Medicinal Plants

Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Diarrhea that Display Antidiarrheal Activity

In contrast to the studies described in the previous section, the plants investigated below have been validated as treatments for diarrhea on the basis of their ability to prevent or ameliorate diarrheal symptoms induced in experimental animals or tested in clinical trials. As in the previous section, phytochemical analysis of plant preparations and identification of active components has helped to explain the mechanism of antidiarrheal activity. The roots of Jatropha curcus (Euphorbiaceae) are...

Toxicity of Herbal Drugs

For several reasons it is not possible to establish absolute safety standards for herbal preparations based solely on epidemiological studies. First, these types of studies would be costly. Second, there is little published data in countries where the major use of medicinal plants occurs and thus general standards based on a limited number of reports would have little meaning. Third, the exact identification of the products implicated in side effects claimed for medicinal plants is usually...

Effects of Echinacea Species on the Immune System and Various Immune Cells

Studies show that the plant and its active components affect the phagocytic immune system, but not the specifically acquired immune system. Echinacea is best known as an immunostimulant. A series of studies in mice using purified polysac-charides from Echinacea plant cell cultures showed a stimulatory effect when applied to immune cells in culture or injected intraperitoneally into mice. These effects include an increase in phagocytosis, chemotaxis, and oxidative burst of either neutrophils 26,...

Quality Control of Herbal Drugs

Quality control for efficacy and safety of herbal products is of paramount importance 14-16, 19, 20, 41-45 . Quality can be defined as the status of a drug that is determined by identity, purity, content, and other chemical, physical, or biological properties, or by the manufacturing processes. Quality control is a term that refers to processes involved in maintaining the quality and validity of a manufactured product. For the quality control of a traditional medicine, the traditional methods...

Herb Drug Interactions

Herbal medicines can act through a variety of mechanism to alter the pharmacokinetic profile of concomitantly administered drugs 63 . St John's wort, for example, induces the cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP 3A4 and intestinal P-glycopro-teins, accelerating the metabolic degradation of many drugs including cyclosporin, antiretroviral agents, digoxin, and warfarin 64 . Numerous examples exist of drug and herbal interactions. These effects may potentiate or antagonize drug absorption or metabolism,...

Problems Associated with the Efficacy Stability and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs Preparations

The number of reports of patients experiencing negative health consequences caused by the use of herbal medicines has increased in recent years 36 . Analysis and studies have revealed a variety of reasons for such problems. One of the major causes of reported adverse events is directly linked to the poor quality of herbal medicines, including raw medicinal plant materials. It has therefore been recognized that insufficient attention has been paid to the quality assurance and control of herbal...

Quality Control Screening Toxicity and Regulation of Herbal Drugs

Bandaranayake Summary Medicinal plants constitute a source of raw materials for both traditional systems of medicine (e.g. Ayurvedic, Chinese, Unani, Homeopathy, and Siddha) and modern medicine. Nowadays, plant materials are employed throughout the industrialized and developing world as home remedies, over-the-counter drugs, and ingredients for the pharmaceutical industry. As such, they represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. Most rural populations,...

Screening of Herbal Drugs

Once the botanical identity of a herb is established, the next step is phytochemical screening, which involves bioassays, extraction, purification, and characterization of the active constituents of pharmaceutical importance 17, 44, 50, 76 . The herb or herbal drug preparation in its entirety is regarded as the active substance. These constituents are either of known therapeutic activity or are chemically defined substances or a group of substances generally accepted to contribute substantially...

Conclusions

Plant materials are used throughout the developed and developing world as home remedies, in over-the-counter drug products, and as raw material for the pharmaceutical industry, and they represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. Therefore, it is essential to establish internationally recognized guidelines for assessing their quality. Certain herbs have become popular over the years, but the public, medical practitioners, and the media still have a poor understanding of herbal...

Antimicrobial Properties

The development of microbial resistance towards antibiotics has heightened the importance of the search for new potential effective plants and plant constituents against pathogenic microorganisms. Because infectious diseases are usually characterized by clear symptoms, traditional practises have been able to recognize such diseases easily and have developed plant preparations against such infections. Fungal infections play an increasingly important role in many illnesses and are the direct...

