Good Manufacturing Practice GMP for Herbal Medicine

In India there are about 10 000 licenced pharmacies of ISM and herbal medicines producing medicines 70 . With the increase in commercialization, some unscrupulous manufacturing practices have crept in to this profession, resulting in the use of shortcuts to replace certain tedious and necessary processes, poor and inaccurate labeling, and several other poor manufacturing practices. These have all necessitated the introduction of statutory Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for all ISM...

Screening of Plant Extracts for Antiparasitic Activity

Parasitic infections are a major public health issue in many parts of the world, causing significant morbidity and mortality, and increasing resistance to the standard treatments for these infections has led to interest in the identification of plant extracts with antiparasitic activity 80, 81 . Upcroft and Upcroft 81 describe the main drug susceptibility methods essentially the parasite is incubated in the presence of test substance in either a test-tube or microtiter plate and cell counts...

Antibacterial Activity of Southern African Members of the Combretaceae

Based on the results obtained with Combretum erythrophyllum, other members of the Combretaceae were examined to find the best source for isolating antibacterial compounds. Leaves of 27 species of Combretum, Terminalia, Pteleopsis, and Quis-qualis were collected, dried, milled, and extracted with acetone. The MIC of extracts was determined by our microplate serial dilution technique using Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli as test...

Immunomodulatory Effects of Phytocompounds

Inflammation is the local response of a tissue to damage or infection and represents most of the physiological and immunological reactions. The first stage is a cellular response to harmful stimuli in an effort to localize pathogens, toxic materials, or to prevent tissue injury. Several cell types and serum molecules such as neutrophils, mononuclear phagocytes, activated lymphocytes, antibodies, complement adhesion molecules, proinflammatory and inflammatory cytokines play important roles in...

Determination of MIC of Clove Oil against Candida albicans

The MIC for clove oil against Candida albicans, compared with that of the polyene antifungal drug nystatin, was determined by tube dilution method as described by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards 42 , with optical density readings measured at 580 nm. We found the MIC of clove oil against Candida albicans to be 0.051 mg mL-1 compared with 0.013 mgmL-1 for nystatin. This suggests that clove oil is at least four times less potent than nystatin.

Summary of MIC Values of Phytoalexin and Phytoncide Against MRSA and VRE

The MIC values of phytoalexin and phytoncide against MRSA and VRE are summarized in Tables 7.7 and 7.8. Table 7.7 Anti-VRE activities of sophoraflavanone G, calozeyloxanthone, a-mangostin and stilbene oligomers. Table 7.7 Anti-VRE activities of sophoraflavanone G, calozeyloxanthone, a-mangostin and stilbene oligomers. MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration. MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration. Table 7.8 Anti-MRSA activities of sophoraflavanone G, calozeyloxanthone, a-mangostin and stilbene...

Herbal Medicines Prospects and Constraints

Iqbal Ahmad, Farrukh Aqil, Farah Ahmad, and Mohammad Owais Summary Herbs and herbal preparations have been used to treat ailments throughout the history of humanity. A World Health Organization (WHO) survey has reported that about 70-80 of the world's population rely chiefly on traditional medicines, mainly of herbal sources, in their primary health care. Towards the end of the twentieth century herbal medicine became more mainstream throughout the world, partly as a result of the recognition...

Toxicity of Herbal Drugs

For several reasons it is not possible to establish absolute safety standards for herbal preparations based solely on epidemiological studies. First, these types of studies would be costly. Second, there is little published data in countries where the major use of medicinal plants occurs and thus general standards based on a limited number of reports would have little meaning. Third, the exact identification of the products implicated in side effects claimed for medicinal plants is usually...

References

1 Newman, D.J., Cragg, G.M., Snader, K.M. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2000,17, 215-234. 2 Dev, S. Environ. Health Perspect. 1999, 107, 783-789. 3 Grabley, S., Thiericke, R. Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 1999, 64, 104. 4 Borris, R.P. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996, 5, 29-38. 5 Chang, H.M., But, P.P.H. Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica, Vols 1 and 2, World Scientific Inc., Singapore, Philadelphia, PA, 1986. 6 Schultes, R.E., Raffauf, R.F. The Healing Forest. Dioscorides Press, Portland, 1990....

