Len Unula edodes Berkeley Pegler

Figure 230. Mycelia f L. edodes M and ^D cays atter inocw no* ^^ —

orma 'on of hyphal aggregates .n the cu tare on the left. Th^.s a stram spec P tion indicates vigor. e culture at the right sho : browning reaction of the outer-edge mycelium, change as the mycelium ages is typical of Shiitake.

Introduction- Log culture although traditional in Asia, has yet to become high,/ profited e in No^Americ'a —lesp ! fte opefof many woodlot owners. However log ^^^ modest sudi JhentaZ ir and fits well within the emerging concept of mycopermaculture. TRnSSSCultivation on sterilize sawdust-based substrates is prov: gtob hi^yprcfit-aWeorhoewho perfect the te mque. Most successful American growers have adapted the m hods Sing in A a for the cultivation of 'Ms mushroom on stenhzed substrates by doubling

«triDHna tlS oflchf in block and by''through-spawnir _ The Japanese Taiwanese and mented sawdus hich are top-inoculated. This method gives a maximum oftwo fiushes whereas the mo massive blocks (2-3 krlograms a iece) pr vide ive developed, id which is illustrate m this book, gives rise to ' 14- B-35^day of | oculation, Lv , to three times faster than most cultivators achieve on stenhzed substrates.

technique is fully described in the ensuing paragraphs Common Names: Shiitake (Japanese for "Shii Mushroom") Golden Oak Mushroom

~T .„ . !_____lit:___cforiiiwH malt extract aear media. Note

Figure 231 & 232. Oak logs incubating after inoculation with Shiitake plug spawn in uninsulated, shade clothed greenhouses in Japan and in United States.

Black Forest Mushroom Black Mushroom Oakwood Mushroom Chinese Mushroom

Shiangu-gu or Shiang Ku (Chinese for "Fragrant Mushroom")

Doriku

Pasania

Taxonomic ConsMera*;ons: Shiitake mushrooms were orginally described as Agaric us edodes by Berkeley in 1877. Thereupon the mushroom has been variously placed in the Genera Collybia, Arraillaria Lepinta, Pleurotus and Lentinus. Most cultivators are familiar with Shiitake as Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer. Shiitake has recently been moved to the Genus Lentinula by Pegler

The. Genus Lentinula was originally conceived by Earle in the early 1900's and resurrected by Pegler in the 1970's to better define members formerly placed in Lentinus. Both genera are characterized by white spores, centrally to eccentrically attached stems, gill edges which are often serrated, and a distinct preference for woodland enviionments. The genera differ primarily in microscopic features. The Genus Lentimi*isi monomitic, i.e. lacking dimitic hyphae in the flesh, and have cells fairly parallel and descending in their arrangement within the gill trama. Members in the Genus Lentinus have a flesh composed of dim/ic hyphae and have highly irregular or interwoven cells in the gill trama.

Figure 234. A trough, pond, or in this case, a brick fi ned pool (foreground) is used for immersing logs into water for 1-2 days to stimulate fruiting.

Figure 233. Logs are bundled prior to immersion in water.

Figure 234. A trough, pond, or in this case, a brick fi ned pool (foreground) is used for immersing logs into water for 1-2 days to stimulate fruiting.

1 1975 Pegler proposed this species be transferred toLentinula. Although Singerlias d.sagre 3 w> h ignahon many axono^i concur viflrPegler.(Redhead, 1993).Pegler believes Shut; kei morfc oseW all ec o the genera hke Zollybia of the Tncholomataceae family than to mushrooms r ■ lities t0 genera fthep| poraceae family where it is now place rather than to other gilled mush , oms This ahegiance v.ld rs m st amateur mycOfcg.sts inti the mushrooms are compared mixrosco 'cally. Recent DNA studie suppo, his delineation. C Utivator jW«^ most recent advan es in taxonomy so that archaic names can be re tiree, and cu tures be correctly identified. For more' )rm; ti consUltHibbctt&Vilgalys(1991),Singer(1986),Redhead(1985),

Pegler(1975 &1983).

Description- Cap 5-25 cm. broad, hemispheric, expanding to convex and eventually plane at maj-rity C^ dark brown to nearly black at first, becoming li aterbro n in ag or upon drying. Cap 3 • even to m ular, inrolled at first, then incurved, flattening with naturityanc ,ften undulating

S g Gilswh e,e;en at first, becoming serrated or irregul r fh age* white, bruising brown when damagei 1 - tem fibrous, centrally to eccentrically attached, fibrous, and tough in texture Flesh bruises brownish.

on this feamre as one of taxonomic significance. It may be a stram-deterrr-.ed phenomenon.

Figure 236. Shiitake forming on cak logs.

Figure 237. Shiitake mushrooms growing on alder logs.