Drug Resistant Gram Positive Bacteria

Antibiotic resistance is a cause of major concern, especially in hospitals where patients are vulnerable to infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRS A as well as various vancomycin-resistant enterococci bacteria VRE and Streptococcus pneumoniae with intermediate or high-level resistance to penicillin or third-generation cephalosporins are responsible for one-third of nosocomial infections 27 . In particular, the emergence of MRSA strains has become a global health problem...

Other Drug Resistant Microorganisms

The severity of the antibiotic-resistance problem is further potentiated by a high prevalence of other drug-resistant organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main organism responsible for tuberculosis, fungi and also an important cause of morbidity, particularly in patients with an impaired immunological system. Multidrug-resistant MDR tuberculosis is another example in which antibiotic options are nearly exhausted and is a further problem because it is one of the most frequent...

References

1 Mitscher, L.A., Drake, S., Gollapuri, S.R., Harris, J.A., Shankel, D.M. In Antimuta-genesis and Anticarcinogenesis Mechanisms Shankel, D.M., Hartmen, P.E., Kada, T., Hollaender, A. (eds). Plenum Press, New York, 1986, pp. 153-165. 2 Stavric, B. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1994, 32, 79-90. 3 Kada, T., Morita, K., Inoue, T. Mutat. Res. 1978, 53, 351-353. 4 Kada, T., Inoue, T., Namiki, M. Environ-mentaldes mutagens and antimutagens. In Environmental Mutagenesis and Plant Biology, Klekowski, E.J. (ed.)....

Reproducibility of Biological Activity of Herbal Extracts

One of the major constraints in using plants in pharmaceutical discovery is the lack of reproducibility of activity for over 40 of plant extracts 46 . Reproducibility is the major problem, as the activities detected in screens often do not repeat when plants are re-sampled and re-extracted. This problem is largely due to differences in the biochemical profiles of plants harvested at different times and locations, differences in variety, and variation in the methods used for extraction and...

Conclusions and Future Directions

Many scientists from different fields are investigating plants with the hope of discovering novel bioactive chemotherapeutic compounds. Extensive screening programs of plants used mainly in traditional medicine have resulted in the discovery of thousands of phytochemicals with inhibitory effects on different types of microorganisms in vitro. Studies conducted in India and elsewhere have indicated that several plant extracts phytocompounds have broad-spectrum activity against problematic MDR...

Quality Efficacy and Safety Considerations

Issues about the quality, efficacy, and safety of medicinal plants and herbals are of concern to all forms of these medicines, not only those used to treat diarrhea. This has been highlighted by recent examples of herbal medicines that have been linked to serious adverse effects 52, 53 , including herbal preparations derived from com-frey which have been used to treat diarrhea 54 . The use of comfrey leaves has been identified as a health hazard, leading to hepatic toxicity (veno-occlusive...

Ethnomedicinal Antivirals Scope and Opportunity

Viral diseases, including emerging, reemerging, and chronic infections, are an increasing health concern throughout the world. As a consequence, the development of new antivirals from plants, particularly from ethnomedicinal practices, has assumed more urgency today. Ethnomedicines provide a diverse range of natural products with antimicrobial and immunomodulating potential. A wide variety of active phytochemicals such as alkaloids, coumarins, essential oils, flavonoids, phy-tosterols,...

Ethnomedicines and Drug Discovery

Earth is estimated to contain about 250 000-500 000 plant species, of which nearly 10 are used as food and 10-15 as drugs 4 . Phytomedicines have always formed the basis of traditional medicaments in China 5 , India 2 Africa, and in many other cultures 6 over the centuries. Approximately 80 of the world's population still relies mainly on phytomedicines for primary health care and the re maining 20 use plant products as ingredients for several drugs 7 . Currently, 119 drugs of modern medicines...