Herb Drug Interactions

Herbal medicines can act through a variety of mechanism to alter the pharmacokinetic profile of concomitantly administered drugs 63 . St John's wort, for example, induces the cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP 3A4 and intestinal P-glycopro-teins, accelerating the metabolic degradation of many drugs including cyclosporin, antiretroviral agents, digoxin, and warfarin 64 . Numerous examples exist of drug and herbal interactions. These effects may potentiate or antagonize drug absorption or metabolism,...

Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Powder in the Organophosphate Compound Poisoning Mouse as a Model of SARS

In 2002, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in Guangdong Province, China, and 800 of8000 infected people became the victims of the SARS coronavirus infection. There are very few effective antibiotics or chemicals for the treatment of this virus infection, and patients have to wait over 10 days for the production of virus-specific antibody to recover from virus-caused infections. My co-worker, Dr Lu Changlong of the China Medical University, found a novel biological...

Quality Control Screening Toxicity and Regulation of Herbal Drugs

Bandaranayake Summary Medicinal plants constitute a source of raw materials for both traditional systems of medicine (e.g. Ayurvedic, Chinese, Unani, Homeopathy, and Siddha) and modern medicine. Nowadays, plant materials are employed throughout the industrialized and developing world as home remedies, over-the-counter drugs, and ingredients for the pharmaceutical industry. As such, they represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. Most rural populations,...

Antifungal Activity

We have adapted our procedures to facilitate the investigation of antifungal activities of plant extracts. These methods were applied in the investigation of the anti- fungal activity of Combretum and Terminalia (another genus of the Combretaceae) species 27 . The rising incidence of opportunistic mycotic infections associated with AIDS, as well as those developing after treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, has supplied impetus to the search for new antifungal drugs. There have been several...

Against Bacillus anthracis

The outbreak of anthrax in the USA in 2002, thought to have been linked with terrorism, killed four people and generated widespread panic in the US. Anxious citizens were reported to be asking doctors for antibiotics to prevent infection. Anthrax is primarily a disease of cattle and sheep horses and pigs are also susceptible, but are less commonly affected. The bacillus is almost always transmitted to humans from lower animals rather than from other humans. The pulmonary form of anthrax,...

In Vitro Antifungal Activity Tests Results Table 1

The methanolic solution of clove oil displayed strong antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptococcus neoformans. In each case it inhibited the fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner. Strongest activity was shown against A. fumigatus followed by C. albicans and C. neoformans. Neat methanol showed no antifungal activity Table 17.4 Effect of clove oil on the growth of fungal pathogens. Sample Amount Zone of inhibition (cm) SD (cm) C. albicans C. neoformans...

AntiMRSA and AntiVRE Activities of Phytoalexins and Phytoncides Isolated from Tropical Plants

Antibacterial compounds belonging to the phytoalexin and phytoncide groups have been isolated from many plants. Tropical plants in particular possess many antibacterial compounds, such as sophoraflavanone G, calozeyloxanthone, a-man-gostin, and the stilbene oligomers of gnemonol B and gnetin E. In this chapter, antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are discussed. In addition, interactions between the...

Plant Extracts

Plants have been used as medicines since time immemorial. Herbal medicines form an integral part of healing practiced by the traditional healers. India has a rich heritage of using medicinal plants in traditional medicines such as the Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani systems, besides folklore practises. The earliest mention of the medicinal uses of plants is found in the Rigveda, which is one of the oldest repositories of human knowledge 13 . Fairly comprehensive information on the curative...

Conclusions

Plant materials are used throughout the developed and developing world as home remedies, in over-the-counter drug products, and as raw material for the pharmaceutical industry, and they represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. Therefore, it is essential to establish internationally recognized guidelines for assessing their quality. Certain herbs have become popular over the years, but the public, medical practitioners, and the media still have a poor understanding of herbal...

