estimated that the amount of cocaine absorbed from secondary smoke exceeding 1 mg could result in a cocaine-positive urine specimen (16).

Psychological And Physical Effects Of Methamphetamine

When methamphetamine is smoked or injected intravenously, it produces a rapid intense rush, flash, or euphoria (very pleasurable sensation) within 3-5 minutes of taking the drug. This rush only lasts a few minutes and is not usually experienced after snorting the drug or taking it orally in pill form. After the rush wears off (usually after a few more minutes), the user becomes extremely alert, active, energetic, and restless, Yaba Methamphetamine From the Far East Recently there has been a large influx into the United States of newer methamphetamine tablets from countries in the Far East, notably Thailand and Burma. These tablets are brightly colored, often stamped with letters like WY and are called by their Thai name yaba. While the presence of the tablet is so new that use patterns are not yet known, the tablets are mostly found in Asian communities in California. The tablets are sent from traffickers in Southeast Asia to the United States by mail, overnight couriers, or on cargo...

Whats The Difference Between Cocaine And Crack

When cocaine started to make its big comeback in this country in the 1970s, snorting was the major route of administration. At that time, people could not smoke cocaine (it was only available in powder form), because it burned rather than vaporized. Some users injected the drug, but most were not willing to do this. People could smoke cocaine by chemically converting it to its free-base form, but this was a dangerous process that required highly flammable chemicals and a flame to heat them with. To free-base was to risk being blown up or badly burned. Then an underground chemist made a big breakthrough. He figured out how to make crack, which is free-base cocaine in solid form, commonly called a rock. From then on, smoking cocaine was easy. All one had to do was buy crack from a dealer, heat the rock in a glass pipe or similar device, and inhale the vapor produced by heating it. The introduction of crack ignited the cocaine epidemic that characterized the 1980s. Snorted cocaine had...

The DAT as a Target for Cocaine Pharmacotherapies

One pharmacotherapy strategy for the treatment of cocaine dependence that has received significant attention is the development of drugs that antagonize or substitute for cocaine at its site of action in the brain.40,41 Hypothetically, the ideal cocaine antagonist would manifest high-affinity binding to cocaine recognition sites on the DAT, slow dissociation from these binding sites, minimal inhibition of substrate binding and uptake, a long biological half-life, and low abuse liability.40-42 The DA reuptake inhibitor, GBR 12909, appears to satisfy several of these criteria.40-42 At low doses, GBR 12909 binds to the DAT with high affinity, dissociates slowly, causes only a modest increase in extracellular DA, and partially antagonizes the increase in extracellular DA evoked by local perfusion of cocaine into the striatum and the nucleus accumbens.40,41 However, at high doses, GBR 12909 produces locomotor activation, stereotypy, and behavioral sensitization, and cross-sensitizes with...

Effects of Ethanol on Cocaine Metabolism and Disposition in the

COABUSE OF COCAINE AND ALCOHOL Abuse of cocaine in combination with other drugs is a widespread practice (Washton and Gold 1987) and the coabuse of alcohol is particularly common, with 99 percent of cocaine addicts reporting excessive use of ethanol in one study (Newcombe and Bentler 1987). Simultaneous ingestion of ethanol also is common, as reported by 77 percent of cocaine users (Grant and Harford 1990). Thirty percent of cocaine users ingest alcohol during almost every episode of cocaine use (Jones 1987). Why these two drugs are so frequently coadministered is not clearly understood. Potentiation of cocaine-related euphoria by alcohol ingestion may be the basis for this behavior and is consistent with increased plasma ethanol concentrations observed when cocaine is administered after alcohol ingestion (Farr et al. 1993 Perez-Reyes and Jeffcoat 1992). Alcohol ingestion also is reported to diminish undesirable side effects, such as cocaine-induced migraine-like headaches (Weiss et...

Neurochemistry Of Cocaine Dependence

Many drugs with abuse liability including cocaine have been shown to enhance dopaminergic neurotransmission in the mesolimbic drug reward circuits. Cocaine, an indirect-acting dopaminergic agonist, binds to recognition sites on the plasma membrane dopamine (DA) transporter and increases dopamine levels by preventing the reuptake of released dopamine.1-3 Intravenous injection of cocaine has been shown to significantly inhibit dopamine reuptake within 4 s.4 The reinforcing effects of cocaine are initiated by the interactions of dopamine with pre- and postsynaptic DA receptors. Two classes of DA receptors have been classified including the D1 receptor family (D1, D1a, and D5 D1b receptor subtypes) and the D2 receptor family (D2, D3, and D4 receptor subtypes).5 The DA receptor subtypes are distinguished by their distinct anatomical, molecular, pharmacological, and signal transduction properties.5 When cocaine is present, extracellular dopamine levels are elevated resulting in chronic...

