Recommended Mushroom Cookbooks

A Cook's Book of Mushrooms by Jack Czarnecki, 1995. Artisan Books, Workman Publishing New York.

Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America: A Field-to-Kitchen Guide by David W. Fischer and Alan E. Bessette, 1992. University ofTexas Press, Austin, Texas.

Hope's Mushroom Cookbook by Hope Miller, 1993. Mad River Press, Eureka, California.

Joe's Book of Mushroom Cookery by Jack Czarnecki, 1988, Athen eum, New York.

Mushroom Cookery by Rosetta Reitz, 1945,206 pgs. Gramercy Publishing Co., New York.

Mushrooms: Wild & Tamed by Rita Rosenberg, 1995. Fisher Books, Tucson, Arizona.

Taming theWild Mushroom: A Culinary Guide to Market Foragingby Arleen Rainis Bessette and A,lan E. Bessette. University ofTexas Press, Austin; Texas.

The Mushroom Feast by Jane Grigson, 1975. Alfred Knopf, New York.

Wild about Mushrooms for Foresters & Feasters, by Louise & Bill Freedman 1987. Addison & Weseley, 1987

Wild Mushroom Cookery ed. Mike Wells & Maggie Rogers, 1988, The Oregon Mycological Society, Portland, Oregon.

442 MUSHROOM RECIPES

CHAPTER 2 5

t o his trouble-shooting guide should be used in conjunction with the Species Growth Parameters in Chapter 21 and the Six Vectors of Contamination described in Chapter 10. Individual contaminants are not specifically characterized in this book. If the vector introducing contamination is blocked, using the techniques described here the competitor organisms are effectively stopped. For extensive descriptions on contaminants, please refer to The Mushroom Cultivator by Stamets & Chilton (1983) and The Pathology of Cultivated Mushrooms by Houdeau & Olivier (1992).

The following guide lists the most frequently encountered problems, their probable causes, and effective solutions. A combination of solutions can often solve problems whose causes can not be easily diagnosed. Most can be prevented through process refinement, structural re-design, improvement in hygiene maintenance, and/or replacement of personnel. Most importantly, the manner of the culti vator has the over-riding influence on success or failure. I strongly encourage tha, at every stage in the culttvation process, the cultivator leaves on petri dish, spawn jar, sawdust bug », u,maculated to help deteraiine wheth -or not ensuing contaminants are uniqi taihemed, preparation proc s versus the hioculation method. These "b .nks" are extremely helpful in diagnosing the probable vector

°f Cul ' xs'should note that when one error in the process occu any symptoms.can M^expresse ?or instance, diseases attacking mature mushrooms are to be expeced if he hum* maintained at too-high levels during cropping, if the growing room kept at 100% rH ^ surface8

oft! mushrooms remain wet and t :Come perfect environments for parfic fungi andbacftj. acte ria^ blotch attacks developing mushrooms. Green molds proliferate Mues eat mold spores Flies carry miîs and spores. If these organisms spread to developing pnmordia, massive déforma ion and ontamination ensues.Those mushrooms which do surv e have exaggeratedly short shelf lives after harve: i. S. in this instan e one problem-humidity being toe.high- results in multipl symptoms. Th lesson here: what i >ood for one contaminant is good for ma, : Controlling the vector of contamination musthé^^fp 1 with creating an environment more conducive to the growth of mushrooms than compeMfîa ¡¡jd

Population explosions ot^/rSgandPhorid Qies defeat Oyster mushroom culti\ ators more than any other competitor. Fly control measures have ranged from simple sticky pads to the use of pesticides, a recourse I abhor. The use of pesticides, although rampant with many "old school" cultivators, is totally unnecessary for gourmet and medicinal mushroom cultivation —given a balance of preventative measures. Bug lights should be positioned at the entrance of every door. The bug traps I find that work the best are those which feature a circular black light and centrally located fan that creates a negative pressure vortex, features which greatly extend their effective range. These bug lights should also have sticky pads affixed below them that trap "fly-bys" or "near-misses". (See Figure 384). Coupled with the frequent washing down of the growing room, at least twice a day, population explosions can be forestalled or precluded

There is one final control measure I recommend highly and which occurred naturally in our growing rooms. For the past 5 years, our growing rooms have sustained a population of

Figure 584. A highly effective bug trapper. The c cular light attacks flies to the vacuum-vortex whicn throws the flies into a clear plastic Dag. By attaching "sticky paper" underneath the light, hovering flies are also captured. The clear bag allows the ersy, daily counting of flies, and helps predict impending outbreaks.

Figure 584. A highly effective bug trapper. The c cular light attacks flies to the vacuum-vortex whicn throws the flies into a clear plastic Dag. By attaching "sticky paper" underneath the light, hovering flies are also captured. The clear bag allows the ersy, daily counting of flies, and helps predict impending outbreaks.

small tree frogs The only food source for the frogs, which have ranged in number from 2 to 8 in a 1000 square foot growing room, are flies. (See Figure 385.) Each frog consumes between 20-100 flies per day and often perch upon mushrooms. The growing rooms—with their resident flies and frogs—are in a state of constant biological flux, re-adjusting to maintain a delicate equilibrium.When the fly population declines, so do the frogs, and vi e versa. An unexpected added, and purely aesthetic benefit: the frogs chorus at night with a mesmerizing resonance that brings joy to my heart. I consider these frogs to be faithful guardians, deserving respect for their valiant efforts at fly feasting, an activity which has an immediate beneficial impact in protecting the mushroom crop and limiting the spread of disease. *

Figure 385. My growing rooms have harbored a resident population of tree frogs for more than 5 years. Each .tog consumes dozens of fungus gnats each day. I highly recommend ¿rogs as an effective and natural method for limiting fly infestation. In this case, a frog lies in wait, perched upon Reishi mushrooms fruiting from a copy of The Mushroom Cultivator.

Figure 385. My growing rooms have harbored a resident population of tree frogs for more than 5 years. Each .tog consumes dozens of fungus gnats each day. I highly recommend ¿rogs as an effective and natural method for limiting fly infestation. In this case, a frog lies in wait, perched upon Reishi mushrooms fruiting from a copy of The Mushroom Cultivator.

* The historical symbology here, between mushrooms and frogs (or toads), should not go unnoticed.

PROBLEM.

CAUSE.

SOLUTION

AGAR CULTURE

Media will not solidify

Spores gerrrinate with mold contaminants ("powdery mildews")

Spores germinate with bacterial contaminants ("slime")

Mycelium grows then dies back

Contaminants appear along inside edge of petri dish

Not enough agar Insufficiently mixed Bacteria

Spores will not germinate Inviable spores

Improperly formulated media Contaminated spores

Contaminated spores

Poor Media Formulation Over-sterilized Media Poor strain

Contamination airborne in laboratory

Add more agar > 20 grams/liter. Agitate before pouring. Increase sterilization time to ai least 30 minutes at 15 psi.

Obtain fresher spores. Soak in 5 cc. of sterilized . water for 48 hours. Place one drop of spore solution per petri dish.

See page 90.

Isolate & transfer "white spots" from one another to new media dishes. Always move mycelium away from competitors.

Use antibiotic media. (1/15 -1/20 g/liter of gentamycin sulfate). "Sandwich" spores between two layers of antibiotic media. Isolate mycelium when it appears on top surface.

See page 90.

Sterilize for less than 1 hour at 15 psi.

Acquire new strain.

Filter lab air, clean lab. Look for source.

Wrap edges of petri dishes with tape or elastic film after pouring & inoculation.

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