Antiviral Ethnomedicines Against Common Virus Families

Many ethnomedicinal plants are reported to possess strong antiviral activity and some are already used in the treatment of viral infections in different parts of the world 12-16 . The antiviral activities of some of these important ethnomedicinal plants are presented in Table 15.1. Herpes simplex viruses HSV are reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection and scientists are looking towards ethnomedicines as a source of novel antiherpes and antiretroviral drugs. A large number of...

Phenolics and Polyphenols

The simplest bioactive phytochemicals containing a single substituted phenolic ring, like cinnamic and caffeic acids, belong to a wide group of phenylpropanes that are in the highest oxidation state and have wide range of antiviral activities. For example, purified aloe emodin inactivates HSV-1, varicella zoster VZV , pseudo-rabies, and influenza virus by the polyphenols rosmarinic, chlorogenic, and caffe-ic acid Fig. 15.1 derivatives 46 . Polyphenols and proanthocyanidins Fig. 15.2 of...

Bioactive Phytocompounds and Future Perspectives

The integration of herbal medicine into modern medical practises, including treatments for infections and cancer, must take into account the interrelated issues of quality, safety, and efficacy 64 . Quality is the paramount issue because it can affect the efficacy and or safety of the herbal products being used. Current product quality ranges from very high to very low due to intrinsic, extrinsic, and regulatory factors. Intrinsically, species differences, organ specificity, diurnal and...

Improving the Quality Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicine

Herbal medicine products have been used for thousands of years for the prevention and treatment of various diseases in India, China, and other countries. Herbal medicine occupies an important position with regard to adverse reactions, having a lower percentage (7.6 ) of reported adverse effects than other CAM therapies, such as manipulation (15.8 ), acupuncture (12.5 ), and homeopathy (9.8 ) 6, 71, 72 . Problem and difficulties arise, however, in the quality assurance of herbal medicinal...

Introduction

Since ancient times humanity has depended on the diversity of plant resources for food, clothing, shelter, and traditional medicine to cure myriads of ailments. Early humans recognized their dependence on nature in both health and illness. Physical evidence of the use of herbal remedies has been found from some 60000 years ago in a burial site of a Neanderthal man uncovered in 1960 in a cave in northern Iraq 1 . Here, scientists found great quantities of plant pollen, some of which came from...

Trends and Developments

The rationalization of the new multidrug and multitarget concept of therapy in classical medicine is likely to have great implications on the future basic research in phytomedicine and evidence-based phytotherapy. It requires concerted cooperation between phytochemists, molecular biologists, pharmacologists, and clinicians, with the aim of using modern high-tech methods for standardization of phy-topreparations, of integrating new molecular biological assays into the screening of plant extracts...

Good Manufacturing Practice GMP for Herbal Medicine

In India there are about 10 000 licenced pharmacies of ISM and herbal medicines producing medicines 70 . With the increase in commercialization, some unscrupulous manufacturing practices have crept in to this profession, resulting in the use of shortcuts to replace certain tedious and necessary processes, poor and inaccurate labeling, and several other poor manufacturing practices. These have all necessitated the introduction of statutory Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for all ISM...

Antimutagenic Properties of Edible and Medicinal Plants

Natural antimutagens from edible and medicinal plants are of particular importance because they may be useful for human cancer prevention and have no undesirable xenobiotic effects on living organisms 48, 49 . Encouraging reports on the antimutagenic properties of edible plants have led to increased interest in the search for natural phytoantimutagens from medicinal plants from different parts of world. An extensive literature survey on phytoantimutagens has been carried out and is presented in...

Mutagenicity of Plant Extracts and Phytocompounds

Research into the plants used in folk medicines in the form of beverages and other formulations, and their specific potential efficacy, safety, and toxicity has been the subject of intense investigation. Specific attention is focussed on the mutagenicity of plant extracts, herbal formulations, and specific phytocompounds. Considerable amounts of data have been generated on medicinal and edible plants. In a few cases mutagenic compounds have been postulated or identified. Considerable work has...

Janus Carcinogens and Mutagens

Many substances reported to be antimutagens or anticarcinogens have, themselves, been shown to be promutagenic or carcinogenic. Chemicals belonging to such a category are termed Janus carcinogens and mutagens after the ancient Roman god Janus, who is depicted as having one head with two faces, one looking forward and one looking backward 86 . Several other recent reports have also addressed or emphasized the biphasic nature of many active substances reported to modulate the mutagenicity and or...