Preparation of the smallquantity cocaine package

The cocaine package, commonly called a bindle 1 should consist of moderately heavyweight paper, smooth and free of printing. Start with a piece approximately 4 inches square (1). Fold diagonally (2). Next, fold ends in as shown (3,4). Tuck one flap inside the other (5). This forms an envelope, ready for use. To close, fold the bottom to the top, leaving flap as shown (6). Tuck top into the slot formed by the flaps (7). Finished packet (8).

Studies of Drug Use and Drug Addiction

Winick's study, based on official records of known drug users, may be seen as prototypical of many of the early self-change studies in the drug field. Unfortunately, studies of drug use and drug addiction in the general population are still rare (Sobell, Ellingstad, & Sobell, 2000). As for treatment research in the drug field, a limited number of studies during the 1960s and 1970s indicated that only a rather small percentage, seldom more than 1 in 10, remained continuously abstinent for 5-10 years after hospital treatment (Maddux & Desmond, 1980). However, with one exception, these studies did not include a control group that would have allowed for analyses exploring rates of and To estimate drug use and problems among servicemen in Vietnam and the need for drug addiction treatment after returning home There may be a natural life cycle of drug addiction, and most addicts seem to mature out of their addiction Drug addiction is not a unitary and intractable disorder, but a...

Statistics And Patterns Of Methamphetamine Use And Abuse

In the past, methamphetamine use and abuse in the United States was most prevalent in individuals who needed to remain awake and alert due to the nature of their occupations long-haul truckers, for example and in some fringe members of society. Today, however, it is predominantly used by white males in their 20s and 30s and is becoming more popular with teenagers at dance clubs and raves. For these reasons, methamphetamine can be considered a club drug. Methamphetamine use is also increasing among homeless people, prostitutes, and runaway youths. Recent surveys indicate that as much as 4 of the U.S. population, including high school students, have tried metham-phetamine at least once. Surveys of emergency room reports indicate that over the past decade, upward of 3,000-4,000 methamphetamine-related deaths have occurred. There has also been a constant trend of more than 10,000 ER mentions of methamphetamine since 1994 (Figure 2.4). In addition, thousands of meth labs have been raided...

Cocacocaine International

When Amerigo Vespucci landed on the coast of what is now Venezuela in 1499, the first thing he saw was a group of native peoples chewing coca leaf. The captain and most of his crew thought the practice disgusting, but it did not take Spanish colonists long to discover that chewing small amounts of coca leaf gave them more energy. In 1559, the Spanish herbalist and physician Nicholas Monardes, who practiced in the port city of Seville, heard stories about coca and saw the plants collected by those returning from the New World, making him one of the first Europeans to learn about coca. He wrote, ''Surely it is a thyung of greate consideration, to see how the Indians are so desirous to be deprived of their wittes, and be without understanding'' (Monardes, 1925). The fact that no one became seriously ill from chewing too many of the leaves suggested that other components of the leaves caused nausea, and indeed those who chewed the plant developed unpleasant side effects long before they...

Drug Abuse

Drug abuse is an emotionally charged topic involving more than facts about pharmaceuticals. Personal and moral values are involved, as are fears that sometimes transform into anger. The author of this book has studied drug abuse questions since the 1980s visited with prosecutors, judges, and health care givers, along with drug abusers and their families drafted drug control legislation introduced by Republican and Democratic legislators testified before legislative committees and given public presentations. In all settings, facts have rapidly disappeared in discussion of the topic. fect of some drugs. If a drug failed to produce physical symptoms associated with addiction, the substance was classified as nonaddictive. In the 1980s, however, some researchers began arguing that addiction could exist without associated physical symptoms, that mental craving alone was enough to power addiction.1 An important boost to acceptance of that concept came in 1987 when the American Psychiatric...