Progress in the Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Herbal Medicine

In general, herbal medicine has relied on tradition that may or may not be supported by empirical data. The popularity and use of herbal medicine in recent years, especially in developed countries, has increased tremendously. Market-driven information about natural products is widespread and has further fostered their use in daily life. In most countries the evidence-based verification of the efficacy of herbal medicine is still lacking. However in recent years, data on the evaluation of the...

Disk Diffusion Method

The disk diffusion method (also known the zone of inhibition method) is probably the most widely used of all methods used for testing antibacterial activity. It uses only small amounts of the test substance (10-30 pL), can be completed by research staff with minimal training, and as such may be useful in field situations. The method involves the preparation of a Petri dish containing 15-25 mL agar, bacteria at a known concentration are then spread across the agar surface and allowed to...

Problems Associated with the Efficacy Stability and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs Preparations

The number of reports of patients experiencing negative health consequences caused by the use of herbal medicines has increased in recent years 36 . Analysis and studies have revealed a variety of reasons for such problems. One of the major causes of reported adverse events is directly linked to the poor quality of herbal medicines, including raw medicinal plant materials. It has therefore been recognized that insufficient attention has been paid to the quality assurance and control of herbal...

Mode of Action of Bioactive Phytocompounds and their Interactions with Macromolecules and Toxicity

The mode of action of antimicrobial agents depends on the type of microorganism under consideration and is mainly related to their cell wall structure and the outer membrane arrangement. Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa) display an intrinsic resistance to a wide variety of essential oils, which is associated with the hydrophilic surface of their outer membrane, rich in lipopolysaccharide molecules. A permeability barrier against toxic agents is formed. Small hydrophil-ic...

Antimicrobial Properties

The development of microbial resistance towards antibiotics has heightened the importance of the search for new potential effective plants and plant constituents against pathogenic microorganisms. Because infectious diseases are usually characterized by clear symptoms, traditional practises have been able to recognize such diseases easily and have developed plant preparations against such infections. Fungal infections play an increasingly important role in many illnesses and are the direct...

Antimicrobial Bioactive Phytocompounds from Extraction to Identification Process Standardization

Medicinal Plant Work Flow Chart

Different approaches to drug discovery using higher plants can be distinguished random selection followed by chemical screening random selection followed by one or more biological assays biological activity reports and ethnomedical use of plants 14 . The latter approach includes plants used in traditional medical systems herbalism, folklore, and shamanism and the use of databases. The objective is the targeted isolation of new bioactive phytocompounds. When an active extract has been...

Prospects for Herbal Medicine

Herbal medicine and other plant-derived therapeutic or prophylactic products in various forms have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both Eastern and Western cultures. About one-quarter of marketed orthodox pharmaceutical medicines are either derived from plant sources or from derivatives of secondary plant metabolites. Some of the most economically important pharmaceuticals or their precursors derived from plants as listed by several workers are shown...

Adulteration and Contamination

Adulteration and contamination of herbal medicines appears to be common in countries that are lenient with regard to controls regulating their purity. Adulterations in herbal medicine are particularly disconcerting because they are unpredictable. Often they remain undetected unless they can be linked to an outbreak or epidemic. An example is veno-occlusive disease due to ingestion of plants containing pyrrolidizine alkaloids, which can be life threatening or fatal 55, 56 . In many cases...

Introduction

Since ancient times humanity has depended on the diversity of plant resources for food, clothing, shelter, and traditional medicine to cure myriads of ailments. Early humans recognized their dependence on nature in both health and illness. Physical evidence of the use of herbal remedies has been found from some 60000 years ago in a burial site of a Neanderthal man uncovered in 1960 in a cave in northern Iraq 1 . Here, scientists found great quantities of plant pollen, some of which came from...