Prospects for Herbal Medicine

Mineral Ocorticosteroid Functioning

Herbal medicine and other plant-derived therapeutic or prophylactic products in various forms have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both Eastern and Western cultures. About one-quarter of marketed orthodox pharmaceutical medicines are either derived from plant sources or from derivatives of secondary plant metabolites. Some of the most economically important pharmaceuticals or their precursors derived from plants as listed by several workers are shown...

Plant Extracts

Plants have been used as medicines since time immemorial. Herbal medicines form an integral part of healing practiced by the traditional healers. India has a rich heritage of using medicinal plants in traditional medicines such as the Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani systems, besides folklore practises. The earliest mention of the medicinal uses of plants is found in the Rigveda, which is one of the oldest repositories of human knowledge 13 . Fairly comprehensive information on the curative...

Antimicrobial Bioactive Phytocompounds from Extraction to Identification Process Standardization

Medicinal Plant Work Flow Chart

Different approaches to drug discovery using higher plants can be distinguished random selection followed by chemical screening random selection followed by one or more biological assays biological activity reports and ethnomedical use of plants 14 . The latter approach includes plants used in traditional medical systems herbalism, folklore, and shamanism and the use of databases. The objective is the targeted isolation of new bioactive phytocompounds. When an active extract has been...

Tsukiyotake Lampteromyces japonicus Singer

There are about 40 species of poisonous mushrooms growing in Japan, and some of them are very like the edible mushrooms in appearance, which often results in mushroom intoxication. Inedible tsukiyotake Lampteromyces japonicus closely resembles the edible mushroom hiratake Pleurotus ostreatus Quel and is a leading cause of mushroom poisoning, with symptoms of nausea and diarrhea. The main toxic substance in tsukiyotake is Illudin S, which induces vomiting and diarrhea 30 min after ingestion, but...

Immunomodulatory Effects of Phytocompounds

Inflammation is the local response of a tissue to damage or infection and represents most of the physiological and immunological reactions. The first stage is a cellular response to harmful stimuli in an effort to localize pathogens, toxic materials, or to prevent tissue injury. Several cell types and serum molecules such as neutrophils, mononuclear phagocytes, activated lymphocytes, antibodies, complement adhesion molecules, proinflammatory and inflammatory cytokines play important roles in...

Adulteration and Contamination

Adulteration and contamination of herbal medicines appears to be common in countries that are lenient with regard to controls regulating their purity. Adulterations in herbal medicine are particularly disconcerting because they are unpredictable. Often they remain undetected unless they can be linked to an outbreak or epidemic. An example is veno-occlusive disease due to ingestion of plants containing pyrrolidizine alkaloids, which can be life threatening or fatal 55, 56 . In many cases...

Experimental Antidiabetic Plants

Various studies have been undertaken in different regions of Morocco in order to select and classify the main medicinal plants used to treat diabetes. Ziyyat et al. 63 conducted an ethnomedical study in eastern Morocco on plants used for diabetes and hypertension and an inventory of 42 plants used has been established. For diabetes, 38 species have been reported the most used were Trigonella foenum-grae-cum (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum (Globulariacea), Artemisia herba-alba (Compositae),...

Herbal Medicines Potential Therapeutic Agents with Minimal Side Effects

Indigenous medicines, especially of plant origin, are used extensively for the treatment of various diseases. With lack of safe and effective treatment for liver diseases, researchers have been looking for alternative therapies that curb symptoms with minimum adverse effects on patients. Silybum marianum (milk-thistle) 15 and its extracts have been used since the times of ancient Greece for medicinal purposes. It is now currently used widely in Europe for liver disease, and is readily available...

