Hypsizygus tessulatus Bulliard Fries Singer

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Figure 218. H. tessulatus mycelium 4 and 8 days after inoculation onto malt extract agar.

Introductir n: A delicious species, H. tessulatus falls under the umbrella concept of the Japanese "Shimeii" mushrooms. Firm textured this mushroom is considered one of the most "gourmet" of the Oyster-like mushrooms. Recently, this mushroom has been attributed to having anti-cancer properties. (Ikekawa, 1990). Increasingly better known this obscure mushroom compares favorably to P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius in North American. European and Japanese markets.

Common Names: The Beech Mushroom

Buna-shimeji (Japanese for "Beech Mushroom Yamabiko Hon-shimeji ("Mountain Echo Mushroom") Tamo-motashi ("The Elm Oyster Mushroom")

Taxonomic Synonyms & Considerations: The delineation of this species has struggled tl rough a t «2Sraamire re inginate ibly confused history which has only recently been resolvec Originally piAU^ed'by Bullied aSi4 us tessulatusin 1791 from Europe, ft colle ioname fcfype or a n w genus the Genus Hypsiz ?us as defined by Singer. In 1872, Peck described a pJer f^^Agadcmmarmoreus and Bigelo -a, ferredthis: iecies to the Genus Hypsizygus, naming

JTa í^m^ Redhead which he has since reconciled into two separate d :rete taxa.

tp^gZessu. : is a synonym of both Hypsizygus marmoreus and Pie ^ZaZ' t L Footed Oyster Mushroom (Redhead 1986), and is not a synonym of Hypsizygus ulmanus. Be cause of the coLsion associated i h the application of the s, mycologists prefer to use the taxonomically "clean" r me ol I marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow

¡he name "tessulatus" refers to the water spots on the caps. "Mannoreu:" means marble again n reference to the míutóngs on the cap surfa . "Elongatipes" refers to the ab , of Ms —to fe tí long stems, especially promoted when the mushroom arises deeply from a cleft or wound in a r c Ml these features are clearly expressed when this mushroom is grown indoors.

In Japan H. tessulatus ic marketed under the name of "Yamabiko Hon-shimeji" or just "Hon-shimeji". In the United States, this spe cies is simply marketed under the name "Shimeji" Adding to the confusion, the name "Buna-shimeji" was first applied by Imazek: *o Lyophyllum ulmarius (= H. ulmarius) but now is used in exclusive reference to Hypsizygus marmoreus (= H. tessulatus). (See Nagasawa & Arita, 1988.)

Description: Mushrooms hemispheric to plane, spotted to marbled with "water-spots" on the cap, measuring 2-7 cm. Cap margin inrolled to incurved when young Mushrooms dark tan becoming gray tawny brown to creamy brown when mature Lulls bluntly attached to the stem, close, firm, and "wax -like". Stem thick, centrically or eccentrically attached, often tapering towards the base, wi*h variable lengths depending on the method of cult 'vation

Distribution: Throughout the temperate hardwood forests of Europe, Asia and North America.

Natural Habitat: A sapr<" pgjftt on elms, beech, cottonwoods, maple, willow, oak and other hardwoods. I have found this musi ¡«feing from clefts in tne trunks of dying cottonwoods. I ike many Oyster mushrooms, this species cl^MiIpb either as a facultative parasite on d' ing hardwoods or a true saprophyte on dead trees (The wild ¡Mung!featured in Figure 215 is from a dying cottonwood).

Microscopic Features: Spores white, spherical to egg-shaped, relatively small, 4.0-6. 5 x 3.5-5. Op. Clamp connections numerous. Hyphal system moncmitic.

Available Strains: Strains are available from Japanese, American and Canadian culture libraries. Strains range from white to grey to black and are typically darker when young and/or when grown under cool conditions Those who have patented strains of Hon-shimeji could be referring to H tessulatus, H. ulmarius or a Lyophyllum species, depending on the taxonomic system they were following. Strains are easily cloned from wild specimens. DAOM #190991 is a light colored Canadian strain- one of several strains featured in (fiis book. (See Figure 223). Strains vary ' h ¿heir duration to fruiting, in the color of the mushrooms at maturity and in their response to carbon dioxide levels.

Mycelial Characteristics: Mycelial white, cottony, resembling P. ostreatus mycelium but not as aerial. Also, the mycelium of H. tessulatus does not exude the yellow'sh-orange metabolite nor does it form the classically thick, peelable mycelium, two features that are characterisiic of Pleurotus species.

Fragrance Signature: Sweet, rich, not anise-like, but oyster-esque, and pleasing.

Figure 220. Wild fruiting of H. tessulatus from cleft in a cottonwood tree-

Natural Method of Cultivation: Inoculation of logs or stumps. This mushroom can sometimes be grown outdoors in deep beds (>6 inches) of wood chips. Sawdust spav. n is best used for inocula mg SSKLfc ed supplemented sawdustbl shavef nshedgiUng ojto»,I recommend burying the bloc s outdoors into sawdust, in shady settings, to promote fall fruitmgs Recomm "lu^d Courses for Expansion of Mycelial Mass to Achie eFr iting:T fipalhofmyce-Ual expansion that I recommend is to , , re agar culture into liquid fermentation, then into < -:,:zed grain then to sawdust and finally into supplemented sawdust.

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