Experiments Conducted to Develop Liposomal Clove Oil Formulation

Towards the sequential development of an effective clove oil formulation based on liposomes, we first conducted a series of in vitro evaluation tests followed by in vivo experiments. The in vitro experiments such as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests and growth-inhibition tests yielded results that showed clove oil to be quite effective against a range of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Clove oil inhibits bacterial and fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner. Next, to evaluate its in...

Effects of Echinacea Species on the Immune System and Various Immune Cells

Studies show that the plant and its active components affect the phagocytic immune system, but not the specifically acquired immune system. Echinacea is best known as an immunostimulant. A series of studies in mice using purified polysac-charides from Echinacea plant cell cultures showed a stimulatory effect when applied to immune cells in culture or injected intraperitoneally into mice. These effects include an increase in phagocytosis, chemotaxis, and oxidative burst of either neutrophils 26,...

Determination of Microbial Contaminants and Aflatoxins

Medicinal plants may be associated with a broad variety of microbial contaminants, represented by bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Inevitably, this microbiological background depends on several environmental factors and exerts an important impact on the overall quality of herbal products and preparations. Risk assessment of the microbial load of medicinal plants has therefore become an important subject in the establishment of modern Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) schemes....

Improving the Quality Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicine

Herbal medicine products have been used for thousands of years for the prevention and treatment of various diseases in India, China, and other countries. Herbal medicine occupies an important position with regard to adverse reactions, having a lower percentage (7.6 ) of reported adverse effects than other CAM therapies, such as manipulation (15.8 ), acupuncture (12.5 ), and homeopathy (9.8 ) 6, 71, 72 . Problem and difficulties arise, however, in the quality assurance of herbal medicinal...

Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Diarrhea that Display Antidiarrheal Activity

In contrast to the studies described in the previous section, the plants investigated below have been validated as treatments for diarrhea on the basis of their ability to prevent or ameliorate diarrheal symptoms induced in experimental animals or tested in clinical trials. As in the previous section, phytochemical analysis of plant preparations and identification of active components has helped to explain the mechanism of antidiarrheal activity. The roots of Jatropha curcus (Euphorbiaceae) are...

Murphy J M 1999 Am Organizing Regarding Nurses J 173-183

We are grateful to University Grant Commission, New Delhi for financial assistance in the form of UGC-Major Research Project No. F.3-58 2002 (SR-II) on medicinal plants. 1 Murphy, J.M. Am. Org. Reg. Nurses J. 1999, 69, 173-183. 2 Chan, K. Biologist 1996, 43, 50-51. 3 Raskin, I., Ribnicky, D.M., Komarnystky, S., Ilic, N., Poulev, A., Borisjuk, N., Brinker, A., Moreno, D.A., Ripoll, C., Yakoby, N., O'Niel, J.M., Cornwell, T., Pastor, I., Fridlender, B. Trends Biotechnol. 2002, 20, 1-10. 4 British...

Herbal Medicines Potential Therapeutic Agents with Minimal Side Effects

Indigenous medicines, especially of plant origin, are used extensively for the treatment of various diseases. With lack of safe and effective treatment for liver diseases, researchers have been looking for alternative therapies that curb symptoms with minimum adverse effects on patients. Silybum marianum (milk-thistle) 15 and its extracts have been used since the times of ancient Greece for medicinal purposes. It is now currently used widely in Europe for liver disease, and is readily available...

Conventional Medicines for Liver Disorders

Immunoglobulin (Ig) is quite effective against hepatitis A when administered to anyone exposed to the virus as soon as possible or within two weeks after jaundice appears. Vaccines for hepatitis are now a common feature of immunization programs the world over. Treatment for acute hepatitis consists of rest and small, nourishing meals, fluids, and sometimes antinausea drugs such as trimethobenza-mide (Tigan). Chronic cases of hepatitis B and C are treated with interferon. The problem of...

Edible Mushroom Maitake Grifola frondosa

Maitake is one of the most popular mushrooms used as a medicine, and is now easily available in numerous stores throughout the year because of the artificial cultivation. An American book recently outlined maitake's medicinal effects, but it stated that there has been no reliable research to determine whether any of these ancient beliefs are really true or not and that formal safety studies have not been performed 1 . We maintain that the safety of maitake does not need to be questioned because...