Murphy J M 1999 Am Organizing Regarding Nurses J 173-183

We are grateful to University Grant Commission, New Delhi for financial assistance in the form of UGC-Major Research Project No. F.3-58 2002 (SR-II) on medicinal plants. 1 Murphy, J.M. Am. Org. Reg. Nurses J. 1999, 69, 173-183. 2 Chan, K. Biologist 1996, 43, 50-51. 3 Raskin, I., Ribnicky, D.M., Komarnystky, S., Ilic, N., Poulev, A., Borisjuk, N., Brinker, A., Moreno, D.A., Ripoll, C., Yakoby, N., O'Niel, J.M., Cornwell, T., Pastor, I., Fridlender, B. Trends Biotechnol. 2002, 20, 1-10. 4 British...

Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Powder in the Organophosphate Compound Poisoning Mouse as a Model of SARS

Swine Poisoning

In 2002, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in Guangdong Province, China, and 800 of8000 infected people became the victims of the SARS coronavirus infection. There are very few effective antibiotics or chemicals for the treatment of this virus infection, and patients have to wait over 10 days for the production of virus-specific antibody to recover from virus-caused infections. My co-worker, Dr Lu Changlong of the China Medical University, found a novel biological...

Thin Layer Chromatography Bioautography

While the methods above are used to test whole extracts or extracts fractionated at another time there is an increasing interest in bioassay-guided fractionation, where the separation of extracts into fractions is completed simultaneously with identification of bioactivity. In this method TLC is performed using crude extracts, extract fractions, or whole essential oils. The developed TLC plate is then sprayed with, or dipped into, a bacterial or fungal suspension (direct bioautography) or...

Antifungal Assays

Antifungal assays are regularly used to determine whether plants extracts will have potential to treat human fungal infections (e.g. tinea) or have use in agricultural horticultural applications. In general these assays are quick, low cost, and do not involve access to specialist equipment. Activity of plant extracts against the yeast candida is typically assessed using the disk or well diffusion methods described above, and many studies report anti-candida activity with antibacterial activity...

General Properties of Echinacea Species

The genus Echinacea, known as the purple coneflower, is represented by nine species found in the United States and in south central Canada. Three species, Echi-nacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida, are found in common herbal preparations and are used medicinally 24, 25 . Each shows different medicinal properties however, little has been done to compare the effectiveness of these species. The composition of each species of herb is similar with slight variations in the...

Mode of Action of Bioactive Phytocompounds and their Interactions with Macromolecules and Toxicity

The mode of action of antimicrobial agents depends on the type of microorganism under consideration and is mainly related to their cell wall structure and the outer membrane arrangement. Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa) display an intrinsic resistance to a wide variety of essential oils, which is associated with the hydrophilic surface of their outer membrane, rich in lipopolysaccharide molecules. A permeability barrier against toxic agents is formed. Small hydrophil-ic...

Against Bacillus anthracis

The outbreak of anthrax in the USA in 2002, thought to have been linked with terrorism, killed four people and generated widespread panic in the US. Anxious citizens were reported to be asking doctors for antibiotics to prevent infection. Anthrax is primarily a disease of cattle and sheep horses and pigs are also susceptible, but are less commonly affected. The bacillus is almost always transmitted to humans from lower animals rather than from other humans. The pulmonary form of anthrax,...

Side and Adverse Effects of Some Phytocompounds

Although herbal remedies are often perceived as being natural and consequently safe, many have toxic and detrimental side-effects. The most common problems with medicinal herb are caused by adulteration, contamination, substitution, and lack of standardization, misidentification, incorrect preparation and or dosage and inappropriate labeling 83, 85 . Substitution or adulterations with more toxic herbs or synthetic drugs may result in mistaken cases of clinical complications, and adverse effects...

Use of Plants in Southern African Traditional Medicine

Globally, natural products and their derivatives represent about 50 of all drugs in clinical use, and higher plants contribute 25 to this figure 7-8 . It is well-known that plants were originally a source of medicines, and there is currently a strong interest in natural medicines as a source of new remedies and bioactive compounds. This phenomenon is reflected in South Africa, which has a long history of medicinal plant use. South Africa has contributed to worldwide medicines with natural teas...