Figure 235. After soaking, logs can be placed into a young conifer forest which provides shade and helps retain humidity. Logs are watered via sprinklers two to four times a day Mushrooms appear one to two weeks afier removal from the soaking pond.

Figure 236. Shiitake forming on cak logs.

Distrihuaon: Limited to the Far East native to japan, Korea, & China. Not known from North America nor Europe. With the continued deforestation of the Far East, the genome of this mushroom appears increasingly endangered.

Natural Habitat: This mushroom grows naturally on dead or dying broad leaf trees, particularly the Shii tree (Castanopsis cuspidata), Pasania spp., Quercus spp & and other Asian oaks and beeches. Although occasionally found on dymg trees Shiitake is a true saprophyte exploiting only necrotic tissue.

Microscopic Features: Spores white 5-6.5 (7) x 3-3.5 /J, ovoid to oblong ellipsoid. Basidia

Figure 237. Shiitake mushrooms growing on alder logs.

four spored. Hyphal system monomitic. Pleurocystidia absent. Clamp connections and cneilocystiuia present-

Available Strains: Many strains are available and wry consi, 1 mb\y in their d :auon to fmitmg tbe formati, n of the fruitbodies as well as their adaptability to different wood ■ pes. ATCC #58742, ATCC# 26087 and Mori # 55 re all strains which fruit in 10-14 weeks a: ;r inoculanon onto supplemented sawdu, . I have dev loped a strain, designated Stamets CS-2 wl ch originally^came fmm una and produces in as quickly as 14 days from inoculation onto supplemented alder sawdus ! have found however, that by fore- ailing p imordiaformatio^ntil 25-30 days a te inoculation^ e r ycellumachieves greater lenac , givir - use to better quality fruitbod, s I same strai, regu larly r ro luces mushrc ' 30-40 (lays after inoculation onto supplemented oak sawdust. Using my method in coml ina ion with this fast-fruiting strain, the Sh'itake fruiting cycle is completed in 90 days ft crn the date of inoculation, yielding 4-5 flushes and averaging 2 lbs. of *ooms per block. 2 flush arises from b ckswhicl ire totally white in color. Volunteer fruitings on MEA media, or grain, and on sawdust in 3 weeks are characteristic of this strain

V vcelial Characteristics: Mushroom mycelium white at first, becom -g lorgi dinally lineai ind cottony-ae, ial in age rarely, if ever truly rhizomorphic. In ago, or in response to damage, the myce-£becomes dark brown. Some strains dev, .op hyphal aggregates- -so t, cotton ba -like structures—which may or may not develop into primordi Many mycologists classify this species as

Figure 240. Approximately 20 days after inoculation, the surface topography of Shiitane blisters, a phenomenon many cultivators call "popcorning". The time to blistering is strain specific.

Figure 241. 25 days after inoculation onto sterilized, supplemented alder sawdust, brown primordia form on the peaks of the blisters. When ten mushrooms form, I remove the plastic to allow unencumbered development. Most methods for growing Shiitake on sterilized sawdust require 7090 days before primordia are visible, and usually only after the blocks have become brown in color.

Figure 241. 25 days after inoculation onto sterilized, supplemented alder sawdust, brown primordia form on the peaks of the blisters. When ten mushrooms form, I remove the plastic to allow unencumbered development. Most methods for growing Shiitake on sterilized sawdust require 7090 days before primordia are visible, and usually only after the blocks have become brown in color.

a white rot fungus for the appearance of the wood after colonization. However, the mycelium of Shiitake is initial white, soon becoming chocolate brown with maturity

Fragrance ¡signature: Grain spawn having a smell similar to crushed fresh Shiitake, sometimes slightly astringent and musty. Sawdust spawn has a sweeter, fresh and pleasing odor.

Natural Method of Cultivltion: On hardwood logs, especially oak, sweetgum, poplar, cottonwood, alder, ironwood, beech, birch, willow, and many other non-aromatic, broad-leaf woods. The denser hardwoods produce for as long as si" years. The more rapidly decomposing hardwoods have approximately 1/2 the lifespan. The fruit-woods are notoriously poor for growing Shiitake. Although Shiitake naturally occurs on oaks and beeches, the purposeful cultivation of this mushroom on hardwood stumps in North America has had poor success thus far.

For the most current information on the cultivation of Shiitake on logs, see Fujimoto (1989), Przybylowicz & Donoghue (1988), Leatham (1982), Komatsu (1980 &1982), Kuo & Kuo (1983) and H?.rris (1986). Several studies on the economics of log cultivation have been published to date. Kerrigan (1982) published a short booklet on the economics of Shiitake cultivation on logs which

mented alder sawausvcmp».

Figure 243. Janet Butz examines yet inoculation.

ano r first ' ist' Shiitake forming from white blocks 35 days after

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