Causes Of Drug Abuse

Researchers disagree about the causes of drug abuse. Some suggest that a tendency to engage in addictive behavior is hereditary. Others believe that factors in a person's environment, or surroundings, may contribute to drug abuse. It seems likely that some combination of biological and environmental factors causes drug abuse. However, social scientists have closely studied several potential causes of drug abuse, including social skills, psychological health, and the family. Serious emotional and psychological problems are also related to drug abuse. A 2007 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) study titled The Relationship Between Mental Health and Substance Abuse Among Adolescents found that teens with serious psychological problems were about four times more likely to abuse drugs and twice as likely to abuse alcohol as teens with few or no emotional problems. Psychologically troubled teens were nearly nine times as likely to require treatment for drug...

Drug dependence

The role of dopamine in the addictive process has been explored (76). The authors raised the possibility that the orbitoprefrontal cortex is linked to compulsive drug abuse. They recruited 15 metamfetamine users and 20 non-drug user controls. The metamfetamine abusers had significantly fewer dopamine D2 receptors than the controls. There was an association between lower numbers of dopamine D2 receptors and metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex in the metamfetamine users. These findings are similar to those observed in cocaine, alcohol, and heroin users. The authors suggested that D2 receptor-mediated dysregulation of the orbitofrontal cortex could be a common mechanism underlying loss of control and compulsive abuse of drugs.

Cocaine Class

As decades change, so do attitudes toward cocaine. In the latter 1800s it was widely used by ordinary middle-class Americans and had a reputation no worse than alcohol or tobacco. In the years before World War I, news media stories tied the drug to African Americans and crime, and public opinion transformed the substance from a commonplace item into a substance used mainly by social deviants. Cocaine received little attention from the 1960s illicit drug culture, which seemingly considered cocaine an archaic item no longer of interest. In the 1970s cocaine was portrayed as a drug used by wealthy beautiful people, and in the 1980s it was portrayed as a poor ghetto dweller's drug. In the 1800s cocaine was considered highly addictive, but from the 1950s into the 1980s it was described as nonaddictive. By the 1990s cocaine was called the most addictive drug known, and demand for the product resulted in accessibility likened to fast-food hamburgers. Although tolerance develops with abuse of...

Methamphetamine

Psychiatric Methamphetamine is difficult to control legally, as it is easily manufactured in a small laboratory. Chronic methampheta-mine use is associated with psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis and anxiety. Metham-phetamine increases the activity of dopamine, mainly by inhibiting the dopamine transporter. However, this does not explain why psychosis persists even when the methamphetamine is no longer present in the body (4R). Chronic methamphetamine use has been reported to reduce dopamine transporter density in the cau-date putamen and nucleus accumbens. However, previous studies have been criticized for not controlling for other drug use. Dopamine transporter density in the brain has been investigated during a period of abstinence in 11 methamphetamine monodrug users and nine healthy subjects, all men (5C). The dopamine transporter density of metham-phetamine users was significantly lower in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and pre-frontal cortex than in the controls....

Drug withdrawal

Like many other agents that act at the GABA receptor, abrupt termination of long-term administration of baclo-fen can result in withdrawal symptoms, even after intrathecal administration (17,18). Patients can present with different symptoms, not all of which would be considered classical of drug withdrawal.

Crack CocaiNE

A concentrated and more addictive form of cocaine, an illegal drug derived from the coca plant. Crack cocaine produces more profound effects than other forms of the drug. Both cocaine and crack cocaine are stimulants, substances that tend to increase alertness, energy, and physical activity. Although cocaine has been used for more than 100 years, crack is a relatively new drug that first appeared in the United States in the early 1980s. Use of crack cocaine among youth rose steadily until the late 1990s. While use declined in the early 2000s, it has since leveled off, remaining relatively unchanged since 2004.

How Methamphetamine

In the brain, methamphetamine causes massive amounts of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin to be released from neurons in the brain, particularly in the limbic system and frontal cortex. Scientists believe the increased dopamine release in these brain regions is responsible for methamphetamine's ability to keep people awake, alert, energetic, active, and possibly addicted. Methamphetamine acts on a variety of brain regions to produce a number of different effects (Table 2.1). Table 2.1 Methamphetamine's Effects on the Brain Table 2.1 Methamphetamine's Effects on the Brain

Target Cocaine

With an estimated two million people in the United States using cocaine at least once a month,12 a number of pharmaceutical companies are working to develop drugs that will block the effects of cocaine. The National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) has allocated 12 million to a five-year test of a cocaine vaccine currently known only as TA-CD.13 The drug is being developed by Xenova pharmaceutical company, and works inside the body by attaching itself to cocaine molecules and rendering them too large to pass through the blood-brain barrier. In an early test, TA-CD was injected into mice, which were then fed cocaine. According to the researchers, none of the cocaine entered the brains of the mice. With periodic boosters, the vaccine reportedly remained effective for more than a year.14 In 1999, TA-CD was tested on human subjects. Volunteers were injected with the cocaine vaccine once a week for four weeks and, according to researchers, antibody responses lasted almost three months...