Policies and Regulations

It is a widely held myth that modern drugs are dangerous foreign chemicals with side effects, while herbals are natural, gentle and safe. The truth is that some herbs can be dangerous and can bring about serious diseases and even lead to death. Unlike conventional drugs, herbal products are not regulated for purity and potency and this could cause adverse effects and can even lead to drug interactions 138, 139 . There are fewer studies on herbal medicines than on conventional drugs, mainly...

Regulatory Challenges of Asian Herbal Medicine

Overall the incidence of serious adverse reactions is significantly lower with most herbal medicines when compared with pharmaceutically derived drugs 8 . However, the need still exists to more closely monitor practitioners and formulators of any traditional medicine, including those of Indian origin, so that unethical practices are reduced. For most herbal products, verification is difficult if not impossible after processing has occurred. In traditional medicines that are prepared in Asian...

Collecting Drying and Storage of Plant Material

Any fungal contamination on leaves leads to large differences in the chemical composition and biological activity of leaf extracts. Any plant material with visible fungal growth or insect attack is therefore discarded. We do not collect material that is wet or before dew has dried off completely, and collected material is dried as quickly as possible. Collecting plant material in nature poses difficulties with regard to drying under controlled conditions but we follow guidelines to facilitate...

Antidiabetic Activity

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disorders worldwide 42 . It is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia. The metabolic disorders include alterations in the carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism associated with absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion and or insulin action. Along with hyperglycemia and abnormalities in serum lipids 43 , diabetes is associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications, which...

Edible Mushroom Maitake Grifola frondosa

Maitake is one of the most popular mushrooms used as a medicine, and is now easily available in numerous stores throughout the year because of the artificial cultivation. An American book recently outlined maitake's medicinal effects, but it stated that there has been no reliable research to determine whether any of these ancient beliefs are really true or not and that formal safety studies have not been performed 1 . We maintain that the safety of maitake does not need to be questioned because...

In Vitro Antifungal Activity Tests Results Table 1

The Best Medium Grow Candida Albicans

The methanolic solution of clove oil displayed strong antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptococcus neoformans. In each case it inhibited the fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner. Strongest activity was shown against A. fumigatus followed by C. albicans and C. neoformans. Neat methanol showed no antifungal activity Table 17.4 Effect of clove oil on the growth of fungal pathogens. Sample Amount Zone of inhibition (cm) SD (cm) C. albicans C. neoformans...

Conventional Medicines for Liver Disorders

Immunoglobulin (Ig) is quite effective against hepatitis A when administered to anyone exposed to the virus as soon as possible or within two weeks after jaundice appears. Vaccines for hepatitis are now a common feature of immunization programs the world over. Treatment for acute hepatitis consists of rest and small, nourishing meals, fluids, and sometimes antinausea drugs such as trimethobenza-mide (Tigan). Chronic cases of hepatitis B and C are treated with interferon. The problem of...

Evaluating Qualitative Biological Activity

Bioautography can determine how many biologically active compounds are present in an extract or can be used to ensure that a compound isolated earlier is not isolated again. The components of an extract are separated, usually by TLC. If microorganisms can grow on the plate it is usually easy to determine the R f value of the compound that inhibits growth. Some authors have tried blotting the wet TLC plate with filter paper and then spraying the filter paper with a culture of the test organism....

Antifungal Activity

We have adapted our procedures to facilitate the investigation of antifungal activities of plant extracts. These methods were applied in the investigation of the anti- fungal activity of Combretum and Terminalia (another genus of the Combretaceae) species 27 . The rising incidence of opportunistic mycotic infections associated with AIDS, as well as those developing after treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, has supplied impetus to the search for new antifungal drugs. There have been several...

Other Alternatives in Liver Therapy

Apart from the use of herbal medicines and trace metal elements to treat liver disorders there are other alternative approaches currently in use. Some of these therapies are effective in treating liver diseases, as has been shown from a few cases reported in reviews. For example thymosin therapy involves using hormones normally secreted by the thymus gland, such as thymosin, thymopoietin, and serum thymic factor. These hormones appear to stimulate the body's production of interferon. People...