Quality Control of Herbal Drugs

Quality control for efficacy and safety of herbal products is of paramount importance 14-16, 19, 20, 41-45 . Quality can be defined as the status of a drug that is determined by identity, purity, content, and other chemical, physical, or biological properties, or by the manufacturing processes. Quality control is a term that refers to processes involved in maintaining the quality and validity of a manufactured product. For the quality control of a traditional medicine, the traditional methods...

Experimental Antidiabetic Plants

Various studies have been undertaken in different regions of Morocco in order to select and classify the main medicinal plants used to treat diabetes. Ziyyat et al. 63 conducted an ethnomedical study in eastern Morocco on plants used for diabetes and hypertension and an inventory of 42 plants used has been established. For diabetes, 38 species have been reported the most used were Trigonella foenum-grae-cum (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum (Globulariacea), Artemisia herba-alba (Compositae),...

Bioactive Phytocompounds and Future Perspectives

The integration of herbal medicine into modern medical practises, including treatments for infections and cancer, must take into account the interrelated issues of quality, safety, and efficacy 64 . Quality is the paramount issue because it can affect the efficacy and or safety of the herbal products being used. Current product quality ranges from very high to very low due to intrinsic, extrinsic, and regulatory factors. Intrinsically, species differences, organ specificity, diurnal and...

Adulteration of Herbal Drugs

Direct or intentional adulteration of drugs usually includes practices in which a herbal drug is substituted partially or fully with other inferior products. Due to morphological resemblance to the authentic herb, many different inferior commercial varieties are used as adulterants. These may or may not have any chemical or therapeutic potential. Substitution by exhausted drugs entails adulteration of the plant material with the same plant material devoid of the active constituents. This...

Antimutagenic Properties of Edible and Medicinal Plants

Natural antimutagens from edible and medicinal plants are of particular importance because they may be useful for human cancer prevention and have no undesirable xenobiotic effects on living organisms 48, 49 . Encouraging reports on the antimutagenic properties of edible plants have led to increased interest in the search for natural phytoantimutagens from medicinal plants from different parts of world. An extensive literature survey on phytoantimutagens has been carried out and is presented in...

Synergy Between Phytocompounds and Antibiotics

In recent years, increasing attention has been focussed on investigating phyto-chemicals as possible medicinal agents against MDR bacteria. Plant extracts phy-tocompounds exhibiting strong antibacterial activity are expected to interact syner-gistically with antibiotics. Such interactions may be useful in combination antibio- tic therapy. Although investigations in this direction are in their infancy, a number of phytocompounds exhibiting synergistic interaction with antibiotics have been...

Screening of Herbal Drugs

Once the botanical identity of a herb is established, the next step is phytochemical screening, which involves bioassays, extraction, purification, and characterization of the active constituents of pharmaceutical importance 17, 44, 50, 76 . The herb or herbal drug preparation in its entirety is regarded as the active substance. These constituents are either of known therapeutic activity or are chemically defined substances or a group of substances generally accepted to contribute substantially...

Antiparasitic Activity

The extensive use of anthelmintics in livestock has led to the development of resistance to one or more of the widely available anthelmintics in many countries 65 . Parasite infestations caused by helminth species are prevalent in poor rural parts of southern Africa. Internal parasites in humans and animals, particularly worm infestations, are commonly treated with traditional remedies, and a wide variety of plant species is employed for this purpose. As it is time-consuming and expensive to...

Trends and Developments

The rationalization of the new multidrug and multitarget concept of therapy in classical medicine is likely to have great implications on the future basic research in phytomedicine and evidence-based phytotherapy. It requires concerted cooperation between phytochemists, molecular biologists, pharmacologists, and clinicians, with the aim of using modern high-tech methods for standardization of phy-topreparations, of integrating new molecular biological assays into the screening of plant extracts...