Cocaine user

Film autoradiograms showing the preprodynorphin mRNA expression in the striatum of human controls and cocaine users. Note the heterogeneous expression pattern of the hybridization signal with higher expression in the patch compartment and higher mRNA expression levels in association with cocaine use.

Cocaine Vaccines

An alternative pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence currently under investigation is use of a cocaine vaccine to blunt the reinforcing effects of cocaine.51-60 The basis of this pharmacotherapy is to decrease the rate of entry of cocaine into the CNS (and therefore the onset of action), by either binding cocaine with antibody generated by active immunization with a stable cocaine conjugate or by using an enzymatically active antibody specific for cocaine. Because cocaine is a small molecule (MW 303 g mol) it is unlikely that it will be immunogenic and therefore must be conjugated to a carrier molecule such as KLH (keyhole limpet hymacyanin), polyethylene glycol, diphtheria, or tetanus toxoids to enhance its immunogenic-ity.53-55 While early attempts to make a cocaine vaccine did not demonstrate significant efficacy for blocking the effects of cocaine in the CNS,55 recent studies have been more successful.56,57 Active immunization with a stable cocaine-KLH conjugate lowered cocaine...

Cocaine

In 1860, an Italian physician named Paolo Mantegazza was the first to isolate the active ingredient in coca leaves and produce the drug now called cocaine. About the same time, the chemist Angelo Mariani extracted cocaine from coca leaves and put it into cough drops and wine. His creation, called Mariani's Coca Wine, or Dr. Mariani's French Tonic, became extremely popular in Europe and then found fans in the United States. A host of famous and influential people endorsed its use. Pope Leo XIII even gave Mariani a gold medal for inventing a potion that relieved fatigue, lifted the spirits, and gave people a sense of well-being. Cocaine began to appear in popular literature at this time. The famous fictional detective Sherlock Holmes injected cocaine to relieve boredom when he was not working on a case, and Robert Louis Stevenson supposedly wrote the novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde while under the influence of cocaine. One of the most enthusiastic supporters of cocaine use was the...

Opiate Addiction

Addiction to prescription opiate pain relievers is a serious and growing problem in many countries, including the United States. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health revealed that more than 2.5 million people either abused or became addicted to prescription opiate pain relievers in the year 2000. This is up from about 600,000 in 1990 (Figure 3.5). This survey also showed that approximately 30 million people in the United States have abused prescription opiate pain relievers at some point in their lives. Public awareness of the problem has increased thanks to the confessions or exposures of celebrities who have had problems with addiction to pain relievers. Such celebrities include conservative radio talk show host Rush Limbaugh musicians Elvis Presley, Michael Jackson, Kurt Cobain, Courtney Love, and James Brown television personalities Ozzy, Jack, and Kelly Osbourne (The Osbournes) and Matthew Perry (Friends) movie stars Winona Ryder, Elizabeth Taylor, and Chris Farley and even...

Coca and Cocaine

Drugs Chemicals Structure Collection

Coca is a plant from the genus Erythroxylum and is native to northwestern South America. For the purposes of a plant of abuse, coca leaves are used. Cocaine is the most important psychoactive alkaloid in the plant. The chemical structure of cocaine (2) is shown in Fig. 19.1. The leaves contain up to 2 cocaine in a dried state 6 . Although the genus Erythroxylum includes several hundred species, only E. coca and E. novogratense contain significant amounts of cocaine 6 . Trace amounts of cocaine have recently been detected in 23 species of Erythroxylum, with content below 0.001 11 . The use of coca has a long tradition in South America. Hair analysis of mummies dated to at least 1000 CE has proven the consumption of coca via detection of cocaine and its metabolites in hair 12 . The first European description of coca is from Amerigo Vespucci from 1499. He described how South American aboriginals would chew the leaves together with a white powder 6 . The main psychoactive compound,...