Determination of Heavy Metals

Contamination by toxic metals can either be accidental or intentional. Contamination by heavy metals such as mercury, lead, copper, cadmium, and arsenic in herbal remedies can be attributed to many causes, including environmental pollution, and can pose clinically relevant dangers for the health of the user and should therefore be limited 42, 60-62 . The potential intake of the toxic metal can be estimated on the basis of the level of its presence in the product and the recommended or estimated...

Herbal Medicines Prospects and Constraints

Iqbal Ahmad, Farrukh Aqil, Farah Ahmad, and Mohammad Owais Summary Herbs and herbal preparations have been used to treat ailments throughout the history of humanity. A World Health Organization (WHO) survey has reported that about 70-80 of the world's population rely chiefly on traditional medicines, mainly of herbal sources, in their primary health care. Towards the end of the twentieth century herbal medicine became more mainstream throughout the world, partly as a result of the recognition...

Contamination of Herbal Drugs and Herb Drug Interactions

Conventional synthetic pharmaceuticals such as synthetic corticosteroids, nonster-oidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other prescription drugs, potent drugs such as phenylbutazone, in fact examples of almost every therapeutic drug class have been found in certain herbal remedies as contaminants. A recent study by Ramsay et al. found that potent corticosteroids had been deliberately added to herbal creams in order increase their efficacy 89 . This problem is widespread, and occurs in both Oriental...

Progress in the Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Herbal Medicine

In general, herbal medicine has relied on tradition that may or may not be supported by empirical data. The popularity and use of herbal medicine in recent years, especially in developed countries, has increased tremendously. Market-driven information about natural products is widespread and has further fostered their use in daily life. In most countries the evidence-based verification of the efficacy of herbal medicine is still lacking. However in recent years, data on the evaluation of the...

Summary of MIC Values of Phytoalexin and Phytoncide Against MRSA and VRE

Ampicillin Penicillin Minocycline

The MIC values of phytoalexin and phytoncide against MRSA and VRE are summarized in Tables 7.7 and 7.8. Table 7.7 Anti-VRE activities of sophoraflavanone G, calozeyloxanthone, a-mangostin and stilbene oligomers. Table 7.7 Anti-VRE activities of sophoraflavanone G, calozeyloxanthone, a-mangostin and stilbene oligomers. MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration. MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration. Table 7.8 Anti-MRSA activities of sophoraflavanone G, calozeyloxanthone, a-mangostin and stilbene...

Determination of Microbial Contaminants and Aflatoxins

Medicinal plants may be associated with a broad variety of microbial contaminants, represented by bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Inevitably, this microbiological background depends on several environmental factors and exerts an important impact on the overall quality of herbal products and preparations. Risk assessment of the microbial load of medicinal plants has therefore become an important subject in the establishment of modern Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) schemes....

Labeling of Herbal Products

The quality of consumer information about the product is as important as the finished herbal product. Warnings on the packet or label will help to reduce the risk of inappropriate uses and adverse reactions 70 . The primary source of information on herbal products is the product label. Currently, there is no organization or government body that certifies an herb or a supplement as being labeled correctly. It has been found that herbal remedy labels often cannot be trusted to reveal what is in...

Use of a Liposomal Delivery System for Herbal Based Therapeutics with a Focus on Clove Oil 357

Nadeem Ahmad, Maroof Alam, Iqbal Ahmad, and Mohammad Owais 17.1.3.1 Composition of the Clove Oil Used 360 17.2 Rationale for Using Liposomized Formulation of Clove Oil 361 17.2.1 Advantageous Properties of Liposomes 362 17.3 Experiments Conducted to Develop Liposomal Clove Oil Formulation 362 17.3.1 Determination of MIC of Clove Oil against Candida albicans 363 17.3.2 Determination of MIC of Clove Oil against Escherichia coli 363 17.3.3 In Vitro Antibacterial Activity Test Results 363 17.3.4 In...

Experiments Conducted to Develop Liposomal Clove Oil Formulation

Towards the sequential development of an effective clove oil formulation based on liposomes, we first conducted a series of in vitro evaluation tests followed by in vivo experiments. The in vitro experiments such as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests and growth-inhibition tests yielded results that showed clove oil to be quite effective against a range of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Clove oil inhibits bacterial and fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner. Next, to evaluate its in...