Other Drug Resistant Microorganisms

The severity of the antibiotic-resistance problem is further potentiated by a high prevalence of other drug-resistant organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main organism responsible for tuberculosis, fungi and also an important cause of morbidity, particularly in patients with an impaired immunological system. Multidrug-resistant MDR tuberculosis is another example in which antibiotic options are nearly exhausted and is a further problem because it is one of the most frequent...

Determination of Foreign Matter

Herbal drugs should be made from the stated part of the plant and be devoid of other parts of the same plant or other plants. They should be entirely free from moulds or insects, including excreta and visible contaminant such as sand and stones, poisonous and harmful foreign matter and chemical residues. Animal matter such as insects and invisible microbial contaminants, which can produce toxins, are also among the potential contaminants of herbal medicines 54-56 . Macroscopic examination can...

Phenolics and Polyphenols

The simplest bioactive phytochemicals containing a single substituted phenolic ring, like cinnamic and caffeic acids, belong to a wide group of phenylpropanes that are in the highest oxidation state and have wide range of antiviral activities. For example, purified aloe emodin inactivates HSV-1, varicella zoster VZV , pseudo-rabies, and influenza virus by the polyphenols rosmarinic, chlorogenic, and caffe-ic acid Fig. 15.1 derivatives 46 . Polyphenols and proanthocyanidins Fig. 15.2 of...

Terpenes

Terpenes are widely distributed secondary metabolism products with low boiling points and, thus, a strong aroma. The name terpene is properly reserved for hydrocarbons made up from isoprene units, but is frequently extended to derivatives of these alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, esters, etc. , which should be called ter-pene derivatives. Furthermore, benzoid dehydration products of terpenes appear in plants e.g. the phenol thymol . Depending on molecule size, terpenes can be classified as...

Tsukiyotake Lampteromyces japonicus Singer

There are about 40 species of poisonous mushrooms growing in Japan, and some of them are very like the edible mushrooms in appearance, which often results in mushroom intoxication. Inedible tsukiyotake Lampteromyces japonicus closely resembles the edible mushroom hiratake Pleurotus ostreatus Quel and is a leading cause of mushroom poisoning, with symptoms of nausea and diarrhea. The main toxic substance in tsukiyotake is Illudin S, which induces vomiting and diarrhea 30 min after ingestion, but...

Broth Dilution Methods

Difficulties with partitioning of hydrophobic compounds in agar and a desire to more accurately monitor antibacterial activity over time has resulted in a move to broth dilution methods for testing of plant extracts. In this method, bacteria are grown in test-tubes in a liquid media in the presence of the test substance. At regular time intervals e.g. every 10 min or every hour a sample is removed and the bacterial count determined by serial dilution of the sample, subsequent incubation on agar...

Conclusion

Plant-based remedies used in human and animal medicine are an essential part of the primary health care system in South Africa, especially with regard to commonly encountered infectious diseases. Antibiotic resistance and the incidence of side effects in currently used drugs are additional factors leading scientists to the plant world in the search for new anti-infective agents. Ethnobotanical and ethnoveteri-nary leads can provide valuable information on potentially highly active plant...

Drug Resistant Gram Positive Bacteria

Antibiotic resistance is a cause of major concern, especially in hospitals where patients are vulnerable to infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRS A as well as various vancomycin-resistant enterococci bacteria VRE and Streptococcus pneumoniae with intermediate or high-level resistance to penicillin or third-generation cephalosporins are responsible for one-third of nosocomial infections 27 . In particular, the emergence of MRSA strains has become a global health problem...

Antiviral Ethnomedicines Against Common Virus Families

Many ethnomedicinal plants are reported to possess strong antiviral activity and some are already used in the treatment of viral infections in different parts of the world 12-16 . The antiviral activities of some of these important ethnomedicinal plants are presented in Table 15.1. Herpes simplex viruses HSV are reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection and scientists are looking towards ethnomedicines as a source of novel antiherpes and antiretroviral drugs. A large number of...