Primordia Formation

Initiation Temperature: 60-70° F. (16-21° C.) Relative Humidity: 95-100%. Duration: 12-15 days after casing. C02:500-1000 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour. Light Requirements: 500-1000 lux for 8 hours per day. Fruitbody Development:

Incubation Temperature: 65-75° F. (18-24° C.) Relative Humidity: 80-90%. Duration: 5-7 days C02:500-1000 ppm. Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour. Lighf Requirements: 500-1000 lux for 8 hours per day. Cropping Cycle:

Two to three flushes, four to ten days apart.

Available Strait's: This mushroom is easy to clone. Cultures are widely available from libraries throughout the world. However, a sporeless strain is needed before commercial cultivation will become practical. I have isolated a late-sporulating strain from a fruiting on manure enriched sawdust. Sporeless strains are needed as the maturing spores trigger deliquescence, causing the mushrooms to disintegrate into a black spore-enriched fluid. This spore liquid presents unique problems to cultivators in their attempts to isolate spores away from contaminants.

Mycelial Characteristics: Mycelium usually white, cottony, aerial, often develops "tufts" (hyphal aggregates) with maturity. Most strains form mycelial mats asymmetrically shaped along the outer edge. (See F^ure 198).

Fragrance Signature: Farinaceous and mildly sweet.

Natural Method of Cultivation: Inoculation of spawn direct^ into manure enriched soils or 4-6 inch deep beds of hardwood sawdust. Newly la: I or fertilized lawns that are frequently watered are perfect habitats for Shaggy Manes. Cow or horse manure, mixed with straw or sawdust, are also ideal

.'. e 200. Shaggy Manes fruiting from cased, leached cow manure.

Figure 199. Shaggy Manes fruitir.g trom caseu, horse manure enriched strav.'.

Hardwood sawdust spawn should be used as inoculum for establishing outdoor patches.

f m entation, grain spawn « be creaed *h^^^upplemented sawdust has ^^«iSS^ased substrates, «a, diais form onsawdus 3ut often fail to further develop.

u c,sted Agar Culture Media: PDA, PDYA, MEA, MP YA, DFA. or OMYA. 1st 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media: Grain (rye, wheat, sorghun) throughout.

Substrates for Fruiting: The straw/manure i deS

from anything but horizontal surfaces ta,s ten soya flour w:

.'. e 200. Shaggy Manes fruiting from cased, leached cow manure.

Figure 199. Shaggy Manes fruitir.g trom caseu, horse manure enriched strav.'.

Harvest Hints: Since this mushroom del: quesces from the end of the gills upwards to the stipe, mushrooms should be p' iced before the slightest hint of the gills turning black. If picked when no basidia have matured, mushrooms can be kept in cold storage for 4-5 days Any mushrooms that begin to deliquesce should be removed from the fresher fruitbot 'as since the enzymes secreted by one deliquescing mushroom will decompose adjacent mushrooms, regardless of age

Form of Product Sold to Market: If this mushroom ever gets to market, it is there all too b 'efly due to self-deliquescence. In the matter of two days from harvest, the mushrooms turn into a black ink-like slurry unless precau 'ons are not taken. Mushrooms can be preserved by submerging them hi cold water and storing them under refrigera on. Packing Shaggy Manes in refrigerated, nitrogen gas filled contai tiers also extends shelf life. Currently, Shaggy Manes that are sold at farmer's markets are usually from v ild collections. Young shaggy manes can be thinly sliced and quickly dried for storage. Freeze drying is also an option

Nutritional Content: 25-29% protein (N x 4. 38); 3% fat; 59% carbohydrates; 3-7% fiber and L 18% ash. (Crisan & Sands (1978); Samajpati (1979)).

Medicinal Properties: A novel antibiotic has been isolated from this species and is currently being characterized by American researchers.Ying(1987,pg 313)) reports that the "inhibition rates against sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich carcinoma are 100% and 90% respectively." The references are in Chinese. No other research on the an i-tumor properties of this mushroom is known to this author.

Flavor. Preparation & Cooking: Shaggy Manes were the first mushrooms that seduced me into the art of mycophagy. It may seem odd, but I prefer this mushroom for breakfast. I like to prepare the mushrooms by frying thinly cut i Hals (stem included) in a frying pan with onions and light oil. Once they are slightly browned, the mushrooms are used to compose an omelet. Or, fry the mushrooms in butter at medi jm heat and serve on whole wheat toast. Many of the recipes listed in this book can incorporate Shaggy Manes. Since this mushroom has considerably more moisture than. Shiitake for instance, the water should be cooked off before other ingredients are added to the frying pan.

Figure 201. Shaggy Manes fruiting in yard that was inoculated with sawdust spawn the year before. Shaggy Manes wander, often fruiting meters away from the original site of inoculation.

* Mushroom production on pulp waste stopped in British Columbia in the late 1980's after concerns about residual, heavy metal contamination. Please check with paper manufacturers before using their products as a substrate for mushroom production.

228 growth parameters

„„tc. This,, „ „reat mushroom to grow in your yard and in compost piles. Once an outdoor oaThTs ctabShe Sh^gy M n-" au Wt for man, /ears. For tmpahent cultivators, mdoor «¡to-

Son s^^commended.ft mycologtcallandscapersnotconcentedabouttemtonalconfmementof

gypsum) layer t ; inc, ase watering, and introduce light to stimulate

''"StCteZ is SSSn the stze of a dime to a ,uarier. The pnmordta are

Flammulina Velutipes Mycelium
Figure 202. Mycelium of Enokitake, 3, 8,14 and 28 days after inoculation

Introduction: The Japanese lead in popularizing tl is mushroom. In the wild, Flammulina velutipes is a short, furry footed mushroom. Usually cultured in chilled growing rooms abnormally small caps and long stems are achieved by elevating carbon dioxide levels and limiting I:ght exposure. This unnatural shape makes the harvesting of Enoki easy.

Common Names: Enokitake (Japanese for "The Snow Peak Mushroom. Enot' lake' s an alternative spelling) Nametake ("Slimy Mushroom") Yuki-motase ("Snow Mushroom") The Winter Mushroom The Velvet or Furry Foot Collybia The Golden Mushroom (Thailand)

Taxonomic Synonyms and Consi' lerations: Formerly known as Collybia velutipes (Fr.) Quel.

Description: Cap 1-5 cm. in diameter, convex to plane to upturned in age, smooth, viscid when wet, bright to dull yellowish to yellowish brown to orangish brown. Gills white to yellow, attached to the stem, Stem usually short 1-3 inches, yellow to yellowish brown darkening with age and covered with

Positive Coli
Figure 203. After three weeks of incubation tl > »arm veather strain of Enokitake produces abundant pri-mordia at room temperature. Most str.-'ns o the species require a coid shock to form primordia.
Figure 204 Wild fruiting of Flammulina velut fron stump. Note shortness of stem- '.nd breadth of caps of wild vs. cultivated fruitings.

a dense coat of velvety fine brown hairs near the base. In culture, t, imorphology o tlns mushroom is hfhTmu^b Xin extremely sen iti ft tc :ar on dioxide and light levels. C ltivated specimens Ktty h^ng^yeWish stems, small white to yellowtsh caps. When spores mature, the caps darken to brown

Distribution: Widespread throughout the temperate regions of the world, growmg from sea level to tree-line. . . , . ,

Natural Hfrtrtat: Frimarily on hardwoods, occasionally on conifers, commonly growing in the late K^ eari winter. lL mushroom can freeze, thaw, and continue to grow. One defmiUon of in Japanese ' ckleberry, implying that this mushroom grows on that shrub in Japan.

Microscopic Matures: Spores white, 6-8 x 3-4 |i, ellipsoid. H ago (1988) li: sa spore size of Japa-nesevnetie: 5-7.5x3-4 N oser (1983) reports spores of European col to^MM 4.5-6 |i. These d ference, i ay underscore the wide range of varieties deluded within this complex

Clamp connections present.

Available Strains: ^ast populations of this species thrive in the wile offtring cultivators * ichre ^cellr new strains. J £ strains req 're a cold shock and/or growth in ^pe^ r^ from 40- 0L F 4 4-13 Z ) In August of 1990,1 isolated an aggressive strain from tree line (10,000+it,, m tl mountains ibov Tellurid* Colorado. The strain is unique; not requiring cold shock, producing

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