AntiMRSA and AntiVRE Activities of Phytoalexins and Phytoncides Isolated from Tropical Plants

Antibacterial compounds belonging to the phytoalexin and phytoncide groups have been isolated from many plants. Tropical plants in particular possess many antibacterial compounds, such as sophoraflavanone G, calozeyloxanthone, a-man-gostin, and the stilbene oligomers of gnemonol B and gnetin E. In this chapter, antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are discussed. In addition, interactions between the...

Antiparasitic Activity

The extensive use of anthelmintics in livestock has led to the development of resistance to one or more of the widely available anthelmintics in many countries 65 . Parasite infestations caused by helminth species are prevalent in poor rural parts of southern Africa. Internal parasites in humans and animals, particularly worm infestations, are commonly treated with traditional remedies, and a wide variety of plant species is employed for this purpose. As it is time-consuming and expensive to...

Gnemonol B and Gnetin E

Tables 7.5 and 7.6 show the MIC values of gnemonol B and gnetin E against VRE, MRSA, VSE, and MSSA. Table 7.5 MIC values of gnemonol B and gnetin E against five strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and three strains of vancomycin-sensitive enterococci (VSE). Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 (VRE) a Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51575 (VRE) a Enterococcus faecium ATCC 51559 (VRE) a Enterococcus faecium KIHC-237 (VRE) b Enterococcus gallinarum KIHC-241 (VRE) b Enterococcus faecalis IFO...

In Vivo Antifungal Activity Test Results against Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis 17351 Evaluation of Efficacy of

In our quest to develop an efficient therapeutic formulation of clove oil we evaluated the role of its various formulations for their potential to suppress murine vagi nal candidiasis. Among various formulations, the liposomized clove oil was found to be more effective in suppression of fungal burden, measured as colony forming unit (cfu) at the end of 18 days, as compared to free form and an emulsion preparation of clove oil. Application of the formulation in all cases was subcutaneous (Table...

Adulteration of Herbal Drugs

Direct or intentional adulteration of drugs usually includes practices in which a herbal drug is substituted partially or fully with other inferior products. Due to morphological resemblance to the authentic herb, many different inferior commercial varieties are used as adulterants. These may or may not have any chemical or therapeutic potential. Substitution by exhausted drugs entails adulteration of the plant material with the same plant material devoid of the active constituents. This...

Disk Diffusion Method

The disk diffusion method (also known the zone of inhibition method) is probably the most widely used of all methods used for testing antibacterial activity. It uses only small amounts of the test substance (10-30 pL), can be completed by research staff with minimal training, and as such may be useful in field situations. The method involves the preparation of a Petri dish containing 15-25 mL agar, bacteria at a known concentration are then spread across the agar surface and allowed to...

Broth Dilution Methods

Difficulties with partitioning of hydrophobic compounds in agar and a desire to more accurately monitor antibacterial activity over time has resulted in a move to broth dilution methods for testing of plant extracts. In this method, bacteria are grown in test-tubes in a liquid media in the presence of the test substance. At regular time intervals e.g. every 10 min or every hour a sample is removed and the bacterial count determined by serial dilution of the sample, subsequent incubation on agar...

Screening of Plant Extracts for Antiparasitic Activity

Parasitic infections are a major public health issue in many parts of the world, causing significant morbidity and mortality, and increasing resistance to the standard treatments for these infections has led to interest in the identification of plant extracts with antiparasitic activity 80, 81 . Upcroft and Upcroft 81 describe the main drug susceptibility methods essentially the parasite is incubated in the presence of test substance in either a test-tube or microtiter plate and cell counts...

Determination of MIC of Clove Oil against Candida albicans

The MIC for clove oil against Candida albicans, compared with that of the polyene antifungal drug nystatin, was determined by tube dilution method as described by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards 42 , with optical density readings measured at 580 nm. We found the MIC of clove oil against Candida albicans to be 0.051 mg mL-1 compared with 0.013 mgmL-1 for nystatin. This suggests that clove oil is at least four times less potent than